The Assassinations of 

         Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. & 

      Malcolm X and the Jonestown Massacre




     Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. &  Malcolm X and the Jonestown Massacre

     Memphis jury finds that a conspiracy led to Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination

           THE MURDER OF DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.--Unspoken Details--PART ONE by Sherman H. Skolnick

      Thirty years since the assassination of Martin Luther King

        Malcolm X Assassination: The Disappearing Suspect



       Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. & 

       Malcolm X and the Jonestown Massacre



         A taped lecture by David Emory.

Pictures added by The Gnostic Liberation Front.

Fascism is something that might appear to be a long way away for people, even now. It is worth understanding how fascism came into being in both Japan and Germany, to a lesser extent Italy, where the terror was more random. But in Japan and Germany, fascism came about in considerable measure by the systematic assassination of the legitimate political leadership of those countries. In Germany, underground units of the German army that were originally put together above ground to combat the abortive socialist revolution in Germany, they remained intact below ground and they became known as the so-called Black Reichswehr (sp). They were composed of the Freikorps (sp) or Free Corps, the Walvater (?) (sp) and Zeitfreiwillegen-verbande (sp).

 All three organizations put together of German army world war one veterans, they were put together by the defense minister of the Weimar Republic, a fellow named Gustav Noske (sp) and they were put together to combat communism, to put down a socialist revolution in Germany, which they did. As I said, they then remained intact and proceeded to systematically assassinate not only socialists and communists but the legitimate political leadership of Weimar Germany. That was one of the reasons that Adolph Hitler's rise to power was as relatively smooth as it was.

 Likewise, in Japan, the so-called patriotic or ultra-nationalist societies, which were like crosses between organized crime syndicates, religious groups, and nationalist societies. They systematically dispatched the legitimate democratic leadership of Japan and paved the way for the rise of fascism in Japan. The main organization involved there was the Black Dragon Society, named after the Ahmoor (sp) river, or Black Dragon River, which at the time constituted the border between Russia and China, and the main name behind the Black Dragon Society was a fellow named Mitsouru Toyama (sp). The patriotic societies were directed by the Japanese general staff as were the Freicorps, Eine Vonevaren, and Zeitfreiwillegen-verbaende (sp)., even when they remained underground illegally, and in this country, we are now faced with the results of an analogous program, just as the German and Japanese military organizations felt it necessary to begin using deadly force and covert action in their own countries in order to eliminate individuals and institutions that they considered to represent enemies at home. 

So in the 1960s and '70s, in the United States, our national security establishment or significant elements of it began to use the same kind of deadly force and covert action at home that they had been using abroad for decades in order to maintain the strategic situation of not only our national security establishment, but more importantly the preeminent position of American based multinational corporations in many parts of the world. In the 1940s and 1950s, deadly force was used in a covert way in places like Iran and places like Guatemala, and in other parts of the third world in particular. By the 1960s, what I like to sum up in the old street expression "what goes around comes around", well what had been going around in fact came around for the United States. The most significant element of this assassination program was the assassination of president Kennedy in which the national security establishment of this country removed the legitimate constitutional authority, the legitimately elected constitutional representative of the people, and they then installed their own selectee, so to speak, Lyndon Johnson.

 Kennedy had placed the weight of the Oval Office against many of the policies which were permitting the ongoing coups in places like Guatemala when Jacobo Arbenz (sp) was overthrown, under the auspices incidentally of fighting communism, Jacobo Arbenz had made it very clear when he took office in Guatemala that what he sought to do was to bring Guatemala up as a modern capitalist democracy. He sought simply to eliminate Guatemala as a feudal society, which was what it was, and to bring it into the 20th century as an upbeat, upper-middle-class capitalist country and he was explicitly capitalist but because that would have threatened the profit margins of United Fruit and other corporations who benefited from the feudal conditions in Guatemala, he was deemed a communist and overthrown under that rationalization.

 Because John Kennedy refused to follow U.S. national security policy in a number of areas such as Vietnam, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, and Guatemala, all of which had coups or attempted coups, Kennedy refused to go along with those coups, it was deemed necessary in the eyes of the powers that be in this country to eliminate, to use the same kind of deadly force at home that they had long been using abroad. If you sit back and take a look at what happened to the progressive political leadership in the United States over the 1960s and '70s, thinking about progressive leaders ranging from political liberals like John and Robert Kennedy, all the way on over to people who would be classified on the political left, such as members of the Black Panthers or perhaps Malcolm X.

 What happened, for example to Medgar Evers (sp), field secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People--shot to death in 1963. What happened to president John F. Kennedy--shot to death in 1963. What happened to Malcolm X--shot to death in 1965. What happened to Martin Luther King--shot to death in 1968. What happened to Robert Kennedy--shot to death in 1968. What happened to Fred Hampton, a very prominent member of the Black Panthers who had been very successful in organizing a free breakfast and lunch program for ghetto school children in Chicago--shot to death in 1969. What happened to Jonathan and George Jackson, the two members of the so- called Soledad Brothers--shot to death in 1970, I believe, and 1971 respectively. I may be wrong about the dates. What happened to Faye Stender (sp) who was George Jackson's attorney--shot and critically wounded and permanently disabled in 1979. What happened to George Mosconi, the liberal mayor of San Francisco--shot to death in 1978. What happened to Harvey Milk, the first gay city councilman in San Francisco--shot to death in 1978.

 Well, at a certain point, you would begin to think that people would catch on to what was going on in this country. Apparently, though, Americans have chosen to ignore the obvious and because we have chosen as a people to ignore the obvious, we are now faced with exactly what the German and Japanese people and ultimately the whole world were faced with after far too many of them ignored the assassination programs in Japan and Germany. And those assassination programs led directly to the rise of fascism in those countries and the rise of fascism led directly to the second World War with all its attendant horrors.

 We here in this country have ignored a similar process and this evening, by way of helping to raise support for KFJC, and by way of helping to document a critical element of American history, we are going to be observing Black History Month by discussing the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, arguably the greatest black leaders in American history.

 We should remember as we listen to the accounting of events this evening that these are not things which took place in the past. The same forces which destroyed Martin Luther King and Malcolm X are with us today and they are still operating in the same fashion.

 Leaving aside for the moment the bombing in New York City on Friday and during the question and answer session, I would be more than willing to entertain whatever questions you have. It should be noted that in 1991 we had a chilling reminder that a political assassination in America is not a past activity when journalist Daniel Casalero (sp) was found, supposedly a suicide, in Martinsburg, West Virginia, in his hotel room. Danny Casalero had been investigating many of the same elements that I talk about on One Step Beyond, that I talk about in my lectures and he had come very close to unearthing some critical information about the intersecting activities of a number of different national security institutions. He had been warned that his activities could get him killed. He had been getting death threats for quite some time. After, after Danny Casalero was clinically determined to have been dead, many hours afterward, his housekeeper got a phone call in which an unidentified male caller said "You're dead, you son of a bitch" and hung up. When the truth eventually came out, it was learned that not only did Danny Casalero have a number of bruises that had not been reported initially, but that three of his fingernails had been pulled out and that yet, most of the institutions in this society, including a lot of so-called progressive media organizations and individuals labeled Danny Casalero a suicide. Well, that is one hell of a suicide. Three fingernails pulled out suggests much more like Danny Casalero prior to being murdered had been tortured. 

So, as I indicated at the beginning of the talk tonight, sooner or later what goes around comes around and as we observe the closing of February which is Black History Month, remember that what eventually came around for Martin Luther King and Malcolm X is going to be coming around for many of us sooner or later.

 Now, to begin, I am going to discuss the assassination of Martin Luther King and eventually we will move on to Malcolm X. With the Spike Lee film about Malcolm X still somewhat in the public eye, Malcolm's assassination has received more attention than it has received in the past, there's a very good book out called *The Judas Factor* by a fellow named Carl Evanzz, which in my opinion is the best work done to date on the assassination of Malcolm X.

 Much of the information that I am going to be presenting about the Malcolm X killing this evening comes from that book. It is currently available. It is put out by Thunder's Mouth Press and I strongly recommend it to any and all interested parties. Now the best hard information about what actually did happen vis-a- vis the assassination of Martin Luther King and what I am going to be talking about this evening is also what didn't happen, namely Martin Luther King was not killed by James Earl Ray, who was a poor dumb cracker who couldn't knock off a liquor store in Missouri without getting caught and yet he supposedly assassinated one of the most famous people in the world and conducted a very sophisticated and largely successful international flight using techniques that would be available in all likelihood only to an experienced intelligence agent with considerably more resources at his disposal than James Earl Ray had. 

James Earl Ray

I am going to be talking about how history has come to accept what I guess we could call the 32-blows-to-the-head version, the suicide version, of Martin Luther King's assassination. Namely that some poor dumb cracker, again another lone nut named James Earl Ray, shot Martin Luther King. James Earl Ray not only didn't act alone to kill Martin Luther King, James Earl Ray did not act at all and I am going to be talking about how he came to be framed for the killing. 

The best account, though, of what did happen in the assassination of Martin Luther King, comes from a fellow named Robert Byron Watson. Watson was an employee at the Magellan Art Gallery in Atlanta, Georgia and while at that art gallery, he learned information about a drug and gold smuggling ring that was being operated by a faction of U.S. intelligence using the Magellan Art Gallery as its operational base. This particular ring, again, operated on behalf of a faction of U.S. intelligence and they were smuggling drugs out of Southeast Asia in hollowed-out teak logs. They were also doing a great deal of gold smuggling as well. Watson overheard these individuals discussing the upcoming assassination of Martin Luther King. He also heard them discussing what happened vis-a-vis the King assassination afterward and he presented his information to law enforcement authorities despite considerable pressure that was brought to bear both on him and his mother. 

Both Watson and his mother were threatened by death, both before and after the actual assassination of Martin Luther King. Robert Byron Watson then went ahead and submitted his affidavit. Law enforcement, to the extent that it was pursued, found it to be accurate, yet they never were able to act on it past a point. The main names associated with this particular gold and drug smuggling ring, and again bear in mind this was operated on behalf of U.S. intelligence, one of the main names was that of former Georgia congressman Larry McDonald, a national head of the John Birch Society, also a head of a private right-wing intelligence organization called Western Goals. Larry McDonald is perhaps best known for having gone down on the Korean Airlines flight 007 which went down under mysterious circumstances over the Soviet Union in September of 1983.

 That incident one of the more dramatic incidents of the cold war in the early 1980s. In addition to that of Larry McDonald, another important name associated with this drug and gold smuggling ring was that of Faud Habash (sp). Faud Habash is the brother of George Habash, one of the best known Palestinian leaders and the head of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Not, by the way, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine General Command, elements of which have been implicated in the bombing of PanAm 103. They are distinct organizations. Habash, himself, has very strong connections, George Habash that is, to the fascist Third Position.

 He also has very strong operational links to U.S. intelligence and while there was a Soviet intelligence, he also had operational links to the Soviets, as well. An interesting fellow. His brother was one of the main functionaries in this drug and gold smuggling ring that was involved at the operational level in the assassination of Martin Luther King.

 Now the other name that we want to know vis-a-vis this drug and gold smuggling ring, and again these were the actual gunsuls, these were the um-de-nam (sp), these were the hands-on individuals, the hurt-ya kind of guys who were involved in killing Dr. King according to Robert Byron Watson and other independent investigations. Among the people involved with this organization was a fellow who used the name Herman Jackson. That was the name he used when working on behalf of this drug smuggling ring. His actual name, or at least as far as we have able to tell, was a fellow named Jack Youngblood. 

Jack Youngblood was a longtime U.S intelligencer. He had worked with, among others, Frank Fiorini, who later changed his name to Frank Sturgis and became known as one of the Watergate burglars. He worked directly with Frank Fiorini in the 1954 coup that overthrew Otto Benz in Guatemala. He then, like Frank Fiorini, aka Frank Sturgis, went to work for other U.S. intelligence operations and apparently one of those operations was the assassination of Martin Luther King.

 Now, James Earl Ray, the patsy for the assassination, who by the way was never actually convicted in a trial per se, he confessed to the assassination of Martin Luther King and then later reversed his confession. But James Earl Ray was offered a lot of money, now bear in mind this was a poor individual, an individual who had no money, a lengthy criminal record, and basically stood more to gain from pleading guilty than he did from remaining innocent, but he agreed to plead guilty in exchange for a large portion of the rights to a book offered by a fellow named William Bradford Huie. Huie wrote a book called *He Slew the Dreamer*. He coughed up a large section of the proceeds for that book and that was basically James Earl Ray's incentive for pleading guilty. Later when Ray reversed his guilty plea and began to spill the beans about what really happened, Ray said that he had been trafficked around by a mysterious individual that he met called Raoul. And Raoul, he identified, interestingly enough as being part of a smuggling ring. He never knew who they were connected with, but one of his main jobs had been to help smuggle arms across the Canadian/American and Mexican/American borders in conjunction with Raoul who was his contact. It would appear in this regard that Ray was being manipulated and set up to be a patsy by Raoul, who was in all probability was acting in behalf of some faction of U.S. intelligence, if not in fact the same gold and drug smuggling ring that Robert Byron Watson had identified.

 Raoul was the individual who told James Earl Ray where to go and what to do and appears to have basically been his intelligence handler. Law enforcement authorities have checked out Robert Byron Watson's claims to a considerable extent. They have found them credible, yet this has never resulted in any kind of serious investigation beyond the lick-and-a-promise that the Robert Byron Watson affidavit was given by law enforcement. To this day, it remains the end of the trail, so to speak, of the hard investigative pathway into Martin Luther King's assassination. 

Now, Jack Youngblood's name also crops up in addition to the Robert Byron Watson affidavit, Jack Youngblood's name crops up in connection with the assassination of Martin Luther King because the actual shooter, and I am going to talk about the framing of James Earl Ray, but the actual shooter in the Martin Luther King assassination, appears to have been an individual who has become known in the literature as the "Eggs and Sausages" man. Now there was a cafe near the rooming house that James Earl Ray supposedly was living, well he was living there--at least he was booked there. Near the rooming house from which James Earl Ray supposedly fired the shot that killed Martin Luther King, there was a cafe called Jowers' Cafe. It was run by a fellow named Lloyd Jowers and for some time prior to the assassination of Martin Luther King, an individual who had previously not been a regular at Jowers' Cafe, and generally the clientele there was composed of regulars, this was an individual who had not been seen there before and began showing up shortly before the assassination of Martin Luther King, and he always ordered eggs and sausages.

 He became known as a result as the "eggs and sausages man" and has gone down in history as such. One day this strange individual came in and sat down and placed his usual order, namely eggs and sausages, he finished his order, paid his tab, and then went outside and shortly after he went outside, the patrons of Jowers Cafe heard an enormous explosion like the report of a high-powered rifle.

 Later, the "eggs and sausages man" was picked up by police because the members of the clientele of Jowers' Cafe id'd this individual as the "eggs and sausages" man. He never, however, was booked on suspicion of having killed Martin Luther King, as a Memphis journalist named Wayne Chastain (sp), who wrote for the Memphis Press Scimitar noted when he interviewed the individuals at the prison. 

The individual in question, the "eggs and sausages" man, made one call to a party or parties unknown and was released by the Memphis police without any questioning whatsoever. As the individual noted, he must have some powerful connections to be able to just walk out of jail free like that. 

Later, an individual who identified himself as Jack Youngblood, and who also identified himself as a long-time U.S. intelligence operative, and incidentally an individual operating out of Denver, Colorado, he sought out Wayne Chastain, again of the Memphis Press Scimitar, and expressed the fear that he might be mistaken for the individual who assassinated Martin Luther King and said that the actual assassin was his Denver, Colorado roommate. When shown pictures, and by the way, that is about where the "eggs and sausages" man's trail leads off, when shown pictures of Jack Youngblood, James Earl Ray identified him as an individual that he had seen trailing him for several days prior to the assassination of Martin Luther King. There are a number of other indications that James Earl Ray and Martin Luther King were maneuvered into place and that the assassination was set up in advance by the authorities. 

The place where Martin Luther King was staying was supposed to have been a secret. Eventually it came out courtesy of the FBI. Now the FBI had at this time been not only monitoring Martin Luther King very closely, but it had been for some time engaged in a counterintelligence program against black activist groups ranging from militant black-power activists, all the way through mainstream civil rights activists, this intelligence program became known as the COINTELPRO program, short for counterintelligence. 

It was also utilized against elements of the anti-Vietnam War movement as well. When FBI people learned that Martin Luther King was going to be staying at a white-owned business in Memphis, Tennessee where he had gone to help negotiate a strike between largely-black sanitation workers and the city of Memphis, the FBI leaked the information to the press about the fact that Martin Luther King was going to be staying at a white-owned business. This obviously was bad PR for Martin Luther King and so his reservations were then switched to the black-owned Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, and that information was published in the Memphis press so it became a matter of public record to anyone who would or wanted to read a newspaper as to where Martin Luther King was going to be staying in Memphis, Tennessee. 

Prior to Martin Luther King's arrival, a mysterious individual showed up at the Lorraine Motel, identified himself a "an advance man" for Martin Luther King and when noting where Dr. King was scheduled to book into, he said, "Oh, no this won't do. Dr. King always likes to have a room on the second floor overlooking the swimming pool". It was from just such a room to which he was switched that Martin Luther King was ambushed and I will talk more about the physical circumstances in a couple of minutes.

 Suffice it to say that one of the employees of the motel voiced the opinion at the time that this individual was not a black man at all, but rather a white man wearing black-face makeup. It should be noted that it later came out that among the many stratagems used by U.S. intelligence at the operational level to disrupt both the black-power movement and the antiwar movement was the utilization of white men in black-face, basically to simulate black people to perform acts either of stealth intelligence or acts of provocation which would them discredit blacks because they would be taken as being black people.

 Whatever the true situation vis-a-vis the advance man, it certainly was not Dr. King's advance man because Dr. King very simply did not use advance men at all. Eye witnesses to Dr. King's assassination, both people who were on the street and people who were with Dr. King on the balcony of his second floor motel room, and it was on that balcony that Dr. King walked out onto to talk to his chauffeur, who was on the ground, and it was in that position that he was assassinated. Eye witnesses to the assassination believed that the shot was not fired from the second floor of the rooming house that James Earl Ray was staying at, but rather was fired from ground level. 

This was described both by people who were sitting near a clump of bushes underneath the window on the second floor that James Earl Ray supposedly used to shoot Martin Luther King, also people standing both on the ground looking up at Dr. King, such as his chauffeur, and people on the balcony with Dr. King testified that he appeared, Dr. King that is, appears to have been lifted physically off of the ground. The shot caught him in the neck and traveled upwards back through the back of Dr. King's head. The bullet was traveling upward rather that across or downward as it would have been had it been fired from a second floor window which James Earl Ray supposedly did. 

At James Earl Ray's trial, incidentally, a former FBI ballistics expert named Hubert McConnell (sp) testified that for James Earl Ray to have fired the shot from the position he supposedly fired the shot, the butt of his rifle would have to had stuck 6 inches into the wall. I'll leave it to your discretion as to whether you think James Earl Ray actually did that or whether perhaps he was set up. 

The prosecution then replied to the testimony of Hubert McConnell by stating that James Earl Ray twisted himself into a contorted position around the bathtub and that was how he was able to fire the shot that he supposedly fired to kill Martin Luther King. Now the "evidence" implicating James Earl Ray is about as flimsy as anything could possibly be. A rifle was found wrapped in a blanket on the ground floor outside the rooming house where James Earl Ray was staying. It was not actually found where James Earl Ray supposedly fired the shot. The rifle has never been absolutely traced to James Earl Ray. Ray claims that he was being followed around and that this rifle was probably left by Raoul or by Jack Youngblood, the individual he identified as following him around. But, the only "evidence" that has ever been cited or ever been mobilized in order to link James Earl Ray with the crime that he supposedly committed, was the "testimony" of a fellow named Charles Q. Stevens (sp). 

Charles Q. Stevens was a career drunkard and a doctrinaire racist who was also a tenant at the rooming house that James Earl Ray was staying in where he supposedly killed Martin Luther King. A cab driver who had been called to the rooming house to pick up Charles Q. Stevens testified that Charles Q. Stevens was too drunk to be taken out in his cab and that he was actually passed out and had to be awakened from a couch. This was at the time that he was supposedly id'ing James Earl Ray.

 For two days after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Charles Q. Stevens did not identify James Earl Ray as having been the assassin of Martin Luther King. On the contrary, he issued a number of statements to various people which have been cross-verified that "I'd never testify against the man who killed Martin Luther Koon, even if it were a nigger who had done it". Basically, he was saying for 48 hours that a black man had killed Martin Luther King and that he would not id him in any case because he hated Martin Luther King too much. However, eventually the FBI began to baby-sit Charles Q. Stevens. They footed some $30,000 in bar tabs for Charles Q. Stevens. 

This was in 1968 and this was an individual who had a career rap sheet of some 130 some-odd arrests for public drunkenness. The FBI then paid for $30,000 in bar tabs for Charles Q. Stevens and whether it was perhaps a refreshment of memory or perhaps the pliant effects of all that liquor, miraculously, eventually Charles Q. Stevens changed his testimony and said yes, by God, he could identify James Earl Ray as the individual who was running down the hall and had shot Martin Luther King. That is the only witness ever cited to link Ray with the place from which he supposedly slew Dr. King. The only one. And, again, $30,000 in bar tabs in 1968 was a lot of booze. A dollar was worth a lot more then than it is now and $30,000 in bar tabs is a considerable amount of booze today and this again for an individual with a career rap sheet of some 130-odd arrests for public drunkenness. His, that is to say, Charles Q. Stevens' common-law wife, a woman named Grace Walden or Grace Stevens, about whom I'll have more to say in a little bit, has contradicted the testimony of Charles Q. Stevens. She has stated that she indeed did see an individual wearing a khaki field jacket running down the hall of the rooming hall after she heard the shot but that it was not James Earl Ray that in fact it was a man considerably shorter than James Earl Ray. She saw the man, her common-law husband was passed out on a couch drunk when a cab driver was called to pick him up, went to pick him up, and it was Grace Stevens or Grace Walden who said that no indeed it was not James Earl Ray who was running down the hall of that motel room.

 We are going to talk about what happened to her in just a minute. It should be noted that the summer after Martin Luther King was killed, his brother was drowned under suspicious circumstances in the swimming pool of his home. A neighbor recalls hearing someone scream and heard splashing and then silence and that eliminated Dr. King's brother.

 A couple of years later, his mother was shot and killed as well by some lone nut who went walking into a church and blew away his mother for reasons that have never been satisfactorily explained. Suffice it to say that two of the people closest to Martin Luther King were also dead under strange or downright hostile circumstances within a short time of Dr. King having been assassinated. And bear in mind that King was assassinated at a period in time in which it is a matter of public record that of the U.S. national security establishment or elements thereof, notably the FBI, were actively engaged in a frustrating of the civil rights and black power, and anti-Vietnam war movements as a matter of public record. 

We are going to talk about the cover-up and how that was effected in just a couple of minutes, but one of the main things to understand too as we examine what is obviously fallacious history, and history has recorded it that James Earl Ray killed Martin Luther King. One of the interesting things about James Earl Ray's situation is the individuals who have represented James Earl Ray over the years. 

Now, James Earl Ray's first attorney was a fellow named Arthur Haynes (sp), specifically Arthur Haynes, Sr., because there is also an Arthur Haynes, Jr. 

Arthur Haynes had been the mayor of Birmingham, Alabama in the early 1960s. He was a former FBI agent and former CIA contract agent who not only was not sympathetic to Dr. Martin Luther King, but who had viewed the American black civil rights movement as a communist conspiracy, in that regard, his views coincided very closely with to the views of, among others, J. Edgar Hoover, America's best-known, though not necessarily best-loved closet queen at the time.

 Now, again, note that Arthur Haynes, a "former" FBI agent believed that the American black civil rights movement was a communist conspiracy. He also had been involved in the Bay of Pigs invasion as a CIA contract agent. Now, I should note that a contract agent is not an agent who does "contracts', i.e., assassinations in mob parlance. A contract agent is an individual who goes to work for the CIA for a particular purpose as opposed to a career operative. He literally signs a contract to do this, that, or the other thing and he does it. The concept of him eventually severing contacts with the agency is a dubious one.

 Arthur Haynes, Arthur Haynes, Sr., I should say, was a member of the Alabama Air National Guard, which in the early 1960s, and specifically in 1960 and 1961 was one of the only American air unit still utilizing the B-26 Marauder bomber. That was a World War Two propeller driven medium bomber which was utilized for the Bay of Pigs invasion by the CIA. A number of B-26s were outfitted with large numbers of 50 caliber machine guns so they could by used against ground targets in support of the Bay of Pigs invasion and Arthur Haynes was used by the CIA to train pilots, Cuban exiles, to fly the B-26s which provided the air support for the Bay of Pigs invasion.

 Arthur Haynes pursued his avid, or he activated I should say, his deep hatred for the civil rights movement in the 1960s. He was noted for having unleashed John "Bull" Connor, the brutal sheriff of Birmingham, Alabama on civil rights demonstrators in the early 60s. "Bull" Connor unleashed fire hoses and police dogs on civil rights demonstrators and much of the footage that you will see from that time period of civil rights demonstrators being hosed down and being beaten and attacked by police dogs comes from Birmingham, Alabama and the individuals who were meting out the punishment are the deputies of John "Bull" Connor, who was sheriff of Birmingham and he in turn was acting on behalf of Arthur Haynes, Sr., the first attorney representing James Earl Ray.

 Arthur Haynes also, incidentally, was the defense counsel for four Ku Klux Klansmen who were eventually convicted of the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing. The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was one of the most notorious incidents of violence in the civil rights struggle in the South in the early 60s. A very powerful bomb went off in a church in Birmingham, Alabama on a Sunday morning, killing four young black girls and injuring a number of other people. 

The crime outraged the public as a whole. Eventually, four Ku Klux Klansmen were convicted of the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, their defense counsel for quite some time was Arthur Haynes, Sr. Later, they were represented by Arthur Haynes, Jr., his son, who turned out to be a chip off the old blockhead, so to speak, and basically continued to activate the sort of racist viewpoints which Arthur Haynes, Sr. had held and put into effect.

 After Arthur Haynes, Sr. had represented James Earl Ray, James Earl Ray was represented by a Texas attorney named Percy Foreman, who had previously represented among others, Jack Ruby, for a short period of time. One of a number of evidenciary tributaries which connect the various American political assassinations and attempted assassinations of the early 60s and 1970s. 

Now following Percy Foreman's resignation, the next attorney who represented James Earl Ray was a fellow named Jesse B. Stoner, or JB Stoner as he was usually called. 

JB Stoner was the head of the National States Rights party, which was a doctrinaire racist and fascist political party which had most of its strength in the south and its main plank or the main plank in its political platform was its diehard opposition to the black civil rights.

 Incidentally, there was, now bear in mind that this guy was representing James Earl Ray, none of these individuals, we can certainly say that Arthur Haynes and JB Stoner would be two of the last individuals who would like to see the truth brought out concerning any possibility of a conspiracy behind the assassination of America's foremost civil rights leader. 

By the way, we should note that Dr. King's assassination came in a time period in which he was turning much of his attention from the civil rights movement per se to active opposition to the United States' war and involvement in Vietnam. This is worth noting because as we compare some of the strategic circumstances in the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, it is to be noted that the careers of both men were taking very sharp turns and they had both undertaken some very significant and radical departures from their past political activities.

 In the case of Dr. King, he was moving to anti-Vietnam war activism, activism vis-a-vis American foreign and military policy as opposed to just civil rights and in the case of Malcolm X as we will get to in a short period of time, Malcolm X had dramatically changed his viewpoints as well. He had broken very sharply with the Nation of Islam, the so-called Black Muslims, over a number of things, and we will talk about that. 

He had notably, radically changed his opinions concerning the viability of black people and white people working together for social justice. One of the main ideological tenets of the Nation of Islam under Elijah Muhammed had been that black people should not work with white people in a political context and indeed the Nation of Islam itself was largely kept from overt political activities, fund-raising being a notable exception.

 Dr. King, again, was cut down and among the people representing the guy who supposedly killed him was Arthur Haynes, a man with documented connections to the intelligence community and a well documented hatred of black people and an active self-congratulatory racism, so to speak, Jesse Stoner even more so. 

Jesse Stoner was the head of an explicitly racist and fascist political party, again, the National States Rights Party. Now interestingly enough, on November 10th, 1963, twelve days before the assassination of president Kennedy, a Georgia-based representative of the National States Rights Party, a fellow named Joseph Adams Miltier (sp) was taped by an undercover Miami police informant who was basically wearing a "wire".

 In this conversation, and again Miltier was a representative of the NSRP headed up by James Earl Ray defense counsel JB Stoner. Miltier described a couple of things, actually he described three things of note for us under the circumstances. First of all, he described a plan to assassinate John Kennedy by ambushing him from a high-rise office building using a high-powered rifle. This on November 10th, 1963.

 He also described plans to do the same thing to Martin Luther King and he linked both of these incipient assassinations, both of which later came to be under circumstances remarkably similar to those described by Joseph Adams Miltier on November 10th.

 He also linked both crimes with the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963. And it was the people convicted of the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing who were represented by Arthur Haynes, Sr. and it was Arthur Haynes, Sr. again who was James Earl Ray's first defense counsel.

 Now obviously evidenciary tributaries running between the assassinations of John Kennedy and Martin Luther King such as those do not automatically prove that both assassinations were the results of the activities of the same forces. There are such things as coincidences and some of the evidenciary tributaries connecting our political assassinations may be just that. They may be coincidental. Yet, at the same time, I think you would have to be an idiot to assume that all of them are coincidental. 

The last attorney for James Earl Ray, at least as of this time, is to my way of thinking the most interesting of all and that was an individual named Mark Lane, who has become very well known for his supposed investigations into assassinations.

Now Mark Lane has written about the assassinations of John Kennedy and Martin Luther King and he has correctly linked both with the U.S. intelligence operate, however, he has also refused to go as far into either investigation as the public record itself already reveals. Why Mark Lane chooses to pull punches remains a matter of conjecture but it should be noted that Mark Lane has stopped far short in his various books, and *Rush to Judgement*, by the way, his first book on the John Kennedy assassination, is one of the better early Warren Commission critiques, but Mark Lane himself has stopped far short of the public record, what can be reliably placed on the public record in his writings about the assassinations of both John Kennedy and Martin Luther King.

 Significantly, Mark Lane became, eventually, an attorney for the Liberty Lobby. The Liberty Lobby is an explicitly anti-semitic {1} and pro-Nazi right wing organization in this country, best known for publishing a newspaper which, disturbingly at least to me, is growing in popularity. That newspaper is called "The Spotlight", and if you haven't come across it yet, you will probably  at some point in the not-too-distant future. "The Spotlight" does publish some good articles, which is disturbing because some of the good reportage in "The Spotlight" is then juxtaposed alongside "No Holocaust" theory and other original, if not terribly substantive, journalistic and historical viewpoints, and I am afraid it may give some of those viewpoints historical credibility as a result.

 The founder of the Liberty Lobby is a fellow named Willis Carto, who has been quite explicit about the fact that not only did the Holocaust not happen, but that the United States was on the wrong side in World War II. And it was Mark Lane who was among the defense counsels for the Liberty Lobby.

 Interestingly enough, at the same time that Mark Lane was representing James Earl Ray, he also was the attorney representing "The People's Temple" of the Reverend Jim Jones.

 Now the People's Temple appears to have been a U.S. intelligence operation. There are a number of indications concerning that, as ridiculous as that will seem to some people, I refer interested listeners to Radio Free America programs #6, Radio Free America #7. RFA #8 also talks about some of the connections that I am going to be detailing this evening. I also refer listeners to a miscellaneous archive show dealing with Dan White, Jonestown, and the Mosconi-Milk killings.

Tape One Side 2 

In the first place, one of the major intelligence connections to Jonestown concerns the Layton family, and if I seem to be getting a little bit far afield, I am going to be tying Jonestown and the People's Temple massacre in Guiana with circumstances surrounding the investigation into the assassination of Martin Luther King, so bear with me for a short period of time.

 Now, one of the main connections we want to know vis-a-vis Jonestown, is the Layton family. 

Now the Layton family were inextricably linked with the People's Temple. In the first place, Dr. Lawrence Layton, Sr. was one of the main financial contributors to Jonestown and Dr. Lawrence Layton, Sr. had previously been in charge of research and development for the United States Army's Dugway proving ground, one of the top chemical and biological warfare research centers for the United States Army. 

He had also held a key position in the U.S. Navy's rocketry fuel development program in Maryland and the family itself was very prominent, a prominent southern family who had had ancestors fighting for the Confederate Army and the Layton family had a number of interesting connections to the national security establishment. 

The most interesting being Lawrence Layton, Sr.

 Now Lawrence Layton, Sr. had a number of children. Lawrence Layton, Jr. was one of them and it was Larry Layton, Jr. who led the firing squad which executed Representative Leo Ryan and others. Congressman Leo Ryan and a number of other people at the Port Kituma (sp) airstrip in Guiana.

 His sister was named Debra Layton Blakey (sp) and she was married to a fellow named George Phillip Blakey.

 George Phillip Blakey had been the individual who placed the down payment on the property in Guiana which was purchased by Jim Jones and the People's Temple.

 He had previously been a contract agent for the Central Intelligence Agency in Angola where the CIA was conducting a massive covert operation and the evidence suggests that among the purposes of Jonestown was the training of black Brazilian mercenaries to fight for the CIA in Angola.

 Brazil has a large black population, Portuguese is the native tongue of Brazil as it is in Angola. Both of them were formerly Portuguese colonies. A large number of black mercenaries were trained for the Angolan operation. 

Jonestown and George Phillip Blakey appear to have been two of the main connections involved with that training.

 The CIA chief-of-mission, a fellow named Richard Dwyer was present at the massacre at Jonestown. In fact, Jim Jones can be heard on a tape shouting "get Dwyer out of here, get Dwyer out of here". Again the Dwyer that Jim Jones was referring to as the massacre was occurring was Richard Dwyer, CIA chief-of-station for Guiana.

 By the way, it should be noted that the People's Temple members at Jonestown had been very active on behalf of president Forbes Burnham (sp) of Guiana, or perhaps it is prime minister, I am not sure which. Anyway, Forbes Burnham was the head of state of Guiana and was a CIA protégé, quite openly. 

The People's Temple worked on behalf of Forbes Burnham in Guiana. It is also believed by many and I subscribe to this viewpoint, that among the motivations for the establishment of Jonestown was that Jonestown was being used as an extension of the CIA's mind-control programs that I discussed in Radio Free America shows five, six, and seven, as well as several miscellaneous archive shows. 

The people at the Jonestown site had a huge and very sophisticated hospital, at least for such a small community and the people there were given a medical examination every day. Large numbers of psychiatric drugs were found at the Jonestown site and if you look at photographs that came out of the People's Temple massacre, supposedly it was a mass suicide, but Dr. Moto (sp), the chief medical examiner who oversaw the investigation, Dr. Moto has testified that most of the people were killed either by injection or by gunshot. 

They were murdered, they did not commit suicide. If you look at the photographs at the massacre site, not only will you find that most of the bodies are face down. Whereas people are dying of cyanide poisoning, they are going to die under more or less random positions. Some are going to be face up, some face down, some on their side. The vast majority of them, not all of them, but the vast majority of them are face down.

 Beyond that, you will find that most of the ones that are visible in the clear photographs have identification tags either around their wrists or ankle or both, similar to the id tags that are used to identify patients in hospitals. I would also note that the military commander of the U.S. troops that were involved in investigating or getting the bodies out of Jonestown, he has testified that he was called by Robert Pastor, who was Zbigniew Bryzinski's (sp) top aide on the National Security Council and was ordered directly to stop identifying the bodies at Jonestown and that is a very unusual thing, particularly when taken in light of the other activities at the People's Temple. 

I would note too, that Leo Ryan, who was killed at Jonestown when he went down to investigate the People's Temple, Leo Ryan had been coauthor of the Hughes-Ryan amendment which obliged the CIA to give congress prior notification of covert operations, something the CIA was not particularly crazy about. 

One of the most interesting aspects of Jonestown concerns the bodies themselves and the number of people that were found there. Initially, the news reports described the People's Temple encampment at Jonestown as having 1100 people. There were references to 1100 American passports that belonged to people who went down to Jonestown. Then after the massacre, the number 900 began to get kicked around, 200 suddenly dropped off. 

It is the opinion of many that those 200 were the elite guard that surrounded Jim Jones. Although the People's Temple was overwhelmingly black, all of Jones top lieutenants, between 120 and 200 of them, were almost all white. Not exclusively, but almost all of them.

 It is the opinion of many that have studied the Jonestown situation critically that the People's Temple leadership, the all-white leadership of this predominantly black organization were the passports that immediately dropped from view when news of the massacre first hit the American media. 

I would encourage people that are skeptical about some of the things I am saying to go back to the newspaper accounts at the time. The People's Temple massacre happened on November 18th, 1978. That was a Saturday night and for some four or five days the American newspapers, such as the New York Times, our newspaper of record, all the major dailies were saying that the authorities in Guiana could account for 400 bodies and there was widespread speculation about what had happened to the other 500 bodies.

 Now, again, initially there was a description of 1100 passports for passageto Jonestown. That dropped by 200 and for four or five days, the media were engaging in speculation about where the other 500 people were. After some four or five days, and the military commander at Jonestown has testified that he was ordered to stop identifying the bodies at Jonestown, after four or five days the media suddenly accepted the official version which was that they had figured out where the missing 500 bodies were. They were really under the other 400 the whole time, they just hadn't been noticed. You know, it sounds funny, but this is the actual official explanation: After four or five days of turning bodies over, they said "Oh, here are those other 500 bodies we couldn't find, they were under the first 400 all along, we just didn't notice". This is the actual official explanation, of course. The problem is people don't pay much attention to public news events in this country. Roughly three percent of the American people read newspapers, 15% of the American people read books, 97% of the American now list the television as their primary information source and interestingly enough, the American people read an average of one book per person per lifetime. That is an average.

 So, the absurd, no it is true, it is kind of depressing, too. Which means you have got somebody like myself who has read hundreds of books, that averages out to an awful lot of "dumbkopfs" who haven't read any because it is an average of one book per person per lifetime in the United States and that's not too good.

 All you see on television is an image, you get an image. Reading permits the simultaneous integration of concepts and I think it is a sad thing that we have turned away from the printed word and one of the things that I try to do on my broadcasts is to perhaps forge an effective synthesis between the electronic media and the printed word. 

But, suffice it to say that is the version of Jonestown that has gone down in history, namely that the other 500 bodies, no mention about the other 200 who just disappeared, they were under the first 400 all along, but "we just didn't notice". And again, go back and look at the pictures of the People's Temple massacre site where you can damn bloody-well see that there aren't some 500 bodies under the other 400. It is quite evident that this was not the case. People have speculated, and again we do not have the definitive answer, people have speculated that what was going on was that a lot of people had run away from the massacre site and were being hunted down, killed, and brought back to the site. We will never know for sure, but it is a cinch that the other 500 bodies were not just hidden under the first 400 for four or five days. 

Now interestingly enough, it was reported that there was a death squad associated with the People's Temple, that the people who had been enemies of the People's Temple would be disposed of by a People's Temple death squad which had been put together and survived the massacre. 

It should also be noted that a number of People's Temple dissidents, disaffected members, died under strange circumstances, automobile accidents, etc., prior to the move down to Guiana.

 It should be noted that although there has always been an official disclaimer that a People's Temple death squad existed, there are some interesting pieces of information that perhaps that analysis was premature. 

The first person on the People's Temple death list, the first individual to be disposed of, by the People's Temple was mayor George Mosconi of San Francisco, who was shot to death nine days after the People's Temple massacre. George Mosconi's campaign in San Francisco had been liberally aided by People's Temple members. Jim Jones had been named by George Mosconi as head of the San Francisco Housing Authority and it should be noted that Harvey Milk also had his campaign liberally assisted by the People's Temple. 

Harvey Milk was also disposed of, obviously, by Dan White, who many feel may have been a programmed assassin. I personally subscribe to that theory and we can talk about Dan White if you like during the question and answer session, but again, despite official denials of the existence of a People's Temple death squad, the first individual on the People's Temple hit list, was shot dead nine days after the massacre.

 Number Two on the People's Temple hit list was a woman named Jeannie Mills, who along with her husband, Al Mills, wrote a book, she was a former People's Temple aide who wrote a book called *My Six Years With God*, which was fiercely critical of the People's Temple. And Jim Jones had placed her name right behind that of George Mosconi on the People's Temple hit list. 

In the summer of 1979, some nine or ten months after the Jonestown massacre, Jeannie Mills, her husband Al, and her daughter were found shot to death in their Berkeley home. The police were seen carrying a bullet-riddled door out of the home. Their son, who was watching television in another room, never even heard any shots, suggesting either that he was drugged and/or perhaps that silenced weapons were utilized. Whatever the case may be, the murders of Jean and Al Mills and their daughter, I believe her name was Daphne, I am not sure, but in any case, the Mills family assassination remains unsolved to this day. Again, they were shot to gristle in Berkeley. The killing has never been solved and they were number two on the People's Temple hit list.

 Suffice it to say that although official disclaimers have been issued that no such hit squad existed, I think you would have a difficult time convincing George Mosconi and Jean and Al Mills of that under the circumstances. Unfortunately, you will not have the opportunity to try. I mention all of this background concerning the People's Temple, and bear in mind too, that when the U.S. national security establishment decides to move in any given significant direction, they do so when to move in that direction will scratch a number of different itches at different strategic levels simultaneously. 

Now among the people who would have been at the People's Temple massacre had Liberty Lobby and People's Temple attorney Mark Lane had his way was Grace Stevens or Grace Walden, the common-law wife of Charles Q. Stevens, the career drunkard who had been plied with liquor by the FBI in order to come up with his testimony that yes, by golly, he did see James Earl Ray running down the rooming house hall from which he supposedly fired the shot that supposedly killed Martin Luther King.

 Now, Mark Lane, at the time that he was serving as the People's Temple attorney, was maneuvering with Terry Buford (sp), another top Jones aide, to have Grace Stevens transferred down to Jonestown, where had she been transferred, she would have died during the massacre. 

At the same time that he was doing this, Mark Lane was also serving as James Earl Ray's defense counsel while the House Select Committee on Assassinations was conducting its badly compromised investigation into the assassinations of John Kennedy and Martin Luther King. 

That investigation was, as I have said, badly compromised. Despite that, not even this badly compromised investigation could avoid the conclusion that there was a 95% probability of a conspiracy behind both the assassinations of Martin Luther King and John F. Kennedy and interestingly enough, one of the people that the House Select Committee on Assassinations was focusing on, a St. Louis based organized crime figure, was literally blown to bits by a car bomb shortly after the House Select Committee concluded its investigation.

 Well, had Mark Lane had his way, Grace Stevens or Grace Walden, would have been present at the People's Temple massacre and would have been eliminated during the course of that massacre. Fortunately, she did not go down there, but this is as Mark Lane is serving as James Earl Ray's defense counsel, and you have got to think that if what Mark Lane was really interested in was justice for his client, James Earl Ray, then he would have been undertaking to get Grace Walden or Grace Stevens down to testify either before congress or before a court of law where her testimony could be used to exonerate his client, rather than going down to Jonestown, where she would have been exterminated in what was already known to be a very, shall we say, creative community, in which the possibility of a massacre was recognized by all parties concerned, including Mark Lane, to hear his later testimony.

 Now, it should be noted too, that Mark Lane at the time that he was representing James Earl Ray and the People's Temple, was going around, particularly in the Bay Area, and giving radio interviews, notably on KGO among other institutions that the People's Temple was "a paradise on earth". That was his assessment of the People's Temple.

 On Friday, November 17th, 1978, as the House Select Committee on Assassinations public hearings were drawing to a close, some of the most dramatic testimony was given on the floor of congress concerning the assassination of Martin Luther King. 

This came from a former FBI agent, I believe operating off the top of my head, that his name was Mertagh (sp), but in any event whether or not that was his name, and I am pretty sure about that, this former FBI agent assigned at the time of Martin Luther King's assassination, to the Atlanta, Georgia FBI office, now bear in mind according to Robert Byron Watson and his legal affidavit has been endorsed by those law enforcement officials who have bothered to investigate it, according to Robert Byron Watson, the people used at the operational level to kill Martin Luther King were people from this U.S. intelligence gold and drug smuggling operation based at the Magellan Art Gallery in Atlanta, Georgia, involving, among others, Larry McDonald, and again, this fellow Jack Youngblood, aka Herman Jackson, who appears to have [been] the "eggs and sausages" man that I spoke about earlier.

 Now, Mertagh testified in the public hearings stemming out of the House Select Committee's investigation that when news came over the radio that Dr. Martin Luther King had been shot, the FBI's Atlanta office broke into cheers and a fellow agent said "they got him, they got Zorro" which was the FBI's code name for Martin Luther King. "I hope he dies, the son of a bitch". And as Mertagh said this on the floor of congress, he broke down in tears on the floor of congress. It was one of the most dramatic moments in the admittedly tepid House Select Committee on Assassinations investigation.

 This took place on Friday, November 17th. On Saturday, November 18th, late in the evening, the news reports began to come in about the People's Temple massacre. Whatever attention people may have been paying to the House Select Committee on Assassinations investigation on Friday November 17th, when Arthur Mertagh gave the dramatic testimony concerning the cheers in the Atlanta FBI field office, oh, by the way in addition to the cheers that came out when they heard King had been shot, when he was confirmed as having died, there were more cheers and again Mertagh broke down in tears again while describing this.

 This was very, very dramatic testimony, but by the following Monday when the work week resumed, and when the hearings resumed, nobody was thinking about the House Select Committee's hearings. Everybody was taking a look at the horrible pictures of bodies that were coming in out of Guiana. 

The public hearings on the House Select Committee's investigation were totally eclipsed after the Jonestown incident happened. 

Beyond that, Mark Lane had been going around saying that James Earl Ray was innocent. He had also been going around saying that the People's Temple was a paradise on earth and, of course, he looked like God's own ass after that and was completely discredited, thereby discrediting by association in the minds of those who were interested, his assertion, a correct one, that James Earl Ray was demonstrably innocent under the circumstances.

 And, again, bear in mind that it was Mark Lane who was working to get Grace Stevens down to Jonestown at the time that he should have been getting her to testify before the House Select Committee on Assassinations. In my opinion, a number of different itches were scratched with the Jonestown operation. First of all, mind control experiments may very well have been conducted. It was used to train mercenaries for the CIA's Angola operation. It was used to provide political support for CIA protégé Forbes Burnham in Guiana. It was also used to eliminate CIA opponent Leo Ryan, another one of the people who was shot to death, another progressive political leader who was shot to death. 

It served to completely eclipse the House Select Committee's hearings. It completely discredited Mark Lane and by association, anyone who was claiming that James Earl Ray was innocent, and bear in mind the message too, that must have been sent to people in congress, saying "hey, folks, you are looking into some of our domestic operations, here. We don't like that and we will show you what happens if you continue these investigations".

 Let's take a look at Leo Ryan. Again, Leo Ryan was coauthor of the Hughes-Ryan amendment which obliged the CIA to give congress prior notification of impending covert operations and these were some of the things which, in my opinion, were achieved as a result of the Jonestown massacre. Now, again bear in mind, that in this time period, the FBI is noted to have been operating actively against Martin Luther King. We know this for a fact. We also know this for a fact that in this same time period, the FBI was operating openly against the Nation of Islam, and Malcolm X.

 I see the telltale sign that it is time for me to give people a break and it is time for people to get enough rest to allow their cerebral cortices to get back into function, and to perform necessary biological functions. I see people beginning to slump in their chairs and make exits for strategic visits to wherever out back, so I think I am going to allow people to make those strategic visits and still not miss any of the lecture at this time. 


Alright, well, suffice it to say that at the same time that Martin Luther King and the more mainstream elements of the black civil rights movement were as a matter of public record under investigation and destabilization by the intelligence services, so the more militant elements of the black civil rights movement and black power movement were also being destabilized. 

What happened to the Black Panthers for example, is largely a matter of public record. 

The Nation of Islam, popularly known as the Black Muslims, were also under infiltrations/destabilization at this same period of time.

 It should be noted that one of the main strategic vehicles used by the FBI in the COINTELPRO program was to infiltrate organizations and to plant agents to promote active hostility among various organizations, hopefully mortal activity and hostility that would have mortal results. 

There is a fellow who has become quite well known in connection with the Kwanza (sp) holiday, for example, a guy named Ron Karenga (sp) in southern California, who according to many sources, was actively involved as an FBI agent and was involved in stimulating hostility between his organization called US or United Slaves, and the Black Panthers in Los Angeles. 

He has since become something of a guiding light in the black community, but a number of sources who have never been impeached, including former FBI informants involved with COINTELPRO, have identified Ron Karenga as one of the main operatives in COINTELPRO in southern California.

 Now, the Black Muslims were as a matter of public record, under infiltration at this period of time and there were some of the same elements involved with infiltrating and destabilizing the Black Muslims or the Nation of Islam as were involved with other aspects of COINTELPRO, including the activities directed against Martin Luther King. 

The Division Five of the FBI, which is the internal security division, almost like a separate agency, put pressure on an organization called BOSSI to infiltrate both the Nation of Islam and Malcolm X's breakaway organization called the Organization of Afro-American Unity, we are going to talk about that organization in a minute. 

The institution that they utilized to do that was called BOSSI, which was the New York City organized crime or anti- organized crime and anti-red squad. They were a lot better against "reds" than they were against organized crime. What is worth noting is that the head of BOSSI at this time was a fellow named Anthony Ulazowitz (sp).

 Anthony Ulazowitz later emerged into the public view during the Watergate scandal when it came out that he and one of his top aides in BOSSI, a fellow named John Caulfield, had been two of the main operatives of Richard Nixon's dirty tricks operation against his political opponents. Both John Caulfield and Anthony Ulazowitz were actively involved with infiltrating both the Nation of Islam and the Organization of Afro-American Unity, on behalf of Division Five of the FBI.

 Incidentally, John Caulfield, his name surfaces in connection with a Warren Commission document in which he was recruited by the Warren Commission to look into the activities of the DRE in the New York area. The DRE was the Directorio Revolutionario Estudiantil that was the Students Revolutionary Directorate, as one of the anti-Castro organizations that was placed under the umbrella group, the CRC, the umbrella organization overseeing all anti-Castro Cuban activities on behalf of CIA.

 And, it is worth noting that the BOSSI placed a number of agents, they were very successful at infiltrating both the Nation of Islam and the Organization of Afro-American Unity.

 One of the most famous pictures of Malcolm X's assassination was a picture of the fallen, in fact this appeared in Life magazine, of the fallen Malcolm X having artificial resuscitation administered by one of his bodyguards, a fellow named Gene Roberts, or Brother Gene.

 In fact, Brother Gene was an undercover agent for BOSSI. 

And it is worth noting that the activity that he was engaged in, at the time, administering artificial resuscitation, is contraindicated, no pun intended, for someone suffering a chest wound because what it does is, it puts air bubbles into the blood stream, which when they reach the heart can cause a cardiac arrest and death. So, you do not administer artificial resuscitation or CPR to someone with a chest wound, and Malcolm X had massive chest wounds. He would have died anyway, but had there been any possibility of his surviving, Brother Gene might very well have cut that short with the activities that he was supposedly was engaging in to save Malcolm X's life.

 It is also worth noting, that in a picture that was also taken right after the assassination, there is a curious bulge in Brother Gene's pockets and a very obvious bullet hole in his jacket. It is unclear just how he got the bullet hole in his jacket. He supposedly was one of Malcolm's bodyguards, but he did not do a very good job of protecting Malcolm X.

 Now, I mentioned that Dr. King was assassinated with a year of the time in which he had switched or altered, I should say, his political activities from being "simply" a civil-rights activist to being an anti-Vietnam war activist as well. 

Dr. King had correctly perceived that the growing costs, both economically and politically, of the Vietnam war was detracting from the effort that the nation could put into redressing the past grievances against Afro-Americans, so he saw the Vietnam war as a major impediment, not only to civil rights for colored people in this country, people of color, but also as representing an extension of racial oppression, the kind of racial oppression that had been directed against blacks and others in this country, as representing an extension of that same racist ethic to the activities of the United States vis-a-vis people of color in other countries.

 This was similar in some ways to the kinds of activities that Malcolm X had begun engaging in prior to his assassination. Malcolm X had been the top spokesperson and the most trusted lieutenant for Elijah Muhammed, the head of the Nation of Islam, popularly known as the Black Muslims.

 However, he had parted very sharply with Elijah Muhammed and ultimately broke completely with the Nation of Islam over a number of different things. For one thing, the Nation of Islam had historically been against political cooperation between black people and white people, in fact, it was one of the main tenets of the Nation of Islam that black people should not engage in political activities in conjunction with white people. When Malcolm X took a tour of Africa, he was particularly impressed with his visit to South Africa in which he noted very close and successful cooperation between blacks and whites in South Africa against the apartheid regime, and this among other things lead him to some sharp revisions in his political outlook.

 Among the major things that Malcolm broke with Elijah Muhammed over was his decision that in fact black/white political cooperation was not only viable but in fact necessary if ultimately the liberation of people of color and ultimately of white people too, was to be achieved in the United States and elsewhere. This ran directly counter to the teachings of the Nation of Islam, which even advocated abstinence from political activity of the conventional sort by black people, having nothing to do with their involvement with white people. 

It is also worth noting that Malcolm X had broken with Elijah Muhammed over Elijah Muhammed's own personal ethical behavior. Elijah Muhammed advocated strict celibacy or strict moral behavior, shall we say, for all of the people in his organization and yet he had impregnated a number of his own secretaries who then bore children out of wedlock and then were then fined and otherwise censored by the organization for their alleged immoral behavior, not mentioning that the father of the children was actually Elijah Muhammed himself. This appalled Malcolm X who also took great issue, one of the main sources of the break between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammed was something which also reflects on the infiltration of the Nation of Islam, and their use, by the FBI as a vehicle for agitation and provocation.

 It developed that Elijah Muhammed and the Nation of Islam was receiving large amounts of money from none other than H.L. Hunt, the right-wing Texas oil billionaire. This was covered in *The Judas Factor* by Karl Evanz that I discussed at the beginning of the lecture this evening. 

Now, H.L. Hunt was one of the main financiers of the far right in this country. His family's name crops up in a number of different contexts in connection with the assassination of president Kennedy and it is more than a little interesting to find H.L. Hunt, who is an avowed racist, funding the Nation of Islam. It would appear, and this is speculative, but it would appear that the main motivation for H.L. Hunt's funding of the Nation of Islam, leaving aside the possibility that his funding may have supported the Division Five of the FBI's infiltration and subversion of the organization. 

H.L. Hunt was very vocal with his viewpoint that all African-Americans should, in fact, cease to be African-Americans and go back to Africa, a viewpoint that was also being promulgated by the Nation of Islam. 

It should be noted that Aryan Nations elements today have found common cause with Lewis Farakhan, the ostensible successor to Malcolm X, actually, I believe, the successor to Elijah Muhammed.

 We are going to talk about Farakhan later on, but both Robert Miles, a Michigan Ku Klux Klansman who was sentenced to prison for firebombing school buses in order to oppose forced busing in the state of Michigan and Tom Metzger, the director of White Aryan Resistance and a former Klan leader himself, have worked actively with Lewis Farakhan in recent years, in the 1980s.

 There is an historical parallel, I think, between the functioning of the Nation of Islam and a wing of the Zionist movement in the 1930s. That is not as well known or not as well recognized by history that prior to Hitler's so-called final solution to the Jewish question, i.e., his extermination of European Jewry, there was what we might term the not-so-final solution to the "Jewish Problem" and that before the Nazis began actively liquidating the Jewish population of Europe, they actively promoted Jewish emigration to Palestine and in so doing, they found common cause with significant elements of the Zionist movement who for a time, at any rate, actively collaborated with Amt4B (sp) of the SS intelligence service which was in charge with all "Jewish matters". 

The head of Amt4B was Adolph Eichmann and the Zionist movement in the 1930s was seeking to promote Jewish emigration to Palestine to build up the Jewish population of Palestine. The Nazis, by the same token, were looking to make Europe "Judenrein" (sp), or Jew free, and so for a period of time, they actually collaborated actively. 

In fact, the head of, at one point, of the Hagana (sp), the Palestinian self-defense organization and the precursor to the Mossad, was a fellow named Fivel Polkes, a Polish-born Jew, who was actually serving as an agent of the SS intelligence service, in order to promote Jewish emigration to Palestine.

 There also was a branch of the Zionist movement which was explicitly fascist. The Zionist, like other political movements, is by no means monolithic and in addition to more liberal elements of the Zionist movement, there was a branch of the Zionist movement which was explicitly and avowedly fascist. That movement was called the Betar, or the Betarim, and in the 1930s and '40s, there were actually pitched battles in the streets of Tel Aviv between the ranks of the Betar and socialist-Zionists. 

The best known graduate of the Betarim movement was Menachem Begin, who later went on to become, of course, prime minister of Israel. The leader of the Betarim was a fellow named Vladimir Yabotinski (sp), who once described Menachem Begin as "screeching like an old door", but Yabotinski had an article in the Italian Zionist publication Le Deias Unistica (sp), in which he made it very clear that the collaboration between the Betarim and Mussolini, a very active collaboration, was not merely a marriage of convenience for the Betarim, but that they ideologically supported fascism and agreed with what Mussolini was doing.

 The Betarim also received military training at Mussolini's Naval Cadet School. I think that elements of the Nation of Islam and Farakhan's organization today could be compared with the more reactionary elements of the Zionist movement, who at least for a period of time, found common cause with those who ultimately advocated the extermination of world Jewry and they worked for a time together in order to promote Jewish emigration to Palestine. 

By the same token, even though the Aryan Nations portray black people as cannibals in black skirts with bones through their noses, cooking up missionaries in a pot and are very explicit about their viewpoint that blacks are genetically inferior to whites, yet, there was a pattern of cooperation between Elijah Muhammed's organization and people like George Lincoln Rockwell, the fuhrer of the American Nazi Party, who was an enthusiastic supporter of Elijah Muhammed and the Nation of Islam, as was H.L. Hunt, who also was an avowed racist who sought the return of all blacks to Africa. 

It is worth noting that George Lincoln Rockwell's name, phone number, and Arlington, Virginia address were in the address book of self-proclaimed Marxist Lee Harvey Oswald at the time of his arrest at the Texas theater in Dallas, Texas. Ultimately, of course, George Lincoln Rockwell himself as well as a fellow named Burrows, Daniel Burrows, another American Nazi, who name, address, and phone number were in Oswald's address book, Burrows supposedly committed suicide, George Lincoln Rockwell was assassinated in 1967, supposedly by a rival Nazi leader who was eventually convicted of the crime. 

It is worth noting that he was assassinated just as Jim Garrison's investigation was gaining steam in New Orleans. Daniel Burrows, one of the other American Nazis whose name and address were in Oswald's address book, supposedly committed suicide in 1965 at the home of Ku Klux Klansman Roy Frankhauser (sp), who later went to work as a contract agent for the CIA.

 It is worth noting, though, as Frankhauser put it, the alleged suicide of Daniel Burrows, "bad case of suicide, three bullets", still, that's what they said though. Again, a three bullet suicide was a very bad case of suicide, almost a bad as Danny Casalero. 

But, again, at this period of time, there are indications that in addition to being used as a vehicle for infiltration, elements of the racist and fascist movements in this country found common cause with the Nation of Islam because they basically sought to make America a white country and the Nation of Islam proved to be a usual tool, at least to a certain extent, in their view, in promoting this end. 

It is worth noting that it is a matter of public record that the infiltration of the Nation of Islam reached a very high, very successful level. 

The treasurer of the Nation of Islam was a fellow named John Ali, like Muhammed Ali, and it has now been established from freedom-of-information act documents and other information that John Ali was a very highly placed informant for the FBI and following the discreditation of one of Elijah Muhammed's sons as a result of a drug conviction, John Ali, for a period of time, became the most powerful member of the Nation of Islam. 

Incidentally, the work of John Ali for the FBI was first revealed by journalist Louis Lomax, who had done a lot of work on the assassinations of both Martin Luther King and of Malcolm X and wrote a book about both of their assassinations called *To Kill a Black Man*. He had won a contract to make a motion picture about the assassination of Malcolm X in which he was going to implicate the intelligence community. While he was on his way to the set, during one of the early days of shooting, the brakes on his car failed and he was killed in a one-car automobile accident and that eliminated Louis Lomax, one of a number of suspicious deaths in connection with the investigations into the assassinations of King and Malcolm X.

 In addition to breaking with the Nation of Islam, in addition to breaking with the Nation of Islam over the moral conduct of Elijah Muhammed, in addition to breaking with the Nation of Islam over their prohibition of black/white political cooperation, Malcolm X had perhaps most notably drawn fire from the reactionary forces in this country and from the intelligence services in particular by actively forming political alliances with blacks and people of color in other parts of the world, specifically, Malcolm X took a tour of Africa in which he was very well received by black African leaders, and he was working on a petition with leaders of African nations to have the United States and South Africa condemned for their racist policies at the United Nations.

 Now this would, of course, have been a tremendous blow to the international prestige of the United States, particularly in the eyes of third world countries, and it is a matter of public record from declassified documents, that this was a source of great consternation to the State Department and to the Central Intelligence Agency.

 Richard Helms, director of the CIA at the time, was very concerned over the activities of Malcolm X and had instructed the CIA to do everything they could to "monitor" the activities of Malcolm X. One of the great euphemisms in intelligence parlance is the word "monitor". It could mean anything from surveillance to termination with extreme prejudice, i.e., assassination. 

It is noted too, that there are indications that the word was out in the international intelligence community that Malcolm X was going to be assassinated.

 Malcolm X, while on a tour of Egypt, narrowly escaped death. He was poisoned, a number of white Europeans or Americans in suits, it was never established, were seen following Malcolm X around. Whenever he would stop at a restaurant, they were at the next table. He almost died of poisoning in Egypt. He somehow got something in his food and he narrowly escaped death.

 Later, when he wanted to visit France, he was turned away by the French authorities at Orli (sp) Airport, which was also very strange. Not only had Malcolm X had no problem getting into France previously, but France had a notably liberal attitude toward political dissidents from other countries and in fact has long been viewed by political exiles as a safe haven from oppression. So, their curious behavior in refusing to allow Malcolm X even to get off the plane. He not only was not allowed to visit France, he was not even allowed to disembark from his plane, has suggested to many observers, and I agree with this analysis, that the French, specifically the SDECE, the Service Directoire d'Espionage et Contrespionage (sp), the French intelligence service, already had word that Malcolm X was targeted, that the CIA and or FBI was going to get him and they did not want his assassination occurring on French soil, so they refused to even let him disembark.

 Tape Two Side One ---

It's worth noting too, that Malcolm was on the receiving end of a number of hostile activities a few nights before he was assassinated. He was assassinated on February 21st of 1965. About a week before, maybe as much as eight or nine days before, his home, Malcolm X's home in New York was firebombed. Eye witnesses saw a policeman walking into his house and the police later claimed that Malcolm X firebombed his own home in an attempt to create the notion that somebody was actively opposing him and a firebomb was found, I believe it was on his wife's dresser, and the claim was then bandied about by the authorities that Malcolm X had firebombed his own home.

 It is also worth noting that there appears to have been a dress rehearsal of Malcolm X's assassination a few days before he was actually assassinated. In a rehearsal for an address in New York City, there was a disturbance in the audience and a fellow said "nigger, get your hand out of my pocket", and there was then a scuffle and Malcolm X broke up the scuffle. Nothing much came of that.

 Later on, however, those exact same words led to a scuffle which appears to have been the cue to the assassins to open fire on Malcolm X. 

It is worth noting that John Ali was present at this particular address in which what appears to have been a dress rehearsal for Malcolm's assassination took place.

 Now when Malcolm X was assassinated, he was giving a speech at the Audubon Ballroom in New York City. One of the interesting aspects of his assassination was that all of the speakers who were scheduled to appear at this event cancelled at the last minute. 

Malcolm X was there, but somehow it appears that the word got out that this was not going to be a place to be. But for whatever reason, all of the scheduled speakers but Malcolm X cancelled the day of his assassination. 

Again, bear in mind that there was at least one active BOSSI and FBI agent present on Malcolm's security staff at the Audubon Ballroom, the aforementioned Gene Roberts or Brother Gene, and that he was operating at the behest of Anthony Ulazowitz (sp) and John Caulfield, later key Watergate operatives on behalf of Richard Nixon, that they at the time were working with the BOSSI, the New York City Anti-Organized Crime and Red Squad, tabbed by Division Five of the FBI to work against both the Nation of Islam and Malcolm X's Organization of Afro-American Unity. 

Now in the audience when Malcolm got up to speak, there was this same disturbance that had taken place a few days earlier. A guy said "Nigger, get your hand out of my pocket", and there was a scuffle in the audience. Malcolm said "Cool it brothers, cool it". 

At that point, one of the two combatants pulled a German Luger out of his pocket and began opening fire at Malcolm X. Another man in the audience pulled out a sawed-off shotgun and fired and struck Malcolm X at virtually point-blank range. The assassins then exited out one of the side doors, firing at Malcolm X the whole time and holding most of the audience at bay.

 Malcolm's own security people fired and wounded one of the assassins as they were escaping. Now that night there was a fire at Mosque Seven in Harlem, which had been founded by Malcolm X and eventually the leadership of Mosque Seven was taken over by Lewis X, as he was calling himself at the time, now Lewis Farakhan, who incidentally had publically called for Malcolm X's death following Malcolm's break with and condemnation of Elijah Muhammed. 

But the night Malcolm X was assassinated, Mosque Seven had a very serious fire. The same evening, interestingly enough, there was a very mysterious fire at the apartment of Muhammed Ali, the famed prize fighter, also perhaps the best known member of the Nation of Islam and for a long time a very close political supporter and personal friend of Malcolm X. 

The fire at Muhammed Ali's apartment was a rather strange one. No one knew that Muhammed Ali and his wife at the time were going to be at this restaurant, yet they got a call at the restaurant telling them that their apartment was on fire. Many people have raised questions about this. It is also worth noting that within a few days of Malcolm's assassination, of the mysterious fire at the Mosque Seven, the mysterious fire at Muhammed Ali's apartment, the law offices of Percy Sutton, a New York City councilperson, actually, I believe, later a congressional representative, Percy Sutton's law offices were vandalized a few days later and also the New York offices of the Organization of Afro-American Unity, Malcolm's organization, were vandalized a few days later.

 It is worth noting again that Lewis Lomax, who had investigated the assassinations of both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, concluded that the intelligence community was behind it.

 He had, as I said, landed a movie contract about the assassination of Malcolm X, which implicated the intelligence community. While driving to the set one day, the brakes on his car failed and he was killed in an accident. He also, Lomax that is, was pursuing leads in Louisiana which would have connected the assassination of Martin Luther King with that of John F. Kennedy and specifically, he was looking into the activities of the people surrounding the 544 Camp Street, 531 Lafayette Place address that was run as the Guy Bannister Detective Agency.

 Guy Bannister, former head of the FBI Chicago office, also a former Office of Naval Intelligence operative, as accurately portrayed in the movie "JFK". In addition to operating on behalf of the CIA's anti-Castro Cuban efforts, the Bannister Detective Agency was also very active against the civil-rights movement and they put out a racist publication called "Louisiana Intelligence Digest" which maintained that the black civil-rights movement was part of the international communist conspiracy. Something that both J. Edgar Hoover and Arthur Haines, Sr., James Earl Ray's first attorney, were also advocating at this time and Louis Lomax had developed some contacts in Louisiana and had been pursuing evidenciary tributaries leading in the direction of Bannister and company when he was killed in this one-car automobile accident.

 A few days after Malcolm X was killed, one of his top aides in the Organization of Afro-American Unity, a fellow named Leon 4X Ameer, (by the way, the Xs in the names of the Nation of Islam, the Black Muslims, as they are popularly referred to, that reference, and you will see, you know, John 23X, Louis 14X, and so forth. When an African-American joined the organization, he traditionally retained his first name, X was put, basically, in place of his last name to indicate that this was a slave name and that at some point, he had a different name, but that this had become lost to history and depending on when you joined the organization, that determined the number before your "X". 

For example, if you were the fifth member of the Nation of Islam named John, you were John 5X. If you were the 14th named Louis, you were Louis 14X, etc. That is what those Xs refer to).

 But one of Malcolm's top aides, Leon 4XAmeer, went to the FBI, about, I think it was ten days after Malcolm was killed, and indicated that he felt that there were elements not only within the Nation of Islam proper, but within the US government that were behind Malcolm's assassination. 

He then was found dead, himself, a few days later at the age of 32 in his apartment in Boston. Initially, they said it was suicide, then they changed that to a drug overdose, but the final disposition of the case was that he died of natural causes, despite the fact that he was in good health at the age of 32. It is worth noting that Ameer took his wife and child and relocated them from Boston prior to his death, because he felt that his life was in danger and he did not want his wife and child to die if and when the assassins came for him. 

That is still the official version of the death of Leon Ameer, namely, natural causes at the age of 32 within ten days of (actually it was about a week) having visited the FBI and voiced his suspicions about U.S. governmental involvement in the assassination of Malcolm X. 

It is worth noting that the Socialist Workers Party, elements of which had been very close to the Nation of Islam, were also the targets of COINTELPRO disruption at this time, and that freedom of information act documents that have been declassified in the interim, have revealed that in no uncertain terms, the friction that grew between the Socialist Workers Party and the Nation of Islam, and in particular, the Organization of Afro-American Unity, were as the result of agitation by the FBI.

 James Chabaz (sp), who was Malcolm X's successor, in the Organization of Afro-American Unity, was himself assassinated a few years after Malcolm X. 

And it is worth noting that one of Elijah Muhammed's sons was arrested and convicted on a drug charge. This officially discredited him and for a period of time, the most powerful man in the Nation of Islam became John Ali, who was, again, a documented FBI informant. 

It is also worth noting that John Ali was around many of the areas where Malcolm X was prior to his assassination. Malcolm was going to disembark, for example, at the Los Angeles airport. Some of his security people noted that John Ali was present when Malcolm X was going to land at the Los Angeles airport. Because of his stated hostility to Malcolm X, this was after Malcolm's break with Elijah Muhammed, the plane of Malcolm X was rerouted to another terminal and law enforcement was alerted. 

Again, John Ali was physically present at this what appears to have been a dress rehearsal for Malcolm X's assassination. Oh, another detail that I forgot, concerning the circumstances of Malcolm's death, the Audubon Ballroom where he was killed, is directly across the street from Columbia Presbyterian Hospital in New York City, one of the finest medical institutions in the city. The hospital was called and they were asked to rush medical assistance over to Malcolm X, who was only across the street and no medical assistance was forthcoming. It took a long time and finally, Malcolm's aides got a stretcher from the hospital and put him on it and carried him over to the hospital. But that is again among the strange circumstances surrounding his assassination, was that for some reason, the people at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital were unable to dispatch an emergency unit across the street. It was so bad that his aides went across the street, got a stretcher, and wheeled him across the street to the hospital. The hospital proffered no assistance whatsoever.

 Now again, after one of Elijah Muhammed's sons was arrested and convicted on a drug charge, John Ali, documented FBI informant, became the most powerful member of the Nation of Islam.

 Eventually the organization was taken over by Wallace Muhammed, another of Elijah Muhammed's sons, who promptly undertook to reform the organization along the lines that Malcolm X, himself, had advocated. 

In the first place, Wallace Muhammed lifted the edict against black-white political cooperation, one of the main sources of the break between Malcolm and Elijah Muhammed. He, that is to say, Wallace Muhammed, also changed the ideology and the theology of the Nation of Islam. One of the aspects of the Nation of Islam's philosophy or political viewpoint, which had also alienated Malcolm X, was the explicit doctrine of the Nation of Islam that the white race was created by a mad scientist named Yakob (sp). That was an official element of their doctrine. That obviously worked to the disadvantage of black people and actually worked to the advantage of people like the Aryan Nations, part of whose racist ideology is that black people are genetically and intellectually inferior to white people. 

The tenet of the Nation of Islam that the white race was created by a mad scientist named Yakob (sp), in my opinion, was very much to the liking of people like Robert Miles and Tom Metzger and George Lincoln Rockwell and H.L. Hunt, because it would tend to discredit black people intellectually. 

That was one of the things that Wallace Muhammed dispensed of when he took over the leadership of the Nation of Islam. And no sooner did Wallace Muhammed put these reforms into effect than Lewis Farakhan, as he was calling himself then, formally Lewis X, head of the Boston Mosque of the Nation of Islam, who had publicly called for Malcolm X's death as a result of his hostility or his opposition to Elijah Muhammed, who eventually succeeded Malcolm X as the head of Mosque Seven, who was reportedly in the Newark, New Jersey mosque at the time of Malcolm's assassination. 

At least one of the convicted assassins has stated that the assassination of Malcolm was planned at the Newark mosque and some of the people convicted were security people from the Newark mosque.

 Lewis Farakhan broke away from Wallace Muhammed and set up his own organization, the Nation of Islam, which he is the head of to this day. 

He then reinstated the prohibition on black-white political cooperation, which was one of the things Malcolm X broke with Elijah Muhammed over, he reinstated the preposterous tenet that the white race was created by in a laboratory by a mad scientist named Yakob (sp), another of the things that Malcolm X opposed. And apparently, the opposition on the part of Farakhan and his organization to black-white political cooperation did not apply to cooperation between himself and his organization and a doctrinaire white supremacist like Tom Metzger and Robert Miles. Make of that what you will. 

We will talk about Jesse Jackson in a couple of minutes, but it is worth noting too that Lewis Farakhan has been very active in promoting dissension in the progressive political community.

 He has achieved a lot of publicity in connection with some of his statements about Jews and Judaism. Traditionally, blacks and Jews have been two of the pillars of the progressive political community in the United States. There is now a great deal of friction between them, although some of that undoubtedly applies to Israeli support for, or is justified by and stems from, Israeli support for South Africa. 

At the same time, I suspect that a lot of that is being actively promoted by the forces of reaction in this country, who would like nothing better than to see blacks and Jews going after one another, because divide and conquer is an old, tried and true tactic. 

It is worth noting, too, just as there are questions concerning Lewis Farakhan and his succession of Malcolm X, and it is interesting that it was not Wallace Muhammed who revised the Nation of Islam, and reformed it along the lines advocated by Malcolm X, but it is Lewis Farakhan, who again called for the Malcolm X's death, and who then broke from Wallace Muhammed when he put into effect reforms advocated my Malcolm, he is now the individual who wears Malcolm X's mantle.

 He also is an individual who has been actively collaborating with some of the white-supremacist elements that Malcolm had devoted his life to working against.

 There are similar question about Jesse Jackson and the assassination of Martin Luther King as well. Jesse Jackson drew a lot of fire, or a lot of flak, I should say. I should watch my use of words under the circumstances, but Jesse Jackson drew a lot of flak from the people surrounding Martin Luther King for his behavior around the time of Martin Luther King's assassination. 

It is a matter of public record that Martin Luther King was at least considering breaking with Jesse Jackson. Martin made a number of statements to some of his aides that "he felt it was time for him to make his mark and Jesse to make his own mark" then when Martin Luther King was assassinated, Jesse Jackson showed up at a press conference shortly afterward with a bloodied shirt and claimed that he had cradled the dying Dr. King's head and this was one of the things that boosted Jesse into the public eye. 

Many of Martin's close associates were outraged over what they viewed as self-aggrandizement and exploitation of Martin's death by Jesse Jackson and they claim that, in fact, Jesse Jackson was not cradling the dying Dr. King's head at all.

 Later, after years of hostility between people like Coretta King, who as late as 1984, was unwilling to endorse Jesse Jackson for president, Jesse admitted this on the Phil Donahue show, on a national television audience, that he had been lying for 20 years about his behavior vis-a-vis the assassination of Martin Luther King. 

I had always wondered how Jesse Jackson got that bloodied shirt, because if he was not cradling King's head, and he later eventually admitted that he had been lying about that, where did he get the bloody shirt? It indicates at least the possibility of foreknowledge. 

The question is whose blood or the blood of what was on that shirt and where did Jesse get it? Now, on the Phil Donahue show, Jesse admitted that he had been lying, that he had not actually cradled the dying Dr. King's head, but he said there was so much blood where Dr. King fell that this was how he got the blood on his shirt. Well, there was certainly a lot of blood on the ground where Dr. King was lying. There also would have been some blood on the back wall where the round penetrated Dr. King's head, but there would not have blood all over the apartment and again one wonders how Jesse Jackson came up with that bloody shirt.

 Beyond that, regardless of how he actually came up with the shirt, the fact that he would lie for twenty years about his behavior vis- a-vis the assassination of the man whose mantle he now wears, and you take a look at anything that comes up in the news concerning black people in this country or just about anyplace else in the world, and you see how long it takes for Jesse Jackson to appear in the camera. 

Jesse is a real good guy at garnering publicity. He is almost ubiquitous, but the fact that Jesse would lie for twenty years, to me, disqualifies him as any kind of political leader.

 Beyond that, and even more alarmingly, aside from the fact that he admitted that he lied about cradling King's head, shortly after George Bush was elected in 1988, after having run his campaign along explicitly racist lines with the Willy Horton ploy, Jesse and George Bush gave a press conference in which they agreed to, George challenged him, he said we've worked together on a number of policy issues in the past and he challenged Jesse to deny that and Jesse did not deny it then both Jesse and George Bush stated that they felt that James Earl Ray should not be paroled.

 Well, Jesse has been quite vocal in other contexts about hardly his opinion that there was more to the assassination of Martin Luther King than just some lone racist, and yet he at a press conference with George Bush, former director of the CIA and president-elect, he stated that he was opposed to releasing James Earl Ray.

 That also raises some very, very serious questions about Jesse Jackson. Jesse also has made some comments which have tended to promote friction between the black and Jewish communities in this country. Whatever Jesse's intention, that certainly works to the benefit of the forces of reaction. 

It should be noted that when a coup d'etat is staged, in the viewpoint of the coup plotters, it is not only necessary to destroy the target, but to replace the target with a substitute whose political interests are at one with one's own. 

Now in this case, in this context I should say, we can view the assassinations of both Malcolm X and Martin Luther King as, in effect, a coup d'etat. In effect, a blow at a nation within a nation, namely the black community in the United States, and with such a coup having apparently been executed, it would have been essential to replace the two target individuals, namely Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, with individuals whose viewpoints and activities would be suitable to the people who had staged the coup.

 Although we do not have definitive information, and I do not mean the things that I am saying to be viewed as definitive about either Jesse Jackson or Lewis Farakhan, at the same time, there are enough questions about the activities of both men to lead to a serious investigation as to whether or not Lewis Farakhan was perhaps designated as the LBJ to Malcolm X's JFK and that Jesse Jackson may very well have been tabbed as a similar successor to Martin Luther King as well. 

There is an odd postscript to the assassinations of both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X. A few days, in fact four days, after Malcolm X was assassinated, that was February 21st, 1965, there was an abortive attempt to assassinate Martin Luther King as well. 

Martin Luther King was attending a movie in Los Angeles and police received a tip and they discovered a large dynamite bomb at the theater, which had it gone off, would have certainly killed Dr. King and virtually anyone else in that theater. Eventually an American neo-Nazi named Keith Gilbert, was convicted of this assassination attempt on Martin Luther King. Gilbert maintained that while in prison, he was receiving support from very powerful forces.

 It later came to light that he was receiving money and that the individual he was receiving money from was a fellow named Loren Eugene Hall, himself a paramilitary white right-winger and white-supremacist who had been one of the main informants for then Reagan legal-counselor Edwin Meese concerning the case of Edgar Eugene Bradley.

 Edgar Eugene Bradley was sought by Jim Garrison in New Orleans in connection with the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Edgar Eugene Bradley was a resident of the state of California. Garrison filed an extradition request, then deputy state attorney general Charles A. O'Brien (sp) reviewed the Garrison extradition request, recommended that it be granted.

 Activity on the Garrison extradition request for Bradley was delayed by then-governor Reagan until after Richard Nixon was elected president and then was turned down without comment. The Edgar Eugene Bradley extradition request was handled for Reagan by then Reagan legal advisor, legal counsellor Edwin A. Meese, who later, of course, became attorney general of the United States and who also was a highly ranked intelligence officer with the Army reserve, both then and now. 

The guy who Ed Meese dealt with primarily was a former CIA operative in connection with the anti-Castro Cuban activities and a white-supremacist named Loren Eugene Hall, who in 1989 incidentally, was indicted for running a methamphetamine ring in Oklahoma. 

His son, Loren, Jr., who was also indicted and named in the indictment, stated at a press conference that the entire methamphetamine ring was being used to channel funding to the contras. That, by the way, from the Dallas Morning News of September 13th of 1989.

 It was this guy who was providing financial support to Keith Gilbert while he was in prison for having placed this huge dynamite bomb in an L.A. theater four days after Malcolm X was assassinated in New York. 

Now Keith Gilbert eventually became one of the top lieutenants for Richard Gernt (sp) Butler, the head of the Aryan Nations compound at Hayden Lake, Idaho.

 Later Keith Gilbert broke with Butler and established his own compound a few miles down the road. Interesting enough, Keith Gilbert was linked to a fellow named Michael Wayne.

 Michael Wayne's name came up in connection with the assassination of Robert Kennedy in Los Angeles. A Michael Wayne was known to have been at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, asking what route senator Kennedy was going to take to exit from his press conference. 

Michael Wayne was also a very, very close, not a double, but he resembled very closely Sirhan Sirhan, the patsy in the Robert Kennedy assassination. 

The individual generally cited by most investigators as actually having pulled the trigger on Robert Kennedy was a white supremacist named Thane Eugene Caesar who worked for Lockheed's Burbank facility, and specifically worked in the top secret area associated with the CIA's U-2 project. 

Oswald also was affiliated with the U-2. Caesar was working as a security guard for a security service in the Ambassador Hotel the night of the shooting. He was a documented white-supremacist and, again, he worked in the Lockheed Burbank facility and another engineer in Lockheed Burbank was Richard Gernt Butler, one of whose top lieutenants was Keith Gilbert, whose name was linked in L.A.P.D. files to Michael Wayne, a Sirhan double, who was in the Ambassador Hotel.

 And again, it was Keith Gilbert who was convicted of this attempt on the life of Martin Luther King four days after Malcolm was killed. Not that that necessarily proves anything, but when you take those coincidences in combination with the enormous number of evidenciary tributaries linking various aspects of our assassinations and political assassinations, it is pretty clear that this is more than just coincidence, and I personally have always felt that the Keith Gilbert-Richard Gernt Butler-Thane Eugene Caesar, Malcolm X assassination-Martin Luther King assassination-Robert Kennedy assassination link has never been properly investigated.

 It is also worth noting that the people who brought the Sirhan family into the United States were college friends and political associates of Richard Nixon, who was a prime beneficiary of the assassination of Robert Kennedy and the director for security for Richard Nixon's 1968 campaign was a fellow named James Golden, who was on leave from his position as director of security for the Lockheed Corporation, at which Thane Eugene Caesar was employed. 

And again, that does not prove anything either, but when you examine this country's political assassinations, be it the assassinations of the Kennedy's or Martin Luther King, or Malcolm X, Incidentally there is an echo which comes forward right to this day.

 One of the main civil rights leaders of the early '60s, Medgar Evers (sp) the field secretary for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, he was assassinated in 1963, a few months before Kennedy was assassinated. 

A white-supremacist named Byron de La Beckwith (sp) has been indicted for his assassination and is going to stand trial. He has been able to wiggle out of this so far. When Byron de La Beckwith was seeking to avoid indictment for the assassination of Medgar Evers, much of his political support came from former Major General Edwin Walker. 

Edwin Walker had been a divisional commander in Germany and was replaced by John Kennedy because Edwin Walker was violating Army regulations by obliging his troops to study the "Blue Book" of the John Birch Society. It is a violation of U.S. military regulations to force your troops to study political doctrine. 

Edwin Walker was fired by John Kennedy. He then came to the Dallas-Ft. Worth area where he became a protégé of H.L. Hunt and in the fifth volume of the 26 volumes of Warren Commission testimony and exhibits, it is revealed, or it is documented that, Edwin Walker's John Birch Society cell was used as a vehicle for bringing military intelligence agents over from Munich, Germany to operate at the field level in the assassination of John Kennedy.

 It is also worth noting, too, that one of the things cited by the Warren Commission to prove that Lee Harvey Oswald was not a politically-motivated assassin, (he wasn't an assassin at all, he was a patsy) but the Warren Commission stated that Lee Harvey Oswald had previously tried to assassinate Major General Edwin Walker, who was an ultra-right winger. 

Therefore, since he tried to shoot a right-winger and he wound up shooting a liberal, he was not politically motivated. This information first surfaced, according to the Warren Commission investigation or cover-up, on December 3rd 1963, when Marina Oswald revealed this to the FBI during an interrogation. 

The FBI then notified the Warren Commission. However, this does not explain why on November 29, 1963, a Nazi newspaper in Munich, Germany, named the Deutsche Soldaten Zeitung, published by a guy named Gerhard Frey (sp), still active on the German Nazi scene, and having a number of highly-ranked SS officers and former officials from Goebbels' propaganda ministry on its editorial staff, that newspaper revealed the information that Oswald had shot at Walker on November 29, 1963, based on an interview with Edwin Walker, that Edwin Walker gave by telephone to Gerhard Frey on November 23, 1963 which was a full eleven days before Marina Oswald supposedly revealed that to the world.

 Now, you do not have to be Columbo or Sherlock Holmes to figure out that that throws serious doubt on the validity of the Warren Commission's investigation, but that is just one of many evidenciary tributaries leading between our various assassinations and attempted assassinations. 

That does not mean that, yes, Major General Edwin Walker and the Hunt organization were connected to Byron de La Beckwith and the assassination of Medgar Evers, yet at the same time when we see so many of the same elements and the same names cropping up in connection with our political assassinations, supposedly unconnected, and supposedly not having any serious political ramifications, I think we are in a position to stand back and take a look at these killings and to view them in much the same light as the assassination program conducted in Germany in the 1920s, long before the world became familiar with the name of Adolph Hitler, long before National Socialism took over in Germany and helped plunge the world into war, that there were a series, as I said, of assassinations conducted in Germany which paved the way for the rise of fascism in that country.

 But in addition to the leaders of the German revolution, such as Karl Liebknecht (sp) and Rosa Luxembourg (sp), doctrinaire communists themselves, democratic leaders ranging from Kurt Eisler (sp), Karl Guirise (sp), Gustav Landauer (sp), Walter von Rathenau (sp), these are names that history has not remembered and they should have. 

As we look at our assassinations and our attempted assassinations, I think it is important that we clear away the obfuscation, that we learn to see the forest despite the trees that have been placed in our way, because in my opinion, and I think the evidence argues very strongly in that regard, we here in the United States went through a similar historical event to the assassination programs in Germany and Japan that paved the way for the rise of fascism in those countries. And, if we do not recognize the facts concerning our own history and understand what happened and why it happened, we ourselves are going to ultimately face results as devastating as what eventually stemmed from the assassination programs in those countries as well. That basically concludes the main body of the lecture this evening. 


Question and Answer Period 

Q: In January there was a talk by Socialist Action in San Francisco on the assassination of Malcolm X and two eyewitnesses spoke and they made some very dramatic points which you did not mention. One being that every time Malcolm X spoke, usually there were twenty policemen around, and the day of the murder or assassination, there weren't any, or maybe there was one or two token. 

The other point that they made was in the actual, immediately after the assassination, the crowd captured the two guys, the one that was wounded and another one, and the one that was wounded was documented, etc., but the other one, the police got him and he never showed up in jail. He was never booked or anything like that. And they also went into the cover-up and in the cover-up, the three guys who were on trial said they were part of the Black Muslims. Even at the trial, they testified that there were five people. That was one of the things that was completely covered up by the prosecution, etc., in the official story, and I was just wondering did that escape your notice?

 A: I have heard that. I do not recall seeing that in any printed sources. I am not casting aspersions on what they were saying. I recall hearing that in discussions with other researchers. I, myself, have not read that, that I can recall. It should be noted I don't present either of these discussions as having all of the information about the assassinations of King or Malcolm X. There are other things to go into. With Martin Luther King, for example, I haven't talked about James Earl Ray's flight, which was one of the very interesting things, aspects of it. Ray was able to successfully elude an international manhunt in which he utilized evasion techniques which appear to be far more sophisticated than what he had been able to do.

 As I say, he previously couldn't knock over a liquor store in Missouri without getting apprehended, and yet he was able to elude an international manhunt, in which among other things, he used fake id using the names of real people who were deceased, all of whom lived within a short distance of each other in Canadian cities and who bore a physical resemblance to James Earl Ray. 

That is a very sophisticated technique usually used by intelligence agencies alone because they are the only ones that have the resources, or somebody with considerably resources. James Earl Ray utilized those techniques. That strongly suggests that he was being aided in doing that. There are other aspects, to both assassinations, that I have not covered. I am trying to give people a basic grasp of what happened with each and also relating them to the political directions being undertaken by both men and the political environment in which they existed at the time. Namely the Civil Rights movement, the anti-Vietnam-War movement, and in particular to indicate the forces that killed them and how they relate to what we face today. 

Q: Also, I have been in contact with the political prisoners in the United States. There is still a large number who were put behind bars by the COINTELPRO efforts and they are still rotting in prison and, you know, there is dire action needed on the public's part to try to help them get out and receive justice. So if anyone wants any information on that, they can contact me. 

A: Alrighty. Thanks for your contribution. 

Q: Okay. I've got a couple of, I want your opinion on a couple of things. Recently, on the line of assassinations, the CIA killings in the morning, the people going to work in the CIA, gunned down by a supposedly Pakistani with an AK-47. Also, the day before the trials beginning in Los Angeles, two police officers were shot, apparently in the head, before they could take their weapons out, smacks of some type of assassination, and also, in the paper there has been reported a theft of a large number of handguns from Los Angeles, attributed probably to gangs, but I think it amounted to like 5000 handguns turned up missing in Los Angeles.

A: That's a lot of guns. It may be the city of Angels if those things get, would be used.

Q: It all smacks of some type of indication of some provocation on whoever's part. If you know anything about that, any comments. 

A:   No, I am aware of all the things you talk about except not the handguns missing. That I have not come across. Now I think there are a lot of things we have to watch out for. You can't say for sure, yes, this is part of a program of provocation. At the same time, though, the things you have talked about are symptomatic of a program of provocation and there are some pretty firm historical indications, not only that the LAPD, or elements thereof, have worked with the intelligence community in the past on provocations and specifically vis-a-vis the Afro-American community in Los Angeles.

 But, there are some very serious questions about the rioting in Los Angeles. In weeks to come, I am going to be talking about that history and in particular the disclosures or at least statements made by a guy named Frederick Salani (sp), who was the defense counsel for Damion Williams, who has been on trial now in the Denny beating case, and Salani claims, I don't know how accurate his claims are, he claims that his organization, it was something like the Center for Constitutional Law, or something, I have forgotten its name off the top of my head, but that it was basically an intelligence front that Damion Williams' confession was obtained by drugging him and getting him to confess and also Salani claimed that the rioting in Los Angeles was started by government agents, which some eyewitnesses have stated, in fact. 

I warned, in a live talk on KPFK, there's a guy at KPFK, the Pacifica station in Los Angeles, who airs my program on late night during the week and I do a live talk down there via phone hookup the first Wednesday of each month, and when the officers were indicted, I warned about the possibility of a generated disturbance because the LAPD does have a history of doing that kind of thing. With the tensions in the community down there as ripe as they were for that kind of explosion, I've just felt that the situation was ripe for exploitation and it would have worked very nicely to the benefit of George Bush and also could have been used as the pretext for beginning to establish martial law. 

And then eventually, courtesy of Harry Martin, who first revealed the information on "One Step Beyond", I now have it confirmed from two published sources. One of them, by the way, an article in the January, 1993 issue of *The Atlantic*, the orders issued to the military and to the National Guard in the Los Angeles disturbances were marked "Garden Plot" and it was operation "Garden Plot/Cable Splicer" which in the 1960s and '70s provided for the coordination of the military, the civilian and military intelligencies, and state and local law enforcement to combat both the antiwar movement and the civil rights and black power movement, and it was while working on operation "Cable Splicer and Garden Plot" that Lewis Euphreda (sp) and Frank Salcedo (sp), then working for the California Specialized Training Institute in San Luis Obispo, developed the contingency plans which became the seed for the Rex '84 Operation Night Train Martial Law Contingency Plan. 

And that was based on a contingency plan to round up upwards of twenty million black Americans and put them in "detention centers" in the event of a disturbance by "black militants", which LAPD intelligence community were perfectly capable of producing, so I do think we have to be very careful about another explosion in Los Angeles and it would not surprise me if the authorities would like to trigger something like that. 

I see a lot of very dangerous signs in connection with what is happening with Bill Clinton. The authorities in this country don't like him and I think some fairly direct signals are being sent to Clinton that if he doesn't basically stay the course vis-a-vis national security matters, then he could be disposed of. 

I was very disturbed by the bombing yesterday in New York and there are a number of other things that I think bode very poorly for the future so I share your concern and I think it is important that you noted those things. And certainly, police with two officers having been killed, there is nothing that sets off a cop like another cop getting killed, which I can understand. 

I have some friends in law enforcement and it is an embattlement almost like being in the military. It is very much an "us and them" mentality and when another officer gets killed, there is nothing that sets off police sentiments, and there is also a very strong white-supremacist presence in the LAPD. A lot of Nazi and Klan organizations penetrated LAPD and there are elements of the LAPD that work with the intelligence community, so we've got to be careful and I don't know if we can...inaudible.... 

Q: Inaudible..... 

A: Yeah, there are a number of things that I am going to be discussing in weeks to come. I would note also that the attorney general, well let's just say the justice department, which under George Bush, was headed up by William Barr (sp), a "ex" CIA operative who had left the CIA in early '77 when Jimmy Carter was conducting a house cleaning with, among others, George Bush, he headed up the justice department and the justice department released a prosecution memo to the officers defense counsel, which is strange behavior. I would also note that William Barr, after retiring from Justice went to work for the law firm representing Earl Bryan (sp), one of the people implicated by many in both October Surprise and the Inslaw case, so a strange situation. 

Q: Yeah, I was wondering if you could comment on the programming you mentioned Purdy, the programming techniques used for setting up patsies like Oswald and the way that they coincided with, say, the setting up of Van der Lubbe (sp) with the Reichstag and how that pertains to the Nazi intelligence agencies being absorbed into the CIA after World War II. 

A: Yeah, as far as actual mind control, that has been developed by a number of intelligence services and it was under development during World War II by others. It's never been clear whether Lee Harvey Oswald was programmed in any way. He didn't kill president Kennedy. There have been allegations that he was programmed. I cannot either confirm those or deny them. There is some discussion of that in Radio Free America #5.

 Patrick Edward Purdy, on the other hand, does appear to have been programmed. We can't say for sure, but the circumstances surrounding his activities before and immediately prior to, just before the shooting, suggest he may have been a mind control patsy. He did too much travelling and bought too many things for the resources available to him and he looks to me like he probably was. With regard to the incorporation of much of The Third Reich's intelligence system into this country at the end of the war, that helps to promote the use by the U.S. of what I would call the Scorzeni (sp) methodology in which a small incident involving a relatively small number of people can be manipulated strategically to produce a result that normally would have been achievable only with a commitment of a large number of resources.

 Yesterday's bombing, for example, at the World Trade Center, whatever it turns out to be, I suspect that it was a provocation, and I suspect elements associated with the Eustaze (sp) as having been involved. But if you look at the actual number of people that were involved, it was relatively small, what, five, maybe seven people were killed and a couple of hundred injured, and yet that incident has absolutely transfixed the attention of this entire country and yet it really only involved a small number of people. That is in Radio Free America #22, which I recently replayed by way of providing some background material to RFA #38 that I am doing now. 

The Scorzeni methodology, the influence of SS Colonel Otto Scorzeni on the development of world terrorism, both in terms of methodology and in terms of operational connections was discussed and in my opinion, the archetypal incident, the seminal incident for generating the methodology of modern terrorism was the capture of Miki Horte (sp) during the closing stages of World War II. 

Miki Horte was the playboy son of Hungarian head-of-state Admiral Nicholas Horte. Hungary was one of Germany's wartime allies and was the last of Germany's allies to desert it, other than Japan, and the Horte government was conducting secret negotiations with the Soviet Union and basically the Hungarian troops were getting sick and tired of being chewed-up and they wanted to switch sides and then turn against the Nazis. 

This obviously would have collapsed the Nazi front, the Third Reich front. So what Scorzeni did was, he kidnapped Admiral Horte's son and held him for ransom, and only when Horte broke off negotiations with the Soviets was Miki Horte released. Only a very small number of people were involved as combatants. A few Hungarians and a few Nazis were killed and the kidnapped son was held and ultimately released and through this one incident, though, Scorzeni was able to keep Hungary in the war on Germany's side to the very end, until Soviet troops completely overran the country. 

That in many ways was the seminal incident, the methodological archetype for modern terrorism where we see a relatively small number of individuals being killed or kidnapped or whatever and yet the attentions of an entire nation or the entire world can be transfixed by such an incident, yet the actual number of people involved and the commitment of resources was relatively modest for a relatively large effect.

Q: Very briefly, yesterday on the Larry King show, Jimmy Breslin of New York City said that it was foreigners and that it was terrorism. Now, just for the record because you've said something about the Eustase, I would like you to kind of clarify, which I suspect, that you would agree that it's very hard to distinguish the Eustase from the CIA from a number of other organizations, so, when you say that, make real clear to all of us that it is not necessarily foreigners and what it might appear to be, some kind of terrorism from abroad.

A: Well, that is why I said that in my opinion it was a provocation. The Eustase have worked in conjunction with U.S. intelligence. I talked about that in Radio Free America #36 and touched on it again in #37. I've talked about it in Radio Free America show #15 and I am going to be coming back to it, not only in conjunction with discussion about the World Trade Center bombing which initially Croatian extremists took credit for but also eventually the assassination of Olaf Palme which may very well have been connected to a number of things Palme was doing in opposition to U.S. national security policy, including closing down all of the Iran-Contra Arms pipelines. 

So, I think your comment is well taken in that one should not use that incident like that to become xenophobic. The Eustase are able to operate in this country and on behalf of this country only because they do so with official sanction. One of the keys, vis-a-vis the media handling of the World Trade Center bombing has been the statements by "terrorist experts" about how easy something like this is to do. "Why anybody can just pack a car up with explosives and drive it in and park it".

 Yes, it is real easy to do that but it is not easy to know how to hook up plastic explosive. The percentage of our population that knows how to rig up a successful car bomb is relatively small and access to C4 or any plastic explosive is really difficult. You might be able to get your hands on a stash of C4, but right after you have taken possession of it, either ATF or FBI or somebody else is going to swoop down and pick you up. From what I know from my own contacts, journalistic and professionals in the intelligence community, it is really difficult to get hold of plastic explosives. The government monitors that sort of thing very carefully. You don't just get hold of a carload of plastic explosive. It is not like bathroom caulking, it's different.

Q: I want to know if you think it is possible or likely that the current U.S. military operation in Somalia was developed or conceived as possibly a readiness exercise in anticipation of future riots in the urban ghetto, especially in the wake of the riots in L.A. 

A: Well, one of the things that I've emphasized over the years, and I will reiterate it again is that when our national security establishment decides to move in any given direction, they do so when to make that move will satisfy a number of different strategic considerations at different levels.

 Now with regard to Somalia, I think there is a distinct possibility that that may be a preconceived covert operation. Certainly it is in a strategic part of the world and whatever the political makeup opposed U.S occupation in Somalia, that occupation is going to have a great deal to do with determining what happens. You have a country where starvation is rampant, the people that are going to survive are the people who have access to the food and we are now in a position to determine that. 

It is a matter of public record that we helped to arm many of the warlords. According to a professional contact in the intelligence community, we've controlled all of those warlords. U.S. intelligence has controlled all of those bastards for a long time. I don't present that as objective fact, that comes from someone who was very reliable in the past and he said flat out when I asked him, he said "look, we have controlled all those guys all along." And it is a matter of public record, in fact I discussed it in Radio Free America #20 and came back to it in #25, that the Siadberre (sp) government was armed in part by the U.S. intelligence community, utilizing in part, the Stebom (sp) arms-for drugs ring which figures in Iran-Contra and in shooting the pope and a number of other things. 

Now, we know that the current U.S. ambassador to Somalia is Robert Oakley, who was one of the state department collaborators with Oliver North in the Contra support effort. 

I talked about, last week, the infrastructures that grew out of the vice-president's task force on counter-terrorism. Oakley is one of the main operatives of that group. 

We also know that much of the "missionary" work that is being done in Somalia is being done by World Vision and that World Vision has served as a vehicle for U.S. intelligence activities in the past both in Central America and Southeast Asia. Whether or not it is doing so in Somalia is anybody's guess, however, certainly a possibility that I think has to be seriously considered, I would also note that U.S. oil companies have secured the rights to what are apparently considerable petroleum reserves in Somalia and that in fact, I believe that one of Conoco's buildings has actually served as the operational headquarters for coordinating the U.S. military effort there.

 And I would also note, too, that as you pointed out, first of all it should be stated that the Somalia mission is tremendous PR for the military which now has to justify its large budgets in the post-cold war period and to present itself as a world-peace keeper and civic organization and in fact this is tremendous PR for the post-cold war military.

 I would also note that enlistments soared as a result of the Somalia mission. But, hell, you're a young dude, what do you want to do, you want to join the military, see the world, you want to have all kinds of people hail you as some sort of saviour. It is a 19-year-old male's fantasy to be seen as a knight in shining armor. It's great.

 It's also doing really nicely in helping to forestall post-cold war budget cuts for the military. I would also note that it is, as you very perceptively pointed out, whether or not it was intended this way, to give the military practice in helping to keep in line civilian population.

 And also, I would note whether or not there is any connection, I have noted a similarity in the way the Somalia situation has been portrayed in the media and the way the situation in many or our inner cities is being portrayed. 

In other words, there was a lot of publicity about this drug called khat which apparently is a narcotic that is widely used in Somalia and khat is being blamed for much of the country's problems and apparently the flow of this drug is being regulated in part by the warlords that are also in control of things. And I have noted a similarity in the portrayal of the warlords khat-crazed, khat-dealing, warlords, armed to the teeth, these gangs of rowdy, radical, uncontrollable people, basically a sort of anarchy, an armed, drug-crazed anarchy that prevails in Somalia and of the media handling of much of the inner-city areas too, where crack cocaine-crazed, you know, armed to the teeth, gangs are portrayed as being in possession of our inner cities and I can see very easily how in the minds of the average "cracker" American, a connection could be made between what we are doing in Somalia and "by God, what we got to do there in Los Angeles, get troops in there, kick a little ass and teach them niggers a lesson they are never going to forget". 

I am not trying to offend anybody, but let's face it, a lot of people in this country think that way and I can very easily see Joe and Jane SixPack making that sort of an equation by watching what is going on in Somalia. "By God, we handle the niggers over there, we will handle the niggers here too". Seriously, that is the way a lot of people in this country think.

 Q: As we sit there and watch all this stuff roll out before our eyes, if you could look into your picture of it, where do you think we go from here and what is it going to look like in the next six years? 

A: It is going to get worse, I think, much worse. You know, as far as where we are going now, I am afraid that the Clinton administration is simply a hiatus, it's a respite. 

I think Clinton is already being handed signs of destabilization and unless people recognize the lessons of history, he is going to be destabilized. I seriously wonder about what sorts of signals might be being sent behind the scenes to Clinton. I mean, here, the area that the Secret Service used to store its vehicles has just been utilized to plant a major bomb. Who knows what was behind that. 

I've noted too, and I have more questions than answers about a lot of things, but I noted that in the 1980s, there was a lot of discussion about a proposal about gene splicing, an experiment in which e-coli, the bacterium that is implicated in this food poisoning in the Jack-in- the-Box restaurant, there was a genetic engineering experiment in which the gene which produced diphtheria toxin was going to be introduced into e-coli.

 There was a tremendous uproar over this because e-coli is the most omnipresent microorganism in the world. Every human, in fact virtually every mammal has large, copious quantities of e-coli in their intestines. It is all throughout the sewer system and if a genetically engineered variation of e-coli, featuring the diphtheria genes were unleashed into the population, this could produce havoc. 

There may be no connection whatsoever, but I noted that recently in this Jack-in-the-Box poisoning with e- coli that was implicated. And I noted that whatever this was, it was different than the usual food poisoning. I have worked in the restaurant business as a manager, a cook, a waiter, and food poisoning isn't contagious and some of these kids contracted this disease from other people who had eaten at the restaurants.

 And just stop and think for a minute what well-known political figure generates a lot of publicity in recent weeks over his trips to fast food restaurants. I wonder whether they may be sending a message to Bill Clinton. I note that in the summer of 1979, Jimmy Carter was considering a complete revamp of his administration and a complete readjustment of his policy and he made some public statements to the effect that he thought there was a conspiracy behind the assassination of president Kennedy. 

One thing I really noted, it got very little publicity, but he said "We are going to have to go all the way back to the assassination of president Kennedy to get this country right." That was an extraordinary thing for a seated president to say. No sooner was Jimmy Carter doing that than in May, it actually began before the summer of 1979, but on a trip to Los Angeles there was an aborted attempt on Jimmy Carter's life.

 Two gunmen that had come up from Mexico, named Ray Lee Harvey and Oswaldo Ortiz, in other words, Ray as in James Earl Ray and Lee Harvey as in Lee Harvey Oswald and Oswaldo Ortiz were arrested for stalking Jimmy Carter with a rifle. They just seem to have disappeared. There was no follow-up on the prosecution or anything like that. I suspect that a message was being sent to Jimmy Carter, and I wonder, and I am not saying this is the case, but among the questions I have, I never..the e-coli outbreak at Jack-in-the-Box.

 I just wonder if Bill Clinton might be getting told something today. "Listen Bill, you know, lot of kids eat at fast-food restaurants and if you don't want anything to happen to Chelsea, you know, or something to happen to Hillary, or something to happen to you, you better shape up. 

And it may be that all he has to do is avoid prosecuting the numerous scandals or avoid investigation of numerous scandals. But I am concerned about what I see. I also look at the juxtaposition of articles in the newspaper talking about Bill Clinton as the next Jimmy Carter. One Sunday edition of the Mercury, there was a big article talking about already it looks like Clinton is going to be the next Jimmy Carter, which is what I said, by the way, the week after Clinton got elected.

 Somebody accused me of fatalism, but right next to that, the Secret Service is really worried about how folksy Bill Clinton is and how he is really exposing himself to assassination by another one of our lone nuts. The two were juxtaposed. I didn't like the juxtaposition of those articles. 

Again, I am not saying this is, these are not statements I am making, they are questions I am asking. There are an awful lot of weird things happening and I wonder about the shooting at CIA headquarters. 

I wonder whether messages are being sent to Bill Clinton. Who the hell knows what he gets told late at night. A White House phone rings and someone says "Listen, Billy Baby, you see that shooting down at CIA headquarters?, well, a lot of shooting is going to happen at a lot of headquarters. You just stay the course, you don't look into this Iran-Contra, or Inslaw, or any of this other things too closely, or by God, you know, you are going to have an eternal flame at Arlington Cemetery yourself bucko, so watch your step."

 I noted, whether there is any connection or not, you know Bill Clinton visited, had actually met JFK when he was a youngster and he visited Kennedy's grave, the eternal flame, and knelt in silent prayer. I don't know if anybody noted what he brought to the grave site (a white rose).

 George Bush's intelligence nickname was "The White Rose" and Clinton delivered a white rose to the grave of John F. Kennedy. I don't know, it might have been just coincidence, there are coincidences. It may have been somebody was making a statement. It may be that Clinton had no idea but one of his intelligence people said, "Hey Bill, why don't you bring this to Kennedy's grave" knowing that it had a larger significance. May be complete BS, but again those are the things I wonder about, because I am convinced at this point there is a whole stratum of communication which the general public doesn't see. You know, these people talk to each other and I strongly suspect that Bill Clinton has had some cold water splashed in his face and this may be a component of communication. On the other hand, it may not be, it may be just coincidence. 

Q: I am 36 years old now and I grew up right here in this town, I served in the Vietnam war in the Marine Corps. My father was a Navy officer and I look back at all the things that have happened in the last 25 years and I wonder what the real motivations were and I actually think it goes before Kennedy. So could you possibly address what you think the motivations, the real motivations are for this. What has happened to us in the last 25 years. There has to be more to it than just greed and killing and money and power. I think there is a bigger picture there. 

A: Well, in terms of answering your question, I can't give you a quick answer in the course of the discussion this evening because really the answer to that question is the substance of my whole life's work and in turn I have incorporated the research of an awful lot of other people over the decades and attempted to display the spectrum of antifascist research. I am an antifascist researcher. The best that I could do for you would be to refer you to Radio Free America #37. Hardly a short answer, but that particular effort, which to date I consider my best piece of work and most important piece of work, really goes to explain the flow of history in the 20th century.

 That work is already making some waves in a number of different quarters. But the overall explanation is not a short one or a brief one. It is something that I have tried to portray in the other archive shows. In the next few weeks, I am going to be doing a program which is specifically going to be intended as an introduction or an epilogue to Radio Free America #37, in which I am going to explain some of the premises that I am operating on and I hope that will answer your question.

 But what I am going to be doing as the main element of that is to read the speech that Adolph Hitler gave before the Industry Club of Dusseldorf in 1931. It was that speech that won many of Germany's top industrialists over to Hitler's side. 

There were a number of reactionary political parties in Weimar Germany. The Nazi party became, ultimately, the choice of the industrialists for a variety of reasons.

 One of the main ones was that Hitler's speech before the Industry Club of Dusseldorf won them over, and to make a long story short, that speech basically maintained that democracy was inherently subversive and equated democracy with communism because, according to Hitler, if you allowed people political freedom, political democracy, they would use that to effect a redistribution of wealth, which Hitler said was counter- evolutionary, not counterrevolutionary, but counter-evolutionary, because, as Hitler put it, those who enjoy superior positions in society, wealthy industrialists and financiers, enjoy those positions because they are themselves superior and they have used their superior abilities to gain a superior position in society and that is a just situation. 

Sort of social Darwinism. He maintained it was subversive to allow democracy because if you allow democracy to people, they will use their political democracy to effect a redistribution of wealth and that is counter-evolutionary because it allows inferior people to gain a superior position in society and, of course, the top industrialists and financiers ate that up. That was just what they wanted to hear. That is as close as I could come to giving you an answer to your question. Yeah, it really is about greed and money and power. 

Q: I hope to hear more from you on Majestic 12 in the future. 

A: We are going to be moving in that direction. That is a UFO disinformation group and we are going to be talking about the whole UFO question as it relates to a lot of these things. Political and sociological implications of the UFO phenomenon and the ET myth in weeks to come. 

Q: I take it that you think that "they" are fascist elements and that they have garnered enough power to be able to call the president of the United States at night and threaten him? 

A: This is one of the questions that I have. I suspect, yes. I am convinced that they do send messages. How explicit this is, I can only guess. In other words, I wonder. The statements that I made, I want to make very clear, as I went into the discussion of the White Rose, etc., those things, yes I wonder what goes on outside of the public viewpoint, you know, when someone like Bill Clinton, who really was out of the loop, so to speak, even though some of the Contra support operation did happen in Arkansas on his watch, he is clearly not a national security insider ala George Bush. 

When you get a guy like that or a guy like Jimmy Carter, and Clinton had been backed by the same faction of the national security establishment that Carter was backed by, but it does not appear to be a controlling faction. Although one which has sufficient power to frustrate some of the designs of the dominant elements, which are exclusively fascist. 

It is a question I have again, the facts, you know, where Jimmy Carter says we better go back to the assassination of president Kennedy and then two lone nuts named Ray Lee Harvey and Oswald Ortiz show up and the thing that struck me as so unusual about that was that that case disappeared from the news. I do not know what happened to those guys, and nobody I know knows what happened to those guys. It was a big story one or two days and then that was it.

 I wonder whether Carter was being told "listen you stupid jerk, you want to go back to the assassination of president Kennedy, we will take you back, Cracker, we will take you all the way back". 

Q: I am just curious because I am a new listener to your radio program and this is the first of your public appearances that I have been at and if there is such a clear connection between the assassination of Kennedy and Martin and Malcolm (and Robert Kennedy and the shooting of George Wallace), then there has to be an equally clear group. 

If those incidences are interrelated and interconnected, there must be one source you are tracing this back to and so you are saying that there is a fascist element.

A: Yes, and a dominant one at this point. That is why I talked about the parallels between what happened in Germany and Japan with the assassination programs of the Black Reichswehr and the Patriotic Societies and compared that to the assassinations in the United States. 

Q: Just a reminder to people, it seems like every time a really top-notch black person stands up and become a national figure, they get undercut. I would remind people that it is not just Malcolm X and it isn't, you know, Martin Luther King. 

We are talking about Barbara Jordan. Something happened to her and I would sure like to know what it was. You know, she is not dead, but she is out of the picture. 

A: She was very against Robert Bork when he was being nominated to be Chief Justice.

Q: Barbara Jordan was absolutely brilliant and she had all the makings of being a really significant world leader and now she doesn't because of this incident that happened in the swimming pool, we don't know what it was. 

In addition to that, Harold Washington, something happened to him, something like Phil Burton. You know, we are talking about, I think, a real plan to make sure that there are no black leaders and, you know, we need to be aware that every time they stand up, they get undercut or killed or something happens. 

A: Yes, and not just black leaders, but progressive leaders of all types. In the beginning of the discussion this evening, I talked about the ones that had been shot to death. There are many other very curious deaths. 

Vernon Jordan, a member of Clinton's transition team, left from his position as head of the Urban League after being shot and critically wounded by a white supremacist. 

His predecessor, Whitney Young drowned while on a trip to Africa. There are a lot of very questionable deaths, ones we cannot say "yes, ipso facto, this is an assassination", but about which that question should be asked.

 I have a lot of questions about the death of Mickey Leland, the congressman from Texas, who had been very active on behalf of famine relief in Africa, which did not sit too well with some elements of our national security establishment. Even more importantly, Mickey Leland was chairman of the House Postal Oversight committee and had been very vocal in protest over the awarding of the contract to fly the Express Mail to Evergreen Airlines, which is a CIA-connected airline which bought out Intermountain Aviation, a CIA-Air proprietary. 

They were awarded the contract to fly the Express Mail despite the fact that they were not low bidder on the contract. Mickey Leland was outraged by this and was calling for a congressional investigation of how this happened. Unfortunately, that investigation never took place because Mickey Leland himself was express mailed over Ethiopia and died in the crash of a private plane there. Incidentally, Mickey Leland's death and disappearance were used to conduct the largest out-of-country search operation that the U.S. military air wings have ever been engaged in. 

At the time, whether or not there is a connection, at the time, Ethiopia was a Marxist country and obviously as such a target of U.S. covert operations. Again, bear in mind that when our national security establishment decides to move in any given direction, they do so when to move in that direction will scratch a number of different itches at different levels, simultaneously. 

That concludes the prepared portion of this broadcast. Now all of our archived broadcast shows are on permanent file with a tape duplication company. The name of that company is Archives on Audio. They are located at P.O. Box 170023, San Francisco, CA 94117. The phone number is (415) 346-1840. I should also mention that neither myself nor this station makes any money off of this announcement. This is FYI. This is Dave Emory (sp) thanking all the listeners for their contributions and encouraging them to tune in again for the next broadcast. Until then, take care. 


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by Sherman H. Skolnick


Over a period of more than four decades, my associates and I have learned a lot about two activities in particular. About reporters and journalists in the mass media. And about various movements and persons supposedly promoting equal rights.

Self-taught in Law and legal research, but not comfortable to become a member of the Bar, I became widely known in the 1960s. In Illinois, in the federal courts, I brought and won a whole series of voting cases to re-do malapportioned voting districts. Some voting districts had 50 per cent more people than other districts, diluting their vote. Although not an attorney, I was grudgingly allowed to represent the entire class of aggrieved voters. Because of various court hearings, I was often for a minute or so on the evening TV local news.

I constantly risked jail for so-called "contempt of court". Why? I often put the judges' financial corruption in their faces in Court. I documented, for example, how the Chief District Judge in one of my numerous voting cases, was an official of a so-called "foundation" set up as a money laundry by a known hoodlum and thus, the Chief Judge was subject to blackmail. [The Albert Parvin Foundation, of which a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, William O. Douglas, was the President.] When I confronted the Chief Judge in Court, he had two Court bailiffs suddenly grab my wheelchair and try to turn it upside down. This was witnessed by 18 news reporters in Court for the voting case. Their stories about this, if any, never got on the air or in print. My suit against the bailiffs for assault and battery was torpedoed by the banker-judges in Chicago's federal appeals court.They alleged in their published ruling [Skolnick vs. Guadagno et al.] that the Law does not permit damage cases against court personnel.

I became known as "Mr. One Man, One Vote", a take-off on the slogan for reapportionment. In those days this type of case required a special three-judge panel in the U.S. District Court. With such cases, I tied up 24 judges, more than all they had in the courthouse. The Judges were sore at me. Media types, who I got to know by way of such cases, seeing I am an independent, surviving on a shoe-string, and not tied to corporate interests, confided in me. In effect, I became their "Father Confessor". They knew I would risk jail but would never give out their identity in their lifetime. They communicated with me on the sly, sometimes at an out-of-the-way, all night eatery. I found out and fingered: 1. A CBS Network bigshot with a sideline of illegally selling babies from Europe to couples in the U.S. who could not have children. 2. An NBC Network Vice-President in the dope traffic. Hushed up, it was publicly instead blamed onto a lower level technician who was railroaded into prison as a scapegoat. 3. Hot items reporters are working on which they know endanger their jobs and their career in the media. They knew and know, that off-the-record, I will aid them in some way. 4. The buying and selling ot TV jobs. One TV reporter, with a three-year contract, said he cannot be fired but was. "I bought my job, it is mine, dammit. Don't you know of a lawyer that will sue?" He thus protested to me. Sensitive to his plight, I quietly told him such suits are not allowed, being against Public Policy. Sort of like a bank robber himself robbed by corrupt police on the way from the stick-up; he cannot sue for theft. As I found out from him and others, it is a wide-spread media policy: you have to pay 15 per cent in front in cash, of the first year's contract. One-third goes to the union business agent. One-third goes to the "celebrity" lawyer specializing in arranging such deals. [I fingered six such lawyers in Chicago.] And one-third of the bribe goes to the station manager or news director. The IRS is well aware of all this but uses the details as blackmail to get the mass media to say nice things about America's fearful Gestapo, the IRS.

In 1988, I got into a big ruckus with "60 Minutes" CBS Program boss Don Hewitt by confronting him with the details. His team vowed to keep me off the air forever and to shut me up. [Without public access Cable TV I would not be seen "on the air".]

An honest, hard-hitting reporter, Ted Smart, I knew from NBC's Chicago outlet, WMAQ-TV, Channel 5. "I got the goods, Sherman. I can prove it. The FBI was implicated in the assassination of Dr.King" he confided to me. "Ted, it's a death warrant and you know it. Cool it." I responded. My pal, Ted Smart, was murdered on the night before July 4, 1970. Another journalist, Louis Lomax, on the track of the same data, was murdered about three weeks later.

Playing an evil role as to the murder of Dr. King and its aftermath, was Rev. Jesse Jackson. He falsely claimed he had been up on the motel balcony and that Dr. King died in his arms. In 1975, Barbara Reynolds, a reporter for the Chicago Tribune, wrote a book about Rev. Jackson, "The Man, The Myth, and the Movement". It was loaded with eye-opening details. It surely painted Jesse as a charlatan and scoundrel. Such as, the tricks he used to reportedly put the arm on local businesses. The tricks he used to replace Dr. King. Some claim the reputed Dr. King blood on Jesse's shirt was actually chicken blood.

As the book was coming out, I spoke to Barbara Reynolds. She met me at a restaurant near Tribune Tower. She kept looking apprehensively at the door. "Jesse is going to run me out of this town. I can't stay here anymore" she told me. Someone came to the door and looked right at her. Frightened, she fled our table. Three weeks after the publication of her book, it was withdrawn. I have one of the few copies of the original book. In the early 1990s, Barbara Reynolds finally went public with what happened to her and her long-suppressed book. The Establishment had been plainly protecting their man, Rev. Jackson. She told of her plight while on "Tony Brown's Journal" TV Program. About that time her book was re-issued but not widely mentioned.

A former U.S. Justice Department official, who once held a key position, responded to my questions about the Rev. Jesse Jackson. "I examined Jesse's secret file locked up in our office. I shouldn't be talking about this", he leaned over and spoke in a low voice. "It was a stack of paper several feet high", he added. Impatient, I asked, "So what did it show?" And he confirmed what I found out from other sources over the years,"Jesse has been an FBI informant most of his adult life". "So he's a government fink" I added. "Absolutely. My boss knew, I knew it" he said as he cut-off the discussion.

Starting about 1970, my associates and I became very knowledgeable about the financial dirty business of Rev.Jackson. We had volunteered as consultants to a group made up of 25 thousand would-be home owners, Afro-Americans. They called themselves the South Side Contract Buyers League. In those years, mortgage companies "red-lined" certain neighborhoods, such as where blacks lived. No mortgages were to be issued in such areas. So, desperate to live in their own home instead of an apartment, the blacks were forced to buy "on contract". An examination of the area and the contracts showed the blacks were paying TWICE THE MARKET PRICE for the homes they were occupying. It was blatant racial discrimination.

The South Side Contract Buyers League had an office a few feet away from Jesse Jackson's office which was an abandoned movie theater. For a while Jesse paid no attention to them. He failed their repeated requests for aid. The Buyers League members organized a payment boycott. One morning the Cook County Sheriff, Joe Woods [brother of Rose Mary Woods, Nixon's secretary that reportedly doctored up the mysterious 18-1/2 minute Watergate tape] was set to evict Buyers League members, all at once, for engaging in a payment boycott. For that purpose, the Sheriff arranged with the phone company and the electric company to shut off the entire area so blacks would have no lights and could not communicate with each other about the mass eviction. Residents in the area who were not even members of the group also had their phones and electric all cut off. After the eviction, the whole area looked like a war zone. Household goods scattered on the street. Fronts of houses crashed in. Windows and doors smashed, all around the house.

The leaders of the Buyers League found out that my associates and I were investigating and researching the lawyers who sold them out in Court, the banker-judges trying to control the blacks, and such. So I was invited to be the guest speaker at a huge mass meeting in a large Church. There was about 650 people packed in there. I detailed to them the dirty financial forces and public officials that were their sworn enemies, and what I suggested be done.

As I continued to make suggestions and show up at most every session in Court, Rev. Jesse Jackson pulled a trick on the leaders of the Buyers League, to get them falsely jailed. He had a group of ruffians, he called "Black Men Moving", who filled up the Courtroom and shouted slogans and would not be still, and stood next to the leaders of the Buyers League. Instead of blaming Jesse who was present, the Judge arrested the leadership and had them locked up in the basement of the Courthouse. At that point, Jesse crossed the street to the Mayor's office apparently to work a deal to take over the Buyers League now that the leaders were jailed.

A group of Buyers League women showed up as I was sitting in front of Jesse in the Mayor's outer office. "Rev.Jackson, you do not represent the Buyers League". Jesse must have thought I was just another wilted, foolish "liberal", and snarled at me and shouted, "What are you doing here white face?" Although angered how he was trying to psych me out with black-white slogans, I simply said, "Rev. Jackson, the leaders have told me that you repeatedly refused to help them. Why?"

Jesse went into the Mayor's inner office as the women, by now alarmed, pounded on the Mayor's office door, "Jesse, come out of there! YOU are NOT our leader!" they screamed at the door. As Jesse came out, he walked past me, and with a vicious look, turned to me, "I am going to get you for this!" Little if anything about this was mentioned in print or on the air. But my confronting Jesse on his trick apparently got the Buyers League leaders released from the court basement jail.

The various strategies that I suggested resulted in the Buyers League members being issued mortgages at half the price of the contracts. That is, a mortgage for the true, not inflated, value of the homes.

Resentment built up, however, against Rev. Jesse Jackson in the black community. Well-informed black business people began meeting me on the sly. I became an authority on Jesse's rise to be a multi-millionaire. We compiled files with details. The Federal Government apparently gave him a 16-room house to live in a swank neighborhood not far from the University of Chicago. The pressfakers often said Jesse lives in the "ghetto". They never showed a picture of his mansion.

Jesse reportedly owned a private garbage truck business, Cross City Scavengers. The traditional mafia apparently made a deal with him, allowing him to horn in on their trade. They reportedly allowed him to empty off his garbage trucks in dumps under the control of the Mob. Jesse reportedly shook down a major food store chain in Chicago, claiming "discrimination". They apparently set him up in numerous businesses as a pay-off, concealed from the IRS. He reportedly got a major interest in a dairy that supplied--now get this--Grade "B" milk instead of Grade "A", foisted by strong-arm methods on certain stores and restaurants. He likewise used his gangster-like methods to reportedly force his orange juice company products on various stores.

As a mobster-type shakedown, Jesse began marching his troops on a near lakefront restaurant that had a black cook who was QUITE SATISFIED, WELL-PAID, and had no grievance. Jesse demanded the restaurant owner use his Grade "B" milk which the owner refused. Jesse demanded that the owner use Jesse's garbage removal services at TWICE THE RATE PER BARREL as charged by others in the industry. Jesse demanded that the restaurant use his pesticide services.

The restaurant owner told me how he got rid of Jesse's shakedown. He matter-of-factly pointed out, "The owner of this building where I lease space for my restaurant is a known hoodlum. He threatened to have Jesse's office bombed. You know, gangster versus gangster, stay out of my territory, you understand."

That ended the problem. A gangster firm itself took over the restaurant later and the nearby motel.

A downtown bank that had Jesse's secret accounts interested me, Amalgamated Bank and Trust. They are a long-time highly-political, reputed mob front. At great risk to themselves and their jobs, some of the bank clerks, on the sly, informed us of how Jesse pulls up in his Rolls Royce, is taken downstairs by a Bank Director especially assigned to reportedly hide Jesse's transactions, and everyone that works at that Bank is warned that they see nothing.

A small, elite team of federal agents were interested in all these financial rackets. About 1972, using our numerous details and witnessess, they got Rev.Jesse Jackson indicted on federal criminal charges of massive tax evasion and extortion done in the name of human rights. Jesse's cronies reportedly paid 850 thousand dollars to the Nixon White House to secretly quash the indictment. The money reportedly was conveyed through an Indiana GOP National Committeeman. The Chief Federal Prosecutor set to proceed with the prosecution, was forced out of his office.

I and two friends of mine in the media came to a secret meeting. A former member of the elite federal team ticked off to us how they got Jesse indicted, how he corruptly squelched the charges, and how the matter was covered up. One of the media people got himself a good job with the Wall Street Journal and never wrote what he found out. Do some get their jobs by blackmailing others? The other reporter, from ABC Network, died in a sabotaged plane crash enroute to a Mid-East assignment. His friends are mad how he was steered onto that doomed plane. And I dare mention all of this.

In session 1975-76, was the House Subcommittee on Assassinations, delving into the murders of President Kennedy and Dr. King. A staff member who I knew told me of records they had which will be locked up and not included in the Subcommittee's Report. The records show, he said, that the FBI hand-picked Rev. Jesse Jackson to replace Dr. King BEFORE King was assassinated BY THE FBI. That Dr. King opposed the Viet Nam War and was threatening to interfere with U.S. foreign policy. Dr. King in a speech he made exactly one year prior to his death said he planned to go to Viet Nam to tell black GIs they should not be killing yellow-skinned people in someone else's civil war. The staff member led me to understand that the records take the position that Rev. Jesse Jackson is acceptable to Federal agencies like the FBI and CIA, and Dr. King, perceived as a national security risk, was not. These bombshell disclosures will not be publicly divulged for thirty years, he told me.

So, was the late Ted Smart, a murdered reporter, correct? What did Louis Lomax. another murdered reporter, find out? Oh, so you are naive and you think reporters are only murdered in Mexico and Third World countries. Is Barbara Reynolds correct in her book? Rev. Jesse Jackson has plenty to consider and plenty to conceal. Reports are circulating that a key Chinese witness is set to testify that the Clinton White House demanded he come up with several million dollars from Bejing, for the political ambitions of Jesse's son, Jesse Jackson, Jr., a U.S. Congressman from Chicago's south side. Junior before becoming a Congressman, worked for the mafia-linked Hotel Workers Union. When grilled on this, on a radio show, Jesse Jr. said he never heard of the mobster who headed the Union for which Junior worked. Yet Junior was paid 59 thousand dollars a year as an alleged "organizer". Some contend Junior performed little, if any work.

The bottom line: was reputed FBI stool pigeon, Rev. Jesse Jackson, complicit in the murder of Dr. King, whose position Jesse coveted? Stay tuned. More details in further stories on this subject.

Reproduced with permission from Skolnick's Report


Memphis jury finds that a conspiracy led to Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination

By Helen Halyard
17 December 1999

On December 8 a jury in Memphis, Tennessee returned a verdict that civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. was the victim of an assassination conspiracy and did not die at the hands of a lone gunman.

The verdict followed a three-week trial of a wrongful death lawsuit which the King family filed last year against former Memphis cafe owner Loyd Jowers. According to the suit, Jowers was part of a plot to murder the civil rights leader. King was shot and killed at the Lorraine Motel on April 4, 1968.

In a 1993 television interview with ABC News, Jowers, now 73, reported that mobsters offered him $100,000 to have King killed. Since the interview Jowers has changed his story several times. He was unable to testify at the trial due to illness. His attorney, Lewis Garrison, told the jurors they could reasonably conclude King was the victim of a conspiracy in which his client was involved, but that his role was minor.

At the end of the trial a number of jurors commented that they were convinced by the evidence that there was a conspiracy. Summing up the sentiment of the jurors, one remarked, “We all thought it was a kind of cut and dried case and that there were a lot of people involved.”

The major news media paid scant attention to the trial and portrayed the verdict as having little significance. Reports on the outcome of the trial appearing in the New York Times, for example, have been dismissive of theories of a broad conspiracy involving government agencies.

A column by Nathan Lewin in the December 11 issue of the Times, entitled “Putting History On Trial,” denounced civil trials as a means of judging history. Lewin, now a Washington attorney, was deputy assistant attorney general in the civil rights division of the Justice Department at the time of King's assassination.

While Lewin and others in the political establishment flatly reject conspiracy theories in the King assassination, a majority of the American population are inclined to believe that more than one gunman was involved, and many give credence to allegations of complicity on the part of government agencies.

Attorney William Pepper, former lawyer of James Earl Ray, who was sentenced to prison as the lone gunman in the King murder, has investigated the circumstances behind the assassination for the past 20 years. In 1995 he published the book Orders to Kill, which alleges involvement by the Mafia, the FBI, the CIA and the military in the assassination.

Whether or not one accepts Pepper's theories, to rule out a priori some form of conspiracy, including one involving elements within the state apparatus, is, at the very least, no more objective than the various conspiracy theories that have been advanced. An investigation into the killing by the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1978 concluded that while Ray was the gunmen, there was a 95 percent probability that others were involved.

The assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. took place in the midst of mass social protests and urban upheavals involving working people, youth and students who opposed racial discrimination, poverty and America's involvement in the Vietnam war. Shortly before King was killed he publicly denounced the war and began to address social issues, such as poverty, that went beyond the pervasive discrimination that confronted African Americans. He was in Memphis in 1968 to lead a march of 1,300 sanitation workers on strike for better working conditions, wages and benefits.

James Earl Ray was picked up in London several months after King's assassination and returned to the United States. He confessed to the crime in March 1969 and received a 99-year sentence. He recanted his confession three days after he made it, and for the next 29 years fought to rescind his guilty plea. State and federal courts upheld the plea on eight separate occasions. Ray met with Martin Luther King, Jr.'s son Dexter in a prison hospital shortly before he died of liver disease in 1998 and told the son of the civil rights leader that he was not responsible for his father's death.

After Ray's death William Pepper joined forces with the King family to file the wrongful death suit. Since Jowers had stated that he hired a man to do the killing, the liability charges were filed against him.

In the course of the trial 70 witnesses were presented by the defense. Among them were members of King's family; the brother of James Earl Ray; Walter Fauntroy, formerly a member of the House Select Committee on Assassinations; and New York-based attorney and media expert William Schapp.

Much of the testimony focused on the extent of operations carried out by the FBI against King and those involved in civil rights struggles. On August 25, 1967, FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover approved a major counterintelligence program, Cointelpro, to disrupt and discredit left-wing organizations, civil rights demonstrators and anti-war protesters. Hoover directed operations against King in an effort to discredit his leadership and break up the movement.

Convinced that King was a communist, Hoover described him as “the most dangerous man in America, and a moral degenerate,” and was obsessed with following King's activities. Dozens of internal FBI memoranda document the surveillance and harassment of King. In one incident King's alleged “sexual escapades” were used in an attempt to blackmail him. Shortly before the assassination Hoover distributed an internal memo to the FBI calling for King's “removal from the national scene.”

At the trial Fauntroy testified that while he believed Ray was the shooter, he felt that Ray did not act alone. Fauntroy expressed dissatisfaction with the investigation carried out by the House Select Committee, noting that it was denied access to FBI files on the King murder and was unaware that US Army operatives had King under surveillance at the time of his death.

Following the issuance of the House Select Committee's final report in 1979, Committee Chairman Louis Stokes and Chief Counsel G. Robert Blakey ordered that all of the backup records, documents, unpublished transcripts and investigative data be locked up for the next 50 years.

Jurors saw the videotaped deposition of Jack Terrel, formerly of the US military, who testified that he had a conversation with a military operations specialist who told him that he was assigned to a triangular shoot team that had a special mission in Memphis around the time of King's death. Terrel stated that the specialist was never told about the specifics of the mission, and that the team was pulled out of Memphis at the last minute.

Attorney William Schaap explained how the media has been used historically by the government to disseminate information, or, more precisely, misinformation. According to Schapp, the FBI under Hoover's direction infiltrated newspapers around the world and persuaded them in the 1960s to run stories that discredited King. Schaap commented on the lack of media attention to the wrongful death suit, saying, “It's amazing how much psychological power the dissemination of false information has after 30 years.”

Following the verdict the King family told a press conference that they were satisfied with its results. The youngest son, Dexter King, remarked, “This is what we have always wanted. This is history.”

Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder told the press that the Memphis verdict would have no impact on an ongoing Justice Department review of the King assassination. The Justice Department, which initiated a review of the case last year at the request of King's widow Coretta Scott King, is expected to issue its report shortly. According to Holder it is very unlikely that criminal charges will be brought or that the government will alter its position James Earl Ray was the lone gunman and that there was no governmental conspiracy involved in the King assassination.



Thirty years since the assassination of Martin Luther King

By Helen Halyard
4 April 1998

Thirty years ago, on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. died after being shot by an assassin in Memphis, Tennessee.

King was unquestionably one of the most powerful orators of twentieth century America and a man of great personal courage. He was able to give voice to the passionate strivings of millions of people to throw off the shackles of racial discrimination. Unlike those within today's official civil rights leadership who seek to cash in on his memory, King was an honest man who was not driven by financial gain.

Three decades after his assassination there are no shortage of tributes in the news media and on television, but during King's lifetime he was reviled, spied upon and ultimately targeted for murder. Today, the same forces that sought to undermine his struggle and, directly or indirectly, bear responsibility for his assassination, seek to transform him into a harmless icon.

Workers, students and young people should not allow themselves to be taken in by the hypocritical tributes that the government organizes in King's name. Today they present the martyred civil rights leader as a "great African-American," with the aim of covering up the continued racial discrimination that exists in capitalist society. They celebrate precisely the weakest side of King's legacy, his religious pacifism, in an attempt to promote the passive acceptance of social inequality, not only for black workers, but for the working class as a whole.

For the working class and oppressed masses internationally, this anniversary must serve as the occasion to soberly analyze the lessons of the movement which King led in order to prepare for the struggles to come.

Heroic sacrifices

Masses of people participated in the movement for civil rights, the great majority of them black workers and youth, but they included thousands of all races, especially young people, who were inspired by the goals of integration, racial equality and democratic rights for all. They stood up to enormous odds and made heroic sacrifices. Many were killed, and many more were beaten, jailed and victimized.

The leadership of this movement, however, was petty bourgeois in its class makeup and thoroughly reformist in its political outlook and program. King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference based itself on the perspective that racial equality and social and economic justice for black people could be achieved without challenging the existence of capitalist property relations and the present government institutions. From the Montgomery bus boycott through to the marches into Cicero, Illinois, the strategy of King and the SCLC was to mobilize nonviolent demonstrations and acts of civil disobedience for the purpose of pressuring the government into enacting reforms.

Why was it that the struggle against racial inequality developed under the leadership of reformists and Baptist preachers, rather than more radical and revolutionary forces? Much of the answer lies in the bankruptcy of the official labor movement.

The CIO of the 1930s was able to build mass industrial unions only through a bitter battle against the attempts by the employers to pit white workers against black. This struggle produced real gains, in terms of economic conditions, racial equality and working class solidarity.

But this movement was aborted by its bureaucratic and Stalinist leadership and brought under the domination of the capitalist state and the Democratic Party. The trade union leaders with assistance from the Stalinists of the Communist Party sought at all costs to prevent the working class from breaking with the capitalist parties and establishing an independent mass party of labor.

In 1955, the year Martin Luther King led the Montgomery bus boycott, the CIO merged with the AFL to form the pro-capitalist bureaucratic apparatus known as the AFL-CIO. Just as the craft union bureaucrats of the old AFL saw the industrial worker of the 1930s as "the garbage at labor's doorstep," so the Meany leadership of the AFL-CIO bureaucracy treated the black worker with open disdain. Racial discrimination was widely practiced in the unions themselves, and the entire bureaucracy supported the Democratic Party, the pillar of segregation in the South.

Under these conditions the struggle for civil rights developed outside of and apart from the trade union organizations, which at that time embraced nearly 35 percent of the work force. The program of the civil rights movement remained on the level of bourgeois democratic demands.

Following the social struggles of the 1960s, legislation was drafted to formally dismantle the hated system of Jim Crow segregation and legally sanctioned discrimination. The concept of "separate but equal" education was struck down. Voting rights were established for all. Formal equality was guaranteed by law.

However, in drawing up a balance sheet 30 years after King's assassination, the limitations of the victories achieved by the movement he led are more apparent then ever. An objective assessment points to the necessity of critically examining the political program that guided his movement.

Essential problems unresolved

Separating the struggle for legal equality from a fight against the capitalist system responsible for racial discrimination and oppression could at best produce reforms that left the essential problems unresolved. It was impossible to attain social equality under conditions of capitalist private ownership and gross economic inequality.

Official legal barriers to equality were dismantled, making it possible for a thin layer of black politicians, professionals and administrators to rise into positions of influence and privilege. This top 5 percent of America's black population has been deliberately cultivated by the ruling class--thriving under the banner of "affirmative action." But this was the slogan of Richard Nixon, not Martin Luther King.

This privileged layer has been promoted as another line of defense for capitalism against the increasingly impoverished masses. Such is the essential role played by the black elected officials, police chiefs and administrators who have taken office in one after another of the country's biggest cities.

While the proportion of black families earning $75,000 and above grew significantly from 1970 to 1997, during this same time the number living in extreme poverty also increased. Half of black women in America are heads of households, and 50 percent of these live with their children in conditions of abject poverty. There are more black youth in America's jail cells than there are attending college.

Martin Luther King, Jr. stood head and shoulders above Jesse Jackson and other charlatans who, in the name of "civil rights," seek privileged positions as advisers and spokesmen for corporate America. Nonetheless, there was a logic to his class program and outlook which led inexorably from the idealism of the 1950s to the political skullduggery of the Al Sharptons of today. In different forms, similar processes of decay have affected not only the civil rights movement, but the trade unions, the feminist and women's groups, and all those organizations which sought to make the profit system more democratic while accepting its basic structure.

Given this experience, what is the road forward today in the fight against racial discrimination, as well as the economic and social deprivation facing growing numbers of workers, black and white? The road of King's movement--of appeals for legal remedies and political reforms under capitalism--is clearly a blind alley.

American capitalism's decline

It was possible for the civil rights movement to win significant gains in the 1950s and 1960s, despite its reformist program, because American capitalism was enjoying the heyday of the post-World War II economic boom. This made it possible to extend concessions to even the most impoverished sections of the working class.

But such reforms and concessions are today beyond the reach of the ruling class. The economic position of the United States has deteriorated over the past 30 years. Globalized production has intensified the struggle between the United States and its capitalist rivals for control of markets and cheap sources of labor.

In country after country social welfare programs, public education and basic democratic rights are being systematically destroyed. Within this context, the capitalist class foments racial poison to divide workers and justify the conditions of mass poverty and oppression which its system creates.

The bankruptcy of reformism and the inability of capitalism to solve any of the fundamental problems facing masses of people have led to the growth of right-wing and nationalist politics all over the world. In the United States sections of the black middle class promote cultural nationalism, "black capitalism" and the demand for "black control of the black community."

Founded on the acceptance of racial divisions, this ideology defends the interests of a privileged stratum of the black petty bourgeoisie. Under conditions of growing social inequality affecting broad masses of workers, black nationalist politics serve to split the working class. Ultimately, the realization of the nationalists' program would yield the same bloody results in America that the politics of ethno-communalism have produced in the former Yugoslavia.

The overriding lesson which must be drawn from the fate of the civil rights movement is the necessity to revive the workers movement on the basis of socialist internationalism and establish its political independence from the capitalist class. It is in this way that genuine social and economic equality for all workers, as well as legal equality, can be achieved. Different sections of the working class--white, black, Hispanic and immigrant--must not fight each other over jobs, schools and housing. Rather they must unite to reorganize society on socialist foundations so that decent and ever-improving living standards can be provided for all.

 Taken From WSWS:

World Socialist Web Site




Malcolm X Assassination: The Disappearing Suspect



>>> From The Assassination of Malcolm X (third edition) by George Breitman, Herman Porter, and Baxter Smith (Pathfinder Press, 1991):

Certain things seem agreed upon by everybody: The Organization of Afro-American Unity had scheduled a rally on Sunday afternoon, February 21, at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. This was one week after Malcolm's home was fire-bombed and he and his family narrowly escaped injury or death. People entering the rally were not searched. On the other hand, they were all scrutinized by OAAU aides as they entered the hall.

Malcolm had just begun to speak when two men began a scuffle deliberately designed to distract the attention of Malcolm's guards. Three men rushed toward Malcolm, opening fire and wounding him mortally; they then ran out of the ballroom, pursued by several of Malcolm's supporters.

Police said that one of the three, identified later as Talmadge Hayer, twenty-two, of Paterson, New Jersey, had received a bullet in the leg by the time he got to the exit of the building. The police also alleged that he had been wounded by Reuben Francis, a Malcolm guard. Hayer was seized outside the building by the people pursuing him. So was another man. The people began to beat and kick Hayer and the second man. Police arrived and rescued the two being beaten, taking them away from the crowd. The third man got away. He got away because the crowd did not catch him. Hayer and the second man also would have got away if the crowd hadn't caught and held them until the police showed up.

Now let us turn to the New York Herald Tribune dated Monday, February 22 [1965]. This is a morning paper, which means that the first edition of the paper dated Monday actually appeared Sunday evening, a few hours after the killing. The top headline in the first (city) edition reads: "Malcolm X Slain by Gunmen as 400 in Ballroom Watch." The subhead, over the lead article by Jimmy Breslin, reads: "Police Rescue Two Suspects."

Breslin's story in this edition reports that Hayer was "taken to Bellevue Prison Ward and was sealed off by a dozen policemen. The other suspect was taken to the Wadsworth Avenue precinct, where the city's top policemen immediately converged and began one of the heaviest homicide investigations this city has ever seen."

Next we turn to a later (late city) edition of the same paper for the same day. The top headline is unchanged. But the subhead is different. This time it reads, "Police Rescue One Suspect." The "second" suspect has dropped not only out of the headline, but out of Breslin's story too. Nothing about his being caught and beaten by the crowd, nothing about his being rescued by the police, nothing about his being taken to the Wadsworth station, nothing about the city's top police converging on that station. Not only does he disappear from Breslin's story in the late city edition, but he disappears from the Herald Tribune altogether from that date to this.

Perhaps the whole thing never happened? Perhaps Breslin, in the heat of the moment, had in his first story reported a mere rumor as a fact, and, being unable to verify it, decided not to repeat it in later editions?

But there are three morning papers in New York, and in their first editions they all said it happened.

For example, let us examine the first (city) edition of the New York Times for February 22. The subhead is very clear: "Police Hold Two for Questioning." From the Times's city edition, we even learn the name of the cop who captured the "second" man. It is Patrolman Thomas Hoy, who is quoted as saying he had "grabbed a suspect" being chased by some people.

But when we turn to the late city edition of the same Times, printed only a few hours later, we find that its subhead, too, has changed. It now reads: "One Is Held in Killing." But the story hasn't yet been changed altogether. Patrolman Hoy still remains in the story , and so does the "second" man who has dropped out of the subhead. In fact, the story has more about Hoy than it had in the city edition.

This time the Times reports: "'As I brought him to the front of the ballroom, the crowd began beating me and the suspect,' Patrolman Hoy said. He said he put this man--not otherwise identified later for newsmen--into a police car to be taken to the Wadsworth Avenue station." Then Hoy's captive disappears from the Times as completely and as permanently as he did from the Herald Tribune, and from all the other daily papers. But there cannot be any doubt in the mind of anyone reading the accounts I have cited that a second man was captured and taken away by the police.

Who was he?

Why did the press lose interest in him so suddenly, at a time that it was filling its pages with all kinds of material about the murder, including the silliest trivialities and wildest rumors?

[text copyright 1976, 1991 Pathfinder Press]



The Martin Luther King Conspiracy

Exposed in Memphis

by Jim Douglass

MLK dream-speech

Spring 2000
Probe Magazine

Perhaps the lesson of the King assassination is that our government understands the power of nonviolence better than we do, or better than we want to. In the spring of 1968, when Martin King was marching (and Robert Kennedy was campaigning), King was determined that massive, nonviolent civil disobedience would end the domination of democracy by corporate and military power. The powers that be took Martin Luther King seriously. They dealt with him in Memphis.
        Thirty-two years after Memphis, we know that the government that now honors Dr. King with a national holiday also killed him. As will once again become evident when the Justice Department releases the findings of its "limited re-investigation" into King's death, the government (as a footsoldier of corporate power) is continuing its cover-up -- just as it continues to do in the closely related murders of John and Robert Kennedy and Malcolm X... Read this extensive article at :


Martin Luther King Assassination, New Evidence



Martin Luther King Jr Assassination - New Evidence of a Government Conspiracy-
A mix of clips



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The Martin Luther King jr. Conspiracy Exposed In Memphis






















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