beforehand: Since this article first
appeared knowledge about this group has greatly expanded. Therefore I suggest
you also take a look at the
where the origins of this group and its influence is discussed in more detail.
past front page articles
more information can be found on the templar, Rosicrucian, and Masonic
influences within this group. I also suggest you take a look at
this chart, which has been put together by looking at the individual
biographies of the Pilgrims Society members.
Even today it's members consist of the
wealthiest businessman and the most influential politicians. It was erected over
a century ago and meets at least 2 or 3 times a year. Still, 99% of the world
has never heard of it. We're talking about the Pilgrims Society. An aristocratic
Anglo-American dining club who's members keep themselves informed by inviting
politicians to make a speech. The primary purpose of this club is to keep the
ties between the United States and Britain as strong as possible. The official
reason was, and is, that the forefathers of most Americans from the Virginia and
New York area emigrated from the British Isles, therefore they share a common
heritage. They are blood brothers so to speak. Of course, the obvious reason was
to form an unofficial alliance with the United States to improve the strained
relations and to vastly increase the powers of the dwindling British empire. The
heart of the British empire and the later British Commonwealth became the
Pilgrims Society, it's philosophies dominated by the executives of the upcoming
mega corporations, largely located in the City of London and the city of New
||The London chapter of the Pilgrims
Society was established on July 11, 1902, followed by a New York chapter on
January 13, 1903. It's patron is the British monarch, who has plenty of
representatives attending the meetings. A member of the Royal family usually
attends the London diners.
you'll find out by looking at the membership list, the Pilgrims Society has
clearly fused together the business centers of New York and London, together
with a large portion of the political centers of both nations. Ninety
percent of the American members are top-level bankers and businessmen from
New York city.
Only a couple of Pilgrims own or chair
companies with headquarters in Boston or Philadelphia. Businesses that have
their headquarters in any other location than this small part of the north-east
corner of the United States don't seem to be represented at all (do keep in mind
that recent data is sketchy). Relatively few government officials from
Washington are recruited into the Pilgrims Society. Officials from outside the
UK or US visit the club occasionally. In the past they usually came from
countries incorporated within the British Empire or the Commonwealth, most
notably Canada and Australia.
A mistake usually made when people
refer to this society, is when they call it the 'Pilgrim Society', because this
name hasn't been used that often. The most often used name is the 'Pilgrims
Society', sometimes spelled as 'Pilgrim's Society'. You might think this isn't
such a big deal, but when you search the internet or some archives for the
'Pilgrim Society', you will hardly find any official sources, simply because
they all refer to the 'Pilgrims Society'. The name 'Pilgrims Society' is also
unique, so you won't confuse it with this
one. Also try
searching on 'The Pilgrims' or more specifically, the 'Pilgrims of the United
States' and the 'Pilgrims of the United Kingdom'/'Pilgrims of Great Britain'.
The club is secret. It might be one of
those 'open-secrets', but it's secret nonetheless. If it wasn't, we would have
read about it in the history books, we would know all the details of the
meetings, and we would have membership lists in the public domain. It is
possible to find quite a bit of information in regular newspaper archives, but
you really have to look for it. It takes forever to piece the story together.
For example, The Scotsman made numerous references to it in the first half of
the century (archives are only available up to 1950 atm). Time Magazine made
them much less, but still referred to the club once every few years. After 1958,
Time only mentioned the club 2 or 3 times, even though meetings continued as
usual. Other newspapers in the U.S., like the New York Times and the Washington
Post have referred the Pilgrims at times. The Wall Street Journal on the other
hand never mentioned a whole lot about this dining club at any time in the past
century. The Times of London mentioned the society a couple of times in the past
10 years, even though, as all the other papers, it didn't give many details
about who's attending. Most other newspapers, including the Scotsman, New York
Post, Washington Times, or even the Guardian, seem to have been (almost)
completely silent about the Pilgrims in the last 5 to 7 years (that's how far
the digital archives go back). In other countries it's virtually impossible to
get any information on the Pilgrims. Not one large Dutch newspaper has mentioned
the name in the past 20 years. References in German or French newspapers are
just as uncommon. One thing you actually càn find, is different speeches on
official websites; One at NATO, another one at the State Department, and yet
another one from 1999 on the MoD website. They all deal with one little speech
and when you ask for some background information you won't get any replies. And
that's strange. Maybe it's done to give people the impression there's nothing
unusual about the club. Indeed, looking at the speeches there certainly isn't.
All they do is talk about regular pro-NATO politics and kiss up to their
"brothers" on the other side of the ocean. Two recent examples:
||January 2002, Lord Robertson, 'NATO
after September 11'
||November 2002, Richard Boucher on
Foreign policy, the EU, and NATO
You can find other speeches in the
references at the bottom of this article. Of course, it's probably not because
of the speeches that the Pilgrims Society keeps itself out of the public eye.
More likely it's because of who's being informed and for what purpose. Also,
it's obvious that members discuss a lot of other business among themselves.
More in depth
|As already stated, those who own or
run the major banking houses, law firms, and insurance companies in the
London and New York area will be invited to join, together with a few very
specific government officials. This always includes the president of the
United States, the U.S. Secretary of State and the U.S. ambassador to Great
Britain. On the right you can see which other delegates traditionally are
recruited into Pilgrims. Chancellors, Chief Justices, and Attorney Generals
seem to be frequent members also. Occasional exceptions have been made to
allow writers, composers and art collectors into the society. An example of
that was Mark Twain. The patron of the
Scanned by Charles Savoie of
|Pilgrims Society is the
king or queen of England and a member from the royal family usually attends
the Pilgrim dinners in Great Britain.
That's basically all there is to this
Pilgrims Society; it's a dining club. Several times a year a dinner is planned
and the board chooses which members it will invite this time, usually somewhere
between 300 and 500. A few additional people are invited to hold a speech on a
variety of political topics and someone is made the guest of honor. This guest
of honor is usually a new member or a Pilgrim who has accomplished something
worth remembering. In addition, the chairman of the Society (in Britain it is
Robert M. Worcester atm) might give a speech to the CFR or the RIIA once in a
while. As already demonstrated, the speeches are both boring and interesting at
the same time. Boring because of their substance, and interesting because they
show us that Pilgrims, as a whole, aren't privy to many state secrets.
||A great example of the cooperation
between the London and American Pilgrims is theLondon Bush House, which was
ordered to be built in 1919 by Pilgrim Irving T. Bush, a N.Y. businessman.
At the time it was the most expensive building in the world and was meant to
be an Anglo-American trade center where buyers could purchase goods in one
place. It lost it's original function after a couple of decades, but still
exists today as an office to the BBC World Service. Above the entrance
there's a large statue, which represents this Anglo-American cooperation.
Britain is represented on the left by
the lions, the USA is represented on the right by the Eagle. The Celtic cross
indicates their common heritage. The torch can represent freedom, wisdom,
victory, or something along that line. Below the statue you'll find the
inscription "To the friendship of English Speaking Peoples".
The Pilgrims Society is allied
which is an organization that promotes the use of the English language all over
the world. The patron is the English queen and the president is prince Philip.
The chairman, as far as we know, is always a member of the Pilgrims.
The institutions the Pilgrims
|All the important members of the
1910 Jekyll Island meeting were Pilgrims; Vanderlip, Strong, Warburg,
Davison, Norton, and Aldrich. Senator Aldrich's closest ally in congress,
Edward B. Vreeland, was a Pilgrim too, together with his brother. Vreeland
helped Aldrich establish a privately owned central bank. Of course, J.P.
Morgan, George F. Baker, John D. Rockefeller, and Jacob Schiff were members
also. Keep in mind these people were often competing with each other and
weren't necessarily friends, as so many (conspiracy-oriented) people seem to
|E. Gerald Corrigan
|William J. McDonough
= confirmed Pilgrim
Pilgrim-presidents of the New York
Federal Reserve Bank cover the period from 1914 to 1979. The 4 presidents since
then have not been members as far as we know, although that's probably because
of a lack of recent data. Pilgrim-chairmen of the New York Federal Reserve cover
almost the entire period from the 1920s up to 1990, so we can safely assume that
the New York Federal Reserve Bank is owned by the Pilgrims. That's not that
unusual, because New York itself is Pilgrims property.
Because the Pilgrims have a large
influence on Washington politics, it would be interesting to see if they have
any members on the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, also located in D.C. If
we have those names, we can estimate the Pilgrims' level of control over the
Federal Open Market Committee.
The FOMC is the main body of the Federal Reserve that decides on the monetary
policy. The New York FED then carries out those directives through it's daily
'open market operations'. In the words of the official Federal Reserve website
that I just gave a link to:
"Finally, the Committee [FOMC] must
reach a consensus regarding the appropriate course for policy, which is
incorporated in a directive to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York—the Bank
that executes transactions for the System Open Market Account. The directive is
cast in terms designed to provide guidance to the Manager in the conduct of
day-to-day open market operations. The directive sets forth the Committee's
objectives for long-run growth of certain key monetary and credit aggregates. It
also sets forth operating guidelines for the degree of ease or restraint to be
sought in reserve conditions and expectations with regard to short-term rates of
growth in the monetary aggregates."
The FOMC consists of the 7 FED
governors, 1 permanent New York FED president, and 4 presidents of the other 11
FED banks that rotate each year. The chairman of the board of governors is also
the chairman of the FOMC, and the president of the permanently represented New
York FED is the vice chairman of the FOMC. We quote from the same page:
"...Traditionally, the Chairman of
the Board of Governors is elected Chairman and the president of the Federal
Reserve Bank of New York is elected Vice Chairman..."
When sifting through the
it turns out that at least 4 of the 13 Federal Reserve chairmen are confirmed
Pilgrims (they cover the years 1933-1934 & 1959-1987). Two other chairmen,
Eugene Meyer and Alan Greenspan, have all the trademarks of being Pilgrims
members. If that could be confirmed, the FED's Board of Governors has had
Pilgrims as chairman from at least 1930 to 1934 & from 1959 on to 2005. In any
case, the Pilgrims Society seems to be represented a disproportionate amount on
the most influential places inside the U.S. monetary system, especially for a
society that doesn't want it's existence to be known to the general public. It
is likely that at least since 1959 the chairman and vice chairman of the FOMC
were Pilgrims, together with the persons carrying out the directives of the FOMC
through the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
|CFR non-executive members
|CFR executive members
|Carnegie Institute executives
|FED executive positions
|J.P. Morgan executives
|Chase Bank executives
|Skull & Bones
||4 (of 10)
||After analyzing the Pilgrims
of about 360 names (updated in the meantime), I found that the institutions
you see on the left were the most often represented. About 75% of this list
is American and 25% British (rough estimate). This means that about 1 in 3
of the U.S. members of the Pilgrims Society is a confirmed member of the CFR.
Striking is the fact that such a large percentage of CFR members are
executive officers. About 50% of all the CFR executive officers have been
confirmed members of the Pilgrims Society, which seems to indicate that
quite possibly all of them are.
I remember looking at an old documentary
about the CFR "master conspiracy". The usual stuff came by; banking, the
Illuminati and the dollar bill. At the end they showed these concentric rings,
indicating the CFR had unknown inner circles. Guess we can now say for sure what
the second circle is, counting from the outside. It's the Pilgrims Society and
it undeniably shows the close link between American and British foreign policy.
Of course, it has long been speculated
that the same group that set up the RIIA, set up the CFR, but I was never
convinced enough though, because the group connecting both organizations has
never been fully identified. The existence of the Round Table, however likely,
has never been proven. For now, the Pilgrims Society, a seemingly larger body,
is a fine substitute, because it shares many similarities with the "association
of helpers" from the Round Table. Read this text from the 1966 book 'Tragedy and
Hope - A history of the world in our time', written by Oxford professor Carroll
||"In 1891, Rhodes organized a
secret society with members in a "Circle of Initiates" and an outer circle
known as the "Association of Helpers" later organized as the Round Table
organization. In 1909-1913, they organized semi-secret groups know as Round
Table Groups in the chief British dependencies and the United States..
The Round Table Groups were
semi-secret discussion and lobbying groups whose original purpose was to
federate the English speaking world along lines laid down by Cecil Rhodes.
By 1915, Round Table groups existed in seven countries including England,
South Africa, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and the United States.
Money for their activities
originally came from Cecil Rhodes, J.P. Morgan, the Rockefeller and Whitney
families and associates of bankers Lazard Brothers and Morgan, Grenfell and
The chief backbone of this
organization grew up along the already existing financial cooperation running
from the Morgan Bank in New York to a group of international financiers in
London led by Lazard Brothers.
Lionel Curtis established in England
and each dominion a front organization to the existing local Round Table Group.
This front organization called the Royal Institute of Public Affairs, had as its
nucleus in each area the existing submerged Round Table Group.
In New York, it was known as the
Council on Foreign Relations and was a front for J.P. Morgan and Company in
association with the very small American Round Table Group. The American
organizers were dominated by the large number of Morgan "experts" including
Lamont and Beer, who had gone to the Paris Peace Conference and there became
close friends with the similar group of English "experts" which had been
recruited by the Milner group. In fact, the original plans for the Royal
Institute and the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1928, the Council on Foreign
Relations was dominated by the associates of the Morgan bank. Closely allied
with this Morgan influence were a small group of Wall Street lawyers whose chief
figures were Elihu Root, John W. Davis, the Dulles Brothers, John J. McCloy...
|...There does exist and has
existed for a generation, an international Anglophile network which operates
to some extent in the way the Radical Right believes the Communists act. In
fact, this network, which we may identify as the Round Table Groups, has no
aversion to cooperating with the Communists, or any other groups, and
frequently does so...
...It might be pointed out that the existence of this Wall Street
Anglo-American axis is quite obvious once it is pointed out. It is reflected
by the fact that such Wall Street luminaries such as John W. Davis, Lewis
Douglas, [John] Whitney and Douglas Dillon were appointed to be American
ambassadors in London."
||If we forget about the other
groups, the description of the U.S. and U.K. Round Table Groups as submerged
nucleuses of respectively the CFR and the RIIA is the perfect description of
the Pilgrims Society. Also, the only name of a person in the quote above,
that is not represented in my incomplete Pilgrims
is Lionel Curtis. All the other names are confirmed Pilgrims. And what is
said here about the large number of Morgan representatives is something I
also immediately noticed when I was filling in all the biographies. Even
though Rockefeller interests, especially in later times, were just as
dominant, the history of the Morgan family really shows their ties to
Peabody and Junius S. Morgan. At the turn of the century, the Morgans
wielded enormous power over the United States economy
Besides the organizations I put in
the table above, you will also find that institutions like the Atlantic
Institute for International Affairs, Bilderberg, the Bohemian Grove, the
Trilateral Commission, the Brookings Institution, the Ford Foundation, the
Ditchley Foundations, the Fabian Society, the Japan Society, the Asia
Society, the American-Australian Association, and some others, are quite
frequently represented. I didn't specifically look for these institutions
though, simply because it takes me too much time. Often, these institutes
aren't mentioned in the bios of the person you're researching.
The reason that you find quite a few
Skull & Bones members (or members who have family in Skull & bones) in the
Pilgrims Society is probably because Yale is a prestigious University and a
first choice for many law and MBA students. It's also located very close to New
York. Don't kid yourself however, 20 year old boys don't rule anything. You'll
also find at least 5 Scroll & Key members and many more Yale students who
haven't been into any society. But as far as I can see, the Pilgrims Society is
open to anyone who learns enough, works enough, and winds up in the right place
for a Pilgrims invitation. Harvard and Columbia are other common universities
where Pilgrims have studied.
Some examples of involvement of
the Pilgrims over the last 100 years
- 1906 - Pilgrims are
involved in the secret Algeciras Conference to settle a dispute among the
British, Germans, and French about the division of Morocco.
- 1913 - The earlier
mentioned establishment of the Federal Reserve and of course the 1910 Jekyll
Island meeting that preceded it.
- 1917 - Some Pilgrims
are said to have been financing the Communist revolution of 1917. Most is
known about the partners of Kuhn, Loeb & Co.; Pilgrims Jacob Schiff, Paul
Warburg and Otto Kahn.
- 1919 - Many Pilgrims
played an important role in the Versailles peace conferences following WWI. In
all the history books I've seen, only the discussions of the 'big three',
Woodrow Wilson, Lloyd George and Georges Clemenceau, are emphasized. I'm still
looking for all the names involved, but I've already seen quite a few Pilgrims
and suspected Pilgrims. In any case, Robert Cecil, chairman of the Supreme
Economic Council of the Versailles Peace Treaty was a member. In the same
year, he was the chairman of the committee that established the Royal
Institute of International Affairs.
- 1924 - After the
German economy was completely taken apart and they couldn't pay their imposed
debts anymore, the Reparations Commission Committee of Experts was set up.
President Coolidge appointed Pilgrim Charles G. Dawes as chairman. The
committee comes up with the so called 'Dawes-plan'.
- 1927 - It is said
that Pilgrim Benjamin Strong (head FED) and Pilgrim Montagu Norman (head Bank
of England) had at least one secret meeting in July of this year with their
friend Hjalmar Schacht of the German Reichsbank.
- 1930 - The Young
plan, which is named after committee chairman and Pilgrim Owen D. Young, is
introduced as a follow up of the Pilgrims concocted Dawes plan, because
Germany still can't pay their debts. Hjalmar Schacht doesn't agree with the
reparations and quits as the head of the German Reichsbank. The same year
Schacht becomes a Fascist, starts bringing all the German industrialists
together and becomes the most crucial person for bringing Hitler to power in
- 1933 and on - J.P.
Morgan and Rockefeller associates are financing Nazi germany. Pilgrims Watson
and Watson Jr. of IBM are involved. Pilgrims Douglas Dillon Sr. and Jr. are
involved. Pilgrim Averell Harriman is involved. Ford was involved, and looking
at the prominent presence of the Ford Foundation in the Pilgrims Society, he
probably was a member too.
- 1934 - Because
general Smedley Butler exposes the planned coup, FDR is not overthrown and
replaced by a fascist government. The persons financing various fascist
elements turn out to be the Pilgrims Morgan Jr., the du Ponts, Louis S. Cates
through Phelps-Dodge company, and undoubtedly many other, but unconfirmed,
Pilgrims. As for Phelps-Dodge, the Rockefellers had married into that fortune
in 1907 through a marriage between Geraldine Rockefeller, daughter of William
Rockefeller, and Marcellus Hartley Dodge.
- 1945 - Nazis,
Knights of Malta (SMOM), and elements in the OSS create the so called 'Vatican
rat lines', through which thousands of Nazis are smuggled into Spain,
South-Africa, and South-America. Pilgrim and SMOM member Allen Dulles played a
large role in this project. He also plays a crucial role in releasing and
recruiting Nazi intelligence chief Reinhard Gehlen (Le Cercle) so this person
can establish the Gehlen Organization. This Gehlen Org becomes the eyes and
ears of the CIA in eastern Europe. Reinhard recruits many serious nazis in his
- 1946 - Pilgrim
Francis Beverly Biddle was one of the four primary judges at the Nuremberg
trials representing the United States. I'll bet the British judge (and
president) of the trials was a member of the British Pilgrims.
- 1947 - Pilgrims
Society member, five-star general and U.S. Secretary of State George C.
Marshall introduces his European Recovery Program (ERP).
- around 1948 -
Pilgrim John J. McCloy oversees the release of Fritz Thyssen, Hjalmar Schacht,
Friedrich Flick and Alfred Krupp. They are the main industrialists who built
up the Nazi war machine and are close associates of different Pilgrims Society
- 1949 - Pilgrims
member and ambassador Lewis Williams Douglas had a daughter, Sharman Douglas,
who, according to a very sure ITV (competitor of the BBC), had a 2-year
lesbian affair with Queen Elizabeth II's younger sister, Princess Margaret
Windsor. Sharman also married Andrew Hay of the Pilgrims. (Normally I wouldn't
dive into tabloid topics, but this is just too funny to pass over)
- 1951 - General
Douglas MacArthur, who has just driven back the North-Koreans, is removed from
his command when he doesn't accept the decision from the US government to not
attack the Chinese forces. Pilgrims Harry Truman, Dean Acheson and George C.
Marshall are his main adversaries on this issue. MacArthur is replaced by
Pilgrim Matthew B. Ridgway. Senator McCarthy attacks Truman, Acheson and
Marshall for being in the communist camp.
- 1954 - Some of the
earliest invites to the Bilderberg conference are Pilgrims Society members;
David Rockefeller, George Ball, and Henry Heinz.
- 1961 - Howard
Hughes, owner of Trans World Airlines, is charging Pilgrim Charles C.
Tillinghast, Jr., the president of his company, with conspiring with others to
take over the ownership the company.
- 1963 - Pilgrims John
J. McCloy and Allen Dulles are members of the Warren Commission. Gerald Ford,
a future honorary Pilgrim, is a third member.
- 1965-1973 - During
the Vietnam war, Pilgrim Henry Kissinger is the chief US negotiator for the
communist regimes. At the same time, Kissinger and many of his Pilgrims
Society buddies were investing massive amounts of capital into the Soviet
Union, even though this country continued to supply about 50% of
North-Vietnams military arms. Of course, these were allowed to enter
North-Vietnam almost unobstructed, because the US government was afraid for an
escalation of the conflict if Haiphong harbor was closed off and bombed into
oblivion. Pilgrims Society members controlled at least some of the
institutions that had to check the goods that were imported into the USSR.
- 1973 - Pilgrim
Edward W. Simon was chairman of the President's Oil Policy Committee from
February to December of 1973 (oil crisis started in October in the midst of
the Yom Kippur war). He also was an administrator of the Federal Energy Office
since December 1973 and was charged with the responsibility of minimizing the
effects of the energy crisis and preventing future crises (decided the oil
prices and the distribution). Together with Pilgrim Henry Kissinger he was the
most important speaker of the 1974 International Energy Conference. In 1973,
Henry Kissinger first informed the Pilgrims about the creation of an
"International Energy group", which became the International Energy Agency.
- 1975 - Pilgrim
Nelson Rockefeller heads the U.S. President's Commission on CIA Activities
Within the United States. It was created in response to a December 1974 report
in The New York Times that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities,
including experiments on U.S. citizens, during the 1960s. The commission was,
among other things, responsible for the investigation and publication of
Project MKULTRA, a CIA mind control study.
- 1977 - Pilgrims
Society member Edmund de Rothschild attends the 1st World Wilderness
Conference. At the 4th conference Maurice Strong will inform everyone that
Edmund was the founder of the environmental movement and climate debates
everyone has become so accustomed to.
- 1992 - Pilgrim Lord
Bingham of Cornhill heads an inquiry into the Bank of England to find out
their responsibility in the BCCI drug laundering scandal. Turns out the Bank
of England was just a bit lazy, but didn't do anything on purpose. The persons
that owned the BCCI were 1001 Club member like Agha Hasan Abedi and Salem Bin
Laden. Kalid bin Mahfouz was another one. Lord Bingham became a member of the
very elite Order of Garter in 2005. Some other persons involved with the BCCI
scandal were members of the secret international intelligence group Le Cercle.
- 2001 - Henry
Kissinger, who was picked as the first chairman of the 9/11 Commission, was a
Pilgrim, not to mention one of the pioneers of psychological warfare in the
aftermath of WWII; all in all, a great asset to have on a truth commission.
The old vice-chairman of the 9/11 Commission, George John Mitchell, became a
director of the CFR in 1995, so chances are very substantial he's a Pilgrim
too. The new chairman, Thomas H. Kean, is from a very prominent New Jersey
family and has been a chairman of the Carnegie Foundation, so don't be
surprised if it turns out that he also attends Pilgrims dinners (or 1001 Club
meetings in his case).
- 2002 - In December
of this year, Pilgrims Society member Lord Guthrie, former chief of the
Defense Staff and out of office by then, is send to Turkey to discuss a
possible invasion of Iraq via Turkey. He becomes an apologist for the Bush and
Blair administrations, and warns the public for biological and nuclear attacks
by terrorists. According to him, Syria is one of the largest supporters of
terrorism. But who else is Lord Guthrie? He's a member of the Knights of
Malta, a patron of the Cardinal Hume centre, a director of N.M. Rothschild &
Sons, and represents the latter to the Trilateral Commission since 2002. In
the past, Guthrie has been appointed Gold Stick to the Queen and Freeman of
the City of London. He was also appointed Aide-de-Camp General to the Queen in
- 2004 - Pilgrims
Society member Lord Peter Inge is part of a five-member panel that looks into
the gathered intelligence that was used to justify an invasion in Iraq the
year before. All 5 are Privy Councillors and just as the panel's chairman,
Lord Inge is a knight of the Order of the Garter.
It is obvious that the Pilgrims
Society has a very interesting history and that it's
consists of very influential people. Above all, it seems that the Pilgrims
Society represents that old dream of Cecil Rhodes to create a worldwide
English-speaking free-trade zone (his exact words), with the dominant
position for the Anglo-Saxon race. Rhodes had also been speculating about a
network of secret societies that had to absorb the wealth of the world. In
fact, the enormous fortune he left behind was probably used to set up the
Pilgrims Society just 4 months after he died. But especially these days,
'free-trade' policies seem to
|be nothing more than a
tool by which western companies wrestle control of foreign markets. This
makes it hard to say if their ultimate goal of 'global peace' really is that
In the course the 20th century,
especially after WWII, many organizations with similar objectives have sprung up
worldwide. Among them are Bilderberg, the Trilateral Commission, the British
Invisibles, the European Round Table, the Group of thirty, the European
Institute, the Trans-Atlantic Business Dialogue, the 1001 Club, the EU-Japan
Business Dialogue, the Pacific Basin Economic Council, Le Cercle, the
Multinational Chairman's Group, and dozens more.
In every single case, British and
American interests are represented more than adequately, at the very least in
leadership positions. Even though recent names are in rather short supply it has
already become obvious that we can find most, if not all of these leaders back
in the Pilgrims Society. This indicates that we are dealing with one of the most
important privately funded institutions of the globalist movement. But, like I
already said, let's not exaggerate by saying that we found 'the puppet masters'
or something like that. At any time, there are loads of intelligence operations
going on most of the well over a 1000 members know nothing about. Also, looking
at the bios, it's obvious that there is considerable infighting going on and
that different members can't get along with each other at all. So, as for now, I
suggest that we focus our energy on gathering as many names as possible. Then
the picture will become clear by itself.
A lot of additional information on
the Anglo-American establishment and/or the British Empire can be found in the
books of professor Carroll Quigley. The articles on
Executive Intelligence Review
also contain a lot of insightful information.
||October 1901, #6, McClure’s
Magazine, ‘J. Pierpont Morgan’
||February 05, 1903, Reuters, 'Lord
C. Beresford in Washington'
||March 3, 1903, The Scotsman, 'Great
Britain and the United States - Banquet in London'
||June 20, 1903, The Scotsman, 'MP
George Wyndham at the Pilgrims Club'
||February 20, 1908, New York Times,
‘Ambassador Reid – the Pilgrims guest’
||April 24, 1910, Associated Press,
Mark Twain deceased - Pilgrims visit
||February 6, 1913, The Scotsman,
King George delivers message at Pilgrims Society
||December 24, 1915, The Scotsman,
'Closer Unity of the British Empire'
||June 1, 1918, Press Association,
'Hands off the Southern Pacific'
||December 22, 1919, The Scotsman,
Pilgrims celebrate 299th birthday of original Pilgrims
||March 17, 1924, Time Magazine, 'A
||April 21, 1924, Time Magazine, 'The
||December 2, 1926, The Scotsman,
'Duke of York - Pilgrims God Speed'
||May 4, 1928, The Scotsman, Nicholas
Butler becomes the new president of the U.S. club
||July 6, 1931, Time Magazine, '30
Years of Picasso'
||October 26, 1939, The Scotsman,
Pilgrims speaker denounces the Nazis as Barbarian Pagans
||November 6, 1939, Time Magazine,
‘Aims and Rights’
||1940, John Whiteford, ‘Sir Uncle
Sam, Knight of the British Empire’
||January 20, 1941, Time Magazine,
'Churchill & the U.S.'
||March 20, 1941, The Scotsman, Nazis
denounce Churchill's Pilgrims speech and the Anglo-Saxons
||December 3, 1942, The Scotsman,
'New World Order - Path of Equality and Human Brotherhood'
||E.C. Knuth, 1946, ‘The Empire of
||December 13, 1947, The Scotsman,
'Marshall on his Mission'
||October 23, 1950, Time Magazine, No
||November 7, 1950, The Scotsman, 'No
Slackening after Korea'
||Oct. 27, 1952, Time Magazine, 'No
||July 2, 1956, Time Magazine, 'Give
'Em Hell, Harricum!'
||Dec. 8, 1958, Time Magazine, 'The
||April 16, 1965, Time Magazine,
Ambassador Patrick farewell
||1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy and
Hope - A history of the world in our time'
||December 1973, Kissinger addresses
the Pilgrims and suggests an "International Energy group"
||June 1975, American
Opinion, William P. Hoar, ‘Henry Kissinger: This Man Is On The Other Side’
||January 30, 1981, Reuters, 'Mrs.
Thatcher Detects No Sign Of Moscow's Interest in Detente' (excerpt)
||1983 (original from 1952), Eustace
Mullins, ‘Secrets of the Federal Reserve’
||December 10, 1985, New York Times,
' Excerpts From Shultz Remarks on Aid to Rebels' (excerpt)
||Official Federal Reserve websites
||April 20, 1994, The Times, 'Britain
belongs to Europe'
||April 20, 1994, The Times, 'US
ambassador leaves with rebuke for Euro-sceptics; Raymond Seitz'
||November 16, 1994, The Times, 'US
tries to forge pact on eastward expansion of Nato'
||April 6, 1995, The Times, 'FDR and
||June 30, 1999, MOD, Speech of
||2002, Anne Baker Pimlott, ‘The
Pilgrims of Great Britain – a centennial history’
||2002, Antony Sutton, ‘America’s
||Watch.pair.com, ‘The Pilgrim
Society & The English Speaking Union’
||January 31, 2002, nato.int, ‘NATO
After September 11’
||November 28, 2002, U.S. State
Department, ‘State's Boucher on U.S. Foreign Policy, EU and NATO, Iraq,
||2002, University of Dundee, 'Laureation
Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne - Professor Alan Newell'
||January 21, 2004, Royal.gov.uk,
'Diary of engagements of the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh...'
||February 4, 2004, Times Online,
'Today's royal engagements'
||February 12, 2004, The UK Mission
to the United Nations, 'Speech to Pilgrims of the United States on "A
||September 16, 2004, Chatham House,
internal program list names Robert Worcester as a Pilgrim
||September 2004, English Speaking
Union, 'Panel Discussion on the US Election'
||Charles Savoie, Silver Investor,
2004-2005, ‘Meet the World Money Power’-series. (highly
recommended. Many names come from this person's research.)
||Kansas City Infozine, biography of
Robert M. Worcester (again) confirms he is a chairman of the Pilgrims.
||Corporate Entertainer Magazine,
'Banking on Hospitality' (article on Rupert Hambro, year unknown)
Joël van der Reijden
Original: May 3, 2005
Last update: March 31, 2006
surrounding the Rockefeller and Rothschild families
- Lots of biographical updates in the
Pilgrims Society membership list.
Two important names that are added, earlier mentioned by Charles Savoie, are
Sir Cyril Hugh Kleinwort (has a nephew in the 1001 Club) and Sir Peter
Sutherland. Sutherland is huge and already in my introduction article I
described him as "almost certainly a Pilgrim." So predictable...
- While doing the updates I noticed that the Chief
Justices of the US Supreme Court that have certainly been recruited in the
Pilgrims Society cover the period from 1921 to 1941 and from 1969 to 2005,
which is enough to add this position to the gif oversight. And because Chief
Justices also are automatically elected chancellors of the Smithsonian Board
of Regents, that institute has been added to the gif also. A few other
Pilgrims have been trustees/regents/secretaries of the Smithsonian, but many
more undoubtedly still have to be found within the Pilgrims ranks.
Top of page
Incomplete membership list
Besides the regular members, all of
the persons who occupied the following positions have been made honorary
members and have attended the meetings:
||President of the US
|UK ambassador to the US
||UK secretary of state
||Permanent representative of the UK
to the UN
|US ambassador to the UK
||US secretary of state
||UK consul general at NY
The head of the Episcopalian Church in the U.S. and
the Archbishop of Canterbury (head Anglican church) were both
vice-presidents of the Pilgrims Society in 1942. If this is always the case
Over time newly found members will be added, just
as additional biographical data. The most interesting aspects of a persons
life are often also the most hidden.
Elizabeth Mary II
|Queen of England
since 1953, married to Prince Philip Mountbatten. The Queen has been,
and might still be, a major stockholder in Rio Tinto and other large
corporations. No official details are ever released.
[queen] ”Nobody, Paul has been as close to a member
of my family as you have. There are powers at work in this country about
which we have no knowledge.”
[Paul] “She wanted me to make sure my wife Maria
and children remained safe. It was not a threat, it was sound advice.
She had my interests at heart…No-one had never warned me like that. It
made me suddenly realise the magnitude of the situation. It was
obviously much, much bigger than I had ever thought.”
- The Queen and Paul Burrell in a 3-hour talk in November of 1997 at
Buckinham Palace. Paul was the butler of Diana right up until her death
on August 31, 1997. In January of 2001, Paul was accused of stealing
some items from the Diana after her death. On November 1, 2001, the
trial collapsed when the Queen herself stated that Paul had informed her
of taking these items with him. (The Mirror in an interview with Paul
Burrell - June 11, 2002)
|Born in 1921 on the
Isle of Corfu, Greece. Parents were evacuated from Greece after a
revolution and both became depressed (father) or mentally instable
(mother). Studied in Germany under Kurt Hahn and both came to Scotland
in 1933. Played polo in his youth, often against Sir Evelyn de
Rothschild. Philip is the Duke of Edinburgh, a Knight of the Order of
the Garter, a Knight of the Order of the Thistle, Grand Master and First
or Principal Knight of the Order of the British Empire, and was a prince
of Greece and Denmark until he married. Patron or President of 814
organizations. His wife, Queen Elizabeth II is patron of the Pilgrims
Society. Long career in the navy from the start of WWII as a midshipsman
to commanding his own frigate, the HMS Magpie. William R. Denslow's
10,000 Famous Freemasons: "Philip was initiated in Navy Lodge No.
2612 of London on Dec 5, 1952. Present at the initiation were the Earl
of Scarbrough, grand master, q.v., and Geoffrey Fisher, archbishop of
Canterbury." Philip is a Master Mason, never having shown great
interest in the organization, while his cousin, Prince Edward (b. 1935)
is the grand master of the United Grand Lodge. He and his wife set off
for a tour of the Commonwealth, with visits to Africa, Australia, and
New Zealand in 1952. They went on to visit the remote parts of the
Commonwealth in 1956. Gordon Creighton, a Foreign Service official and
Intelligence officer, concluded his story about a reported 1960s UFO
landing on the estate of Prince Philip with: "So there had been a
landing on the estate of Mountbatten and there was Mountbatten's great
interest." The entire testimony was made during an interview with
the Disclosure Project in September 2000. Prince Philip supposedly had a
drawer full of sketches and information on different types of UFOs.
Philip co-founded the WWF International in 1961 with Julian Huxley and
Prince Bernhard. He has been the long time president of WWF UK.
Co-founded the 1001 Nature Trust and 1001 Club from 1971 to 1974,
together with Anton Rupert and Prince Bernhard. Co-founded Population
Concern in 1977 with Earnest Kleinwort, Sir Cyril Kleinwort (Pilgrims),
Prince Philip, Lord Caradon, Lord Renton and Lord McCorquodale.
Co-founded the Interfaith consultations between Jews, Christians, and
Muslims in 1984, together with Crown Prince Hassan of Jordan and Sir
Evelyn de Rothschild at Windsor castle. In August 1988, Prince Philip
said to the West German Deutsche Press Agentur: "In the event that I
am reincarnated, I would like to return as a deadly virus, in order to
contribute something to solve overpopulation". He wrote something
along similar lines in the foreword of the 1987 book 'If I Were An
Animal', written by Fleur Cowles. Philip was supposedly hostile to Diana
after she divorced Charles in 1996. Mohamed Al-Fayed claimed Prince
Philip had ordered Diana's murder who was killed in a car crash on
August 31, 1997. Queen Elizabeth II said to Diana's butler Paul Burrell
in December 1997: "Nobody, Paul has been as close to a member of my
family as you have... There are powers at work in this country about
which we have no knowledge." She advised him to be cautious and to
lay low. Unlike his son, Charles, Philip supports genetically modified
foods. On June 7, 2000, The Guardian quoted the Duke of Edinburgh as
saying: "Do not let us forget we have been genetically modifying
animals and plants ever since people started selective breeding."
Philip is known to be the head of the family; what he says, generally
goes. He is still president emeritus of the WWF International.
|HRH The Princess
Royal. Daughter of Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth II. Younger sister
of Prince Charles. Attended a dinner of the Pilgrim Society on February
4, 2004 at 3:45 PM, Four Seasons Hotel, Hamilton Place, London. She is a
member of the Order of the Garter.
|Became Duke of
Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron Renfrew, Lord of the
Isles and Great Steward of Scotland and Knight of the Garter when
Elizabeth II ascended to the throne. Studied in part under Kurt Hahn,
invested as Prince of Wales in 1969, assumed a seat in the House of
Lords in 1970, married Lady Diana Frances Spencer in 1981, divorced in
1996 and Diana died in a car crash in 1997, married Camilla Parker
Bowles in 2005, heir to the British Throne. Anno 2005 he is listed as a
member of the Advisory Board of The Pilgrims of the United States.
|Third child and
second son of Queen Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh. When he
married he was created The Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron
Killyleagh. He currently serves as United Kingdom's Special
Representative for International Trade and Investment.
Arthur William Patrick Albert
|English prince, son
of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, brother of Edward VII. Trained for
a military career, he served in Egypt (1882) and India (1886–1890) and
as commander in chief in the Mediterranean 1907-1909. He was
governor-general of Canada 1911-1916. His son, Prince Arthur of
Connaught 1883-1938, was governor-general of South Africa 1920-1923.
|Windor, Prince Edward
|Duke of Kent.
Brother of King George VI. Knight of the Garter. Has been vice-chairman
of British Trade International and the United Kingdom's Special
Representative for International Trade and Investment. President of the
British Invisibles, which these days tend to use the more official name
International Financial Services, London (IFSL). Grand Master of the
Order of St Michael and St George since 1967. Grand Master of the United
Grand Lodge of England, which is the governing body of Freemasonry in
England, Wales, and the Channel Islands. Photographed in the early 1960s
during a Pilgrims Society diner in London, standing next to Walter
Elliot, Lord Halifax, Joseph Kennedy, and Lord Derby.
|Direct descendant of
President John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Spent several years with his
parents in St. Petersburg, Russia. Harvard College. Partner in Paine,
Webber, Jackson, & Curtis banking firm 1937-1947. Director of Raytheon
1938-1942. U.S. Naval Reserve with active duty, commanding destroyer
escorts in the Atlantic & Pacific theaters 1942-1945. Commander in chief
of the Atlantic Fleet 1945-1947. President of Raytheon (sales grew forty
fold in his almost 40 years with the company) 1948-1960 & 1962-1964.
Chairman of Raytheon 1960-1962 & 1964-1972. Retired as director of
Raytheon in 1997. Director of the First National Bank of Boston, the
Gillette Company, Liberty Mutual Insurance Company, Sheraton
Corporation, Bath Iron Works, Associated Industries of Massachusetts,
the Boston Chamber of Commerce, Pan American World Airways, and the
Massachusetts Higher Education Assistance Corporation. Chairman of the
Board of Visitors of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts
University. Trustee of the Children's Hospital, the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution, the Industrial School for Crippled Children,
the Massachusetts Humane Society, the Naval War College Foundation and
more. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and Vice
President of the Massachusetts Historical Society.
|Yale Scroll & Key
1915. Harvard 1915-1918. Private secretary to the Supreme Court Justice
1919-1921. Became Under Secretary of the Treasury in 1933. Constructed
the Marshall Plan with General Marshall and Will Clayton, according to
Pilgrims Society member David K.E. Bruce. U.S. Secretary of State under
Harry S. Truman 1949-1953. Accused of being soft on Communism and had a
dispute with General Douglas MacArthur. Mccarthy saw him as one the most
dangerous Communists and believed that the "Acheson group had almost
hypnotic powers over Truman." Member Council on Foreign Relations. His
son, David C. Acheson ended up in the 1943 Skull & Bones class.
|Born in Shropshire,
England. Acton's family immigrated in 1948 to Southern Rhodesia, now
Zimbabwe, where he was educated at St. George's College, Salisbury.
Later he received his bachelor's and master's degrees in modern history
at Trinity College, Oxford. In 1989, he took his seat in the House of
Lords as the fourth Lord Acton, dividing his time between Iowa and
London since his marriage to Patricia Nassif, a clinical professor at
the UI College of Law. Later, the government of the United Kingdom put
forth a proposal to restructure the House of Lords. This passed in
November 1999, which resulted in the abolition of Acton's hereditary
peerage. However, the Prime Minister appointed him as a Life Peer, and
Acton returned to the House of Lords in April. Acton is also a writer
whose articles have appeared in many American periodicals, including The
New York Times Book Review, The North American Review, British Heritage,
the Christian Science Monitor, The Chicago Tribune and The San Francisco
Chronicle. In 1995, Acton and his wife wrote a book on the legal history
of Iowa entitled, "To Go Free: A Treasury of Iowa's Legal Heritage,"
published by Iowa State University Press to commemorate Iowa's
sesquicentennial. He also received the Iowa State Historical Society's
Throne/Aldrich Award in 1995 for the best article on Iowa history
published by The Palimpset. His articles have appeared in The Iowan and
The Des Moines Register. His latest book is "A Brit Among the Hawkeyes,"
published by Iowa State University Press. Has spoken at the Iowa City
Foreign Relations Council (ICFRC), which is in the neighborhood he often
lives. He and his wife split their time between Ceder Rapids and London.
He is a member of the Royal Africa Society and the Pilgrims Society.
Lord Acton is writing a book about one his forefathers, Sir John Acton,
who, according to him, ruled Naples and Sicily in the late 18th and
early 19th centuries.
|Adler, Julius Ochs
|His family started
the New York Times, received the Distinguished Service Cross, the Purple
Heart, the Silver Star, Star with Oak Leaf Clusters, the French Legion
of Honor and the French Croix de Guerre for his achievements as
commander of a battalion of infantry on the Western Front in France in
WWI, as a General he commanded the 77th Infantry Division, responsible
for the defense of Hawaii from 1941 to 1944. After World War II, joined
The New York Times as vice-president, later to become general manager,
publisher of the Chattanooga Times, invited by General Eisenhower to
visit the liberated concentration camps in 1945, which inspired him to
write a bunch of articles on his experiences, appointed as major general
in the Army Reserve in 1948.
|Graduated from Yale
in 1891, president Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 1914-1917, president
and chairman National Shawmut Bank of Boston 1918-1924, director New
York Life Insurance Co 1924-1936, president of New York Life Insurance &
Co. in 1936, trustee of Clark University and Wellesley College, member
Council on Foreign Relations.
|Aldrich, Herbert I.
|This name was
mentioned by J. Thorkelson, a U.S. Congressman from Montana, in a speech
to the U.S. House of Representatives on August 20, 1940.
|Nelson W. Aldrich.
Private in the Rhode Island National Guard during the American Civil
War. Elected to Rhodes Island city council 1869. Rhodes Island city
council president 1872-1873. Republican Congressman 1879-1881. Senator
1881-1911. His daughter marries John Davison Rockefeller, Jr. in 1901.
In 1906 Aldrich is accused of taking huge bribes from corporations in an
article of Cosmopolitan. Attends the Jekyll Island meeting on November
22, 1910. Chairman Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard,
Committee on Rules, Select Committee on Corporations Organized in the
District of Columbia, Committee on Finance, and the National Monetary
Commission. Aldrich worked together with co-Pilgrim and
congressman/banker Edward Butterfield Vreeland to establish the Federal
|Winthrop W. Aldrich
was the uncle of Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller. The major stockholder in
Equitable Trust Company (merged with Chase National Bank in 1930).
President of Chase National Bank 1930-1934 and chairman from 1934 to
1953 (Chase National Bank eventually became Chase Manhattan and J.P.
Morgan Chase). Ambassador to England from 1950 to 1953 and gave a speech
to the English Pilgrims on March 19, 1953. Director of Westinghouse
Electric, American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), International Paper,
Discount Corporation of New York, Metropolitan Life Insurance, and the
American Society for the Control of Cancer.
|Yale Skull & Bones
1922. Cousin of Winthrop Aldrich. Head of the Commonwealth Fund.
|Cousin of Winthrop
Aldrich, president of Greer School with mrs. David Rockefeller
(1942/1947), vice chairman of Chemical Bank 1959-1972, director of
Ametek Incorporated, IBM World Trade Corporation, Empire Savings Bank,
George W. Rogers Construction Corporation, Peter Paul Incorporated,
president of Commonwealth Fund (succeeded Pilgrim Edward S. Harkness),
Royal Globe Insurance Group and Hill Samuel Group Limited, London.
|Grandson of a
co-founder of Princeton Theological Seminary, trustee of Princeton
University, married into the Crocker fortune of 40 million (1888)
dollars, director of the International Banking Corporation, Mercantile
Trust Company; Equitable Trust Company, Equitable Life Assurance,
Society of the U.S., Tri-State Land Company, Windsor Trust, member of
the Society of the Cincinnati.
|Alexander, Henry Clay
Vanderbilt University and Yale where he graduated in 1923 and 1925,
Trustee of Vanderbilt University, president J.P. Morgan & Company,
chairman Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York in 1960, director
General Motors & Johns-Manville Corporation
|Director of Northern
Pacific Ry, director U.S. Steel Corporation, vice-chairman J.P. Morgan &
Company, has a ship named after him.
|Lived from about
1890 to the 1970s, attended Harvard in 1907, New York lawyer, married
Elizabeth Chapin of the American Motors fortune, national chairman of
the A.C.L.U., member of the International Commission of Jurists meetings
in Athens and New Delhi.
|Angelson, Mark A.
|Educated at Rutgers
College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and at Rutgers Law
School. Angelson began his career in 1975 as a lawyer with Sullivan &
Cromwell. From 1982 through 1995, he practiced with Sidley & Austin,
serving as Co-Chair of International Operations and Resident Managing
Partner of the law firm's offices in Singapore, New York and London.
During this period, he participated in the development of substantial,
notably successful law practices in each of those cities, and served on
the boards of various multinational companies and not-for-profit
organizations. From 1996 until 2001, Mr. Angelson served in various
capacities, including as Executive Deputy Chairman, at Big Flower
Holdings (NYSE: BGF), a printing and advertising services holding
company, and its successor, Vertis Holdings, Inc. At Big Flower, he was
involved in approximately 30 printing industry acquisitions and related
financings, and the $2 billion leveraged recapitalization and sale of
control of the company to Thomas H. Lee Fund IV and Evercore Capital
Partners. Before assuming his current position, Mr. Angelson served as
Chief Executive Officer of Moore Wallace Incorporated (TSX, NYSE: MWI),
the third largest printing company in North America. He was a principal
architect of the merger between RR Donnelley and Moore Wallace, and of
the earlier merger between Moore Corporation Limited (TSX, NYSE: MCL)
and Wallace Computer Services, Inc. (NYSE: WCS). Prior to joining Moore
as CEO, Mr. Angelson served as Moore's Non-Executive Chairman and Lead
Independent Director. Previously, Mr. Angelson served as Deputy Chairman
of Chancery Lane Capital, the New York-based private equity investment
firm that led the Chancery Lane/GSC Partners L.P. investment in Moore
and recruited the Moore management team. Today he is Chief Executive
Officer of Chicago-based R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company (NYSE: RRD), the
largest provider of printing and print-related services in the world,
with approximately 43,000 employees, annual revenues of approximately $8
billion, nearly 600 locations around the globe and more than 40,000
customer relationships. The company provides these services to the
catalog, retail, magazine, book, directory, advertising, financial,
healthcare, telecommunications, automotive and many other industries. He
is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (New York), a Fellow of
the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce
(London), a Trustee of Northwestern University, a member of the
Executive Committee of the Board of the Chicago Council on Foreign
Relations, and a member of the Pilgrims of Great Britain, the Yale Club
of New York City, The Economic Club of Chicago, the Chicago Club and the
Civic Committee of the Commercial Club of Chicago.
|Annenberg, Walter H.
|Son of Moses
Annenberg, publisher of The Philadelphia Inquirer. The story of Moses &
Max (older brother) Annenberg is a tale of a hardworking immigrants and
financial geniuses who got their start working alongside violent Chicago
gangsters while employed by newspaper titan William Randolph Hearst at
the turn of the last century. After some time, the owner of the Tribune,
Bertie McCormick, decided to hire Moses Annenberg away from Hearst. For
a while, the Annenberg brothers were sending out thugs to battle each
other. Fifteen years later, Max Annenberg was alleged to be an associate
and friend of Chicago crime boss Al Capone. In 1924, Moses Annenberg got
involved with a racing news service in Chicago and Milwaukee. Soon there
were reports that those who didn't take the Annenberg race wire service
were themselves the victims of beatings, fire bombings and, on occasion,
murder. The crime syndicates had come to be dependent on Moses
Annenberg. Without his service they couldn't operate their illegal
gambling rackets. In 1938, the Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes,
traveled from Washington D.C. to give a speech in Philadelphia
condemning Moses Annenberg, who, at that time, was backing the
Republican candidate for governor of Pennsylvania. Ickes charged it was
Annenberg's violent tactics during the Chicago newspaper wars that
inspired gangsters like Al Capone. Ickes said that "the hiring of
Moses Annenberg by Hearst was the beginning of the subsequent flood of
lawlessness that almost engulfed law enforcement in the United States."
Moses, Walter, and 2 other business associates were indicted in
1939 for evading more than $2 million in taxes and another $3 million in
penalties and interest. Moses was later separately indicted for
conspiring to bribe a Philadelphia detective. In April 1940, Moses
Annenberg agreed to plead guilty to one count -- "willfully" evading
$1,217,296 -- and to pay almost $9 million in fines and penalties. In
exchange for his plea the government agreed to drop all charges against
his son, Walter Annenberg. In the 1940s, Walter Annenberg established
Triangle Broadcasting, which at its peak controlled 6 AM radio stations,
6 FM radio stations, and 6 TV stations. He is also the founder and owner
of Triangle Publications, which owned the Philadelphia Inquirer, the
Daily News, TV Guide and Seventeen Magazine. Received the Alfred I.
DuPont Award (Pilgrim) in 1951. Received the Marshall Field Award
(Pilgrim) in 1958. Founded The Annenberg School for Communication at The
University of Pennsylvania in 1958. Ambassador to England 1969-1974.
During his assignment to Britain, Annenberg appointed Gorden Gray as
chairman of his Triangle Broadcasting Company 1969–1975. Gray was very
big in government and intelligence since 1947, the original director of
the Psychological Strategy Board, and a heir to the R.J. Reynolds
fortune. Annenberg founded The Annenberg School for Communication at the
University of Southern California in 1971. In 1988, News Corp. acquired
Triangle Publications, including TV Guide. Founder-trustee and Chairman
of the Board of Trustees of the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho
Mirage, California. Annenberg also served as Trustee of the Eisenhower
Exchange Fellowships and the Winston Churchill Traveling Fellowships. He
was Emeritus Trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Philadelphia
Museum of Art, The University of Pennsylvania and The Peddie School.
Annenberg received honorary degrees from many international
universities. Annenberg was named Honorary Knight Commander of the Order
of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II. He was also named Officer
of the French Legion of Honor, and presented with the Order of Merit of
the Republic of Italy. (received dozens of other awards and honors) He
was a member of the Associated Press, the American Society of Newspaper
Editors, International Press Institute, National Press Club, Overseas
Press Club, American Newspaper Publishers Association, Sigma Delta Chi,
the International Arts-Medicine Association, and the Inter-American
Press Association. Has been awarded by the ADL. A former Commander of
the United States Naval Reserve, Annenberg also was a member of the Navy
League of the U.S. He also has his own foundation, the Annenberg
Foundation. Walter Annenberg was a generous philanthropist who gave
millions to universities, art museums, charities and PBS. He was a
friend to kings and presidents. Member of the Pilgrims Society and the
|Embassy secretary at
Petrograd (then the capital of Russia) 1916-1918, ambassador to Haiti
1932-1935, Canada 1935-1938, Chile 1938-1939, Argentina 1939-1944, Spain
1945, Venezuela 1950-1951 and Guatemala 1954-1955. Married European
nobility in the form of Princess Myra Kondacheff, member of the Council
on Foreign Relations.
|Armstrong, Anne Legendre
|Born in New Orleans.
Daughter of an aristocratic New Orleans coffee merchant. Graduated from
Vassar College. She married Tobin Armstrong, a Texas cattle rancher, in
1950, whom she met in 1942 on the 825,000 acre King Ranch. The King
Ranch has been home to many international power elites including Prince
Charles and Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis. Tobin was close friends
with the Bushes. She served as vice chairman of the Texas Republican
Party from 1966 to 1968. In 1971 and 1972, she was cochairman of the
Republican National Committee. As counselor to the President, Armstrong
was a member of the president's Domestic Council, the Council on Wage
and Price Stability, and the Commission on the Organization of
Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy. First American woman
ambassador to Great Britain from 1976 to 1977. In 1977, Prince Charles
visited the Armstrong Ranch to play polo with Anne's husband. Director
of American Express (with Henry Kissinger and Vernon Jordan), Boise
Cascade, General Motors, and Halliburton (with Cheney). She chaired the
President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board from 1982 to 1990 and
was a trustee of Southern Methodist University and the Smithsonian
Institution. She also chaired the Georgetown University's Center for
Strategic and International Studies advisory board.
|Educated in Germany
and in Italy and at the Columbia law school, member of the NY state
assembly 1878-1879, senator 1880-1881, minister to Italy 1881–1885, heir
to about 100 million dollars, reversed the family immigration by
returning to England in 1890 and bought some large real estate,
purchased the Pall Mall Gazette 1893, purchased the London Sunday
Observer 1911, was made a baron in 1916 and a viscount (of Hever) in
1917, his elder son became leader of Tory democracy, his younger son
bought a large share in The Times of London. His son, Waldorf Astor
(unconfirmed Pilgrims member), was a chairman of the Royal Institute for
International Affairs from 1935 to 1949 and had helped to establish it.
|Heir of the John
Jacob Astor fortune, Franklin D. Roosevelt supporter in 1932, New Deal
supporter after WWII, director of Chase National Bank, Western Union
Telegraph Company, Great Northern Railway Company, the United States
Lines, New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital and other
institutions and corporations, trustee of the New York Public Library
and the New York Zoological Society, governor of New York Hospital,
staff officer in the Navy during both World Wars, seemed to have a bit
of competition from the English branch of the family. (He and his former
wives had themselves or married to Huntingtons and Whitneys)
|Daughter of USMC
General John Henry Russell, wife of Vincent Astor, president Vincent
Astor Foundation from 1959 and on, which gave away about 195 million in
all, author of 2 fiction books.
|Astor, Francis David
|Educated at Eton
College he went on to Oxford University where he suffered a nervous
breakdown and left university in 1933 without obtaining a degree,
psycho-analyzed by Anna Freud, at Oxford in 1931 he met Adam von Trott
zu Solz, later executed for the role he played in a failed assassination
of Hitler, who had a lot of influence on him, during World War II David
Astor was wounded in France, In 1936, he joined the Yorkshire Post
newspaper where he worked for a year then joined his father's newspaper,
The Observer where he would serve as editor for 27 years, He warned of
the dangers of big government and of big business, influenced by his
friend and employee of The Observer, George Orwell, he supposedly was
anti-big government, very critical of corrupt politicians, pro-blacks,
pro-life, etc, in 1977 The Observer was sold to Robert O. Anderson, the
American owner of the Atlantic Richfield oil company. (had lots of
||2nd Baron Astor of
Hever, controlling shareholder Times Publishing Co. Ltd. This company
controlled the The Times Book Co. Ltd., Issuing House Year Book Ltd.,
St. Paul's Engineering Ltd., The Review (Insurance) Ltd., The Times
Pension Trusts Ltd., The Times London Incorporated. and The Gardeners'
Chronicle Ltd. Director Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1952-1959, chairman
Times Publishing Co. Ltd. 1959-1966.
|Astor, John Jacob,
|Better known under
3rd Baron Astor of Hever, educated at Eton College, Birkshire (England),
Lieutenant in 1966 in the service of the The Life Guards, managing
director of Honon et Cie in 1982, managing director of Astor France in
1989, Deputy Lieutenant of Kent in 1996, Chief Whip of the House of
Lords 1998. Freemason.
|Educated at Oxford,
he was called to the bar in 1905. His early experience as a social
worker in London's East End led to his decision to give up law and
devote his life to social improvement through politics. In 1907 he
joined the Fabian Society and soon afterward the Labour party. He was a
lecturer in social science at the London School of Economics, and, after
service in World War I, he became (1919) the first Labour mayor of
Stepney. Attlee entered Parliament in 1922. In 1927 he visited India as
a member of the Simon commission and was converted to views that
strongly favored Indian self-government. He joined the Labour government
in 1930 but resigned in 1931 when Ramsay MacDonald formed the National
government. As leader of the Labour party from 1935, Attlee was an
outspoken critic of Conservative foreign policy, objecting particularly
to the government's failure to intervene in the Spanish civil war.
During World War II he served (1940–45) in Winston Churchill's coalition
cabinet, and on Labour's electoral victory in 1945 he became prime
minister. Under Attlee's leadership, the Bank of England, the gas,
electricity, coal, and iron and steel industries, and the railways were
nationalized. His government also enacted considerable social reforms,
including the National Health Service. Independence was granted to Burma
(Myanmar), India, Pakistan, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and Palestine, and
Britain allied itself closely with the United States in the cold war
confrontation with the Soviet Union. The postwar economic crisis
required stringent economic and financial controls, which reduced
support for the government. Labour won the 1950 general election by a
narrow margin, but in 1951, Attlee decided to go to the country again
and was defeated. He was leader of the opposition until his retirement
in 1955, when he received the title of Earl Attlee.
|Bache, Jules Semon
|American banker and
art collector who made an enormous fortune on Wallstreet, organized the
banking firm of J. S. Bache and Company, president and treasurer of Dome
Mines Limited, director of Chrysler, Lake Superior Railroad, Louisiana
Oil Refining, Tennessee Copper & Chemical, Southern Agricultural
Company, U.S. Industrial Alcohol Company, New River Collieries, Cuba
Distilling, American Indemnity, Anniston City Land, New Amsterdam
Casualty, Ann Arbor Railroad, Empire Trust Company and others, member
Council on Foreign Relations.
|Bail, Ancell H.
|This name was
mentioned by J. Thorkelson, U.S. Congressman from Montana, in a speech
to the U.S. House of Representatives on August 20, 1940. More info is
|Baker, George Fisher
|Harvard. Fortune of
the Baker family estimated at 500 million in 1924 and later grew to
about a billion dollars. Chairman of Manhattan's First National Bank,
First Security Co., and had directorships in at least 50 other
companies. Close associate of J.P. Morgan who wanted him on every board
of the companies he financed. Trustee of the Frick Collection (Frick was
an associate of Andrew Mellon and was waging a war on his
slave-workers). Donated $2,000,000 to Henry Pomeroy Davison (Pilgrim)
when he needed money for Red Cross work during WWI. One of the largest
philanthropist ever and never appeared in public.
|Baker, George Fisher
the wealthy banker George Fisher Baker, Harvard, general partner of
Baker, Nye Investments L.P. in New York City, member Woods Hole
Oceanographic, member, director of The American Institute for Cognitive
Therapy, director Quebec-Labrador Foundation/Atlantic Center for the
Environment (QLF), philanthropist.
|Baker, James Addison
Princeton University in 1952. Ivy Club. Attended Cap & Gown events,
according to Kay Griggs, just as Allen Dulles, William Colby, Frank
Carlucci, James Baker, George Griggs, and George P. Shultz (August 3,
2005, Rense). Houston lawyer. Friend of the Bushes. Undersecretary of
commerce 1975–1976. Deputy manager of the 1976 and 1980 Ford and Bush
presidential campaigns. Joined the Reagan administration in 1981. White
House chief of staff 1981–1985. Treasury secretary 1985–1988. Attended
the Fourth World Wilderness Conference in 1987, together with David
Rockefeller, Edmund de Rothschild, and Maurice Strong. Planned the 1988
campaign that won George H.W. Bush the presidency. Secretary of State
1989–1992. Member National Security Planning Group. Played a prominent
role in the Gulf crisis and the subsequent search for a Middle East
peace settlement. Again White House Chief of Staff 1992-1993. United
Nations special envoy to try and broker a peace settlement for the
disputed territory of Western Sahara 1997. As an adviser to George W.
Bush in the November 2000 presidential elections, he was influential in
helping Bush secure the presidency by manoeuvring the disputed vote
count in Florida to the Republican-leaning Supreme Court. Baker was the
manager of the foreign debts of occupied Iraq since 2003. Senior
counselor for the Carlyle Group and a member of the Council on Foreign
Relations. Also a member of the Atlantic Council of the United States,
the Bohemian Grove, and the Pilgrims Society. Honorary trustee of the
American Institute for Contemporary German Studies.
|Ball, George Wildman
|Born on December 19,
1909 in Des Moines, Iowa. Grew up in Des Moines and Evanston, Illinois,
where the family moved in 1922 after his father received a promotion to
the Standard Oil Company headquarters located in Chicago. Graduated at
the top of his class from Northwestern Law School in 1933. The law
school dean nominated him for a position in the General Counsel's
Office, under the direction of Herman Oliphant, in the newly established
Farm Credit Administration. Ball moved to the Treasury Department in
November 1933 upon the appointment of Henry Morgenthau (Pilgrims) as
Secretary of the Treasury. When Franklin D. Roosevelt named Morgenthau
to this post, Morgenthau brought along Oliphant as his legal advisor,
and he, in turn, brought along Ball. Worked here from 1933-1935. Despite
working on major New Deal policies, Ball felt his law training was
lacking and returned to the Midwest in 1935 to "master the profession of
law." He joined a Chicago law firm where he served as a tax attorney
before moving to the prestigious firm of Sidley, McPherson, Austin &
Harper in 1939. Ball's work involved the reorganization of railroads but
more defining was the close relationship he developed with junior
partner Adlai Stevenson while at the firm. It was also during this time
that Ball started to become interested in foreign affairs. He began to
attend Friday luncheons hosted by the Chicago Council on Foreign
Affairs, which Stevenson chaired. Associate position in the General
Counsel's Office of the Lend-Lease Administration under the guidance of
Oscar Cox 1942-1944. Director of the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey in
London 1944-1945. Ball was specifically responsible for assessing the
effectiveness of the Allied bombing of German cities and transportation
systems. In May 1945, Ball and John Kenneth Galbraith debriefed Albert
Speer, the Nazi minister for armaments and war production, in an effort
to confirm their speculations on the ineffectiveness of Allied bombings.
Ball was awarded a Medal of Freedom for this work. General Counsel for
the French Supply Council in Washington 1945-1946. Ball was finally able
to join his firm, Cleary, Gottlieb, Friendly & Cox in July 1946. Monnet
retained the firm to represent the French Government, and Ball soon
found himself conferring with Monnet's deputy Robert Marjolin on the
creation of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC,
the later OECD). He continued to work with Monnet on establishing a
European economic plan throughout 1949, and this preliminary work laid
the foundation for the formation of the European Coal and Steel
Community (ECSC). After the ratification of the Treaty of Paris in
August 1952, Ball was retained as the ECSC's adviser and later served as
an adviser to the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the
European Economic Community (EEC). Talked Adlai Stevenson into running
for president twice and acted as his campaign advisor (James P. Warburg
was one of his aides). Attended the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954 and
became part of its steering committee. Still attended Bilderberg in
1993, the year before his death. Under Secretary of State for Economic
Affairs under JFK 1961-1962. Under Secretary of State 1962-1966. In his
new position, Ball worked on issues regarding trade and tariffs,
economic affairs, the Congo, and European integration. He worked closely
with Secretary of State Dean Rusk (Rhodes Scholar; Pilgrims; chair
Rockefeller Foundation; SMOM) and dealt directly with the President on
these matters. Very much opposed to the Vietnam war and decided to
resign because of it in 1966. Partner in Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb
1966-1968. Served as chair of the committee investigating the U.S.S.
Pueblo incident in 1968. Permanent U.S. representative to the United
Nations 1968. Fearing a Nixon victory in the presidential election, Ball
resigned in September to campaign for his friend Hubert Humphrey. Senior
managing director and partner in Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb 1969-1982.
Chairman of the in 1975 launched Washington Institute for the Study of
Conflict (WISC), of which its English branch stood in close contact with
Le Cercle. Unofficial advisor to Jimmy Carter 1977-1981. Co-founder of
the The American Austrian Foundation in 1984, together with Pilgrims
Society members Cyrus Vance, John E. Leslie, and David Rockefeller.
Member of the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, and
Pilgrims Society. Wrote a couple of books and articles on foreign
affairs. His son, Alan Ball, is said to have been an MI5 operative and
was a chairman of Tiny Rowland's Lonrho. Rowland worked with loads of
Middle-Eastern terrorists, was a member of Le Cercle, and had MI6 agents
like Nicholas Elliott on his board. In the 1990 book 'One Nation under
Israel', Ball is quoted as having said: "When leading members of the
American Jewish community give [Israel’s] government uncritical and
unqualified approbation and encouragement for whatever it chooses to do,
while striving so far as possible to overwhelm any criticism of its
actions in Congress and in the public media, they are, in my view, doing
neither themselves nor the U.S. a favor…They’ve got one thing going for
them. Most people are terribly concerned not to be accused of being
anti-Semitic, and the lobby so often equates criticism of Israel with
anti-Semitism. They keep pounding away at that theme, and people are
deterred from speaking out."
|Barber, Charles Finch
|CEO of American
Smelting & refining, director Americas Society, member Council on
|Barco, James William
to the United Nations 1960-1961, vice-chairman Atlantic Council of the
United States, trustee American University in Cairo, member Council on
|Barlow, Sir Clement
Secretary of Labor. Involved with British empire building.
|Barratt, J. Arthur
|Organized the St.
Louis World Fair and became Director General of the Pan American Union
in Washington, the building for which was provided by Pilgrim Society
member Andrew Carnegie.
|Bayne, Stephen F., Jr
|Married Lucie Culver
Gould in 1934, appeared on 1969 Pilgrims list. Possibly a bishop.
|Beck, James M.
College in Bethlehem. After an apprenticeship in law he was admitted to
the bar in 1884 and entered the law office of William F. Harrity, with
whom he formed a law partnership in 1891. Admitted to the bar of New
York City in 1903, and in 1922 to the bar of England, he rose to be one
of America's leading corporate lawyers. Assistant United States Attorney
for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania 1888-1892, United States
Attorney 1896-1900, joined the New York law firm of Shearman and
Sterling, continued his law practices in New York, Philadelphia and
Washington until 1921, appointed Solicitor General of the U.S.
1921-1925. As a Congressman he was the leading spokesman in the campaign
against Prohibition and he tried to fight the principles and legislation
of the New Deal. Reelected three consecutive times, he resigned in 1934.
Beck was one of the first Americans to make a case for the Entente, the
alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia prior to World War I.
His most famous book, "The Constitution of the United States" (1924),
sold over fifty thousand copies.
|Bell, Elliott V.
|Reporter for The New
York Times when the great depression hit in 1929, trustee Brookings
Institution, director of Chase Manhattan Bank, treasurer Council on
Foreign Relations 1952-1964, director Council on Foreign Relations
1953-1966, vice president and trustee John Simon Guggenheim Memorial
Foundation 1965-1972, chairman McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, editor
and publisher Business Week.
|Belmont, August, Jr.
|He was a son of
August Belmont, the Rothschild agent that funded the North during the
American civil war. The younger August Belmont was an 1875 graduate of
Harvard University, served as director of the National Park Bank, and
was an avid thoroughbred racing fan (owned Man O'War, one of the most
famous race horses). Following the United States' entry into World War
I, Belmont, at age 65, volunteered to assist and was sent to France by
the U.S. Army. His widow Eleanor Robson Belmont died at 100 in 1979.
|He was graduated in
1925 at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, with his A.B. degree. He was
graduated in 1928 at Colombia Law School with his L.L.B. degree. Joined
Kelly Drye Newhall & Maginnis, New York in 1925. He was made a partner
with Kelly Drye & Warren in 1941. He was director and treasurer of the
Julliard School of Music from 1941 to 1977. He was appointed Associate
Government Appeal Agent in 1944 Government Appeal Agent in 1945. He was
in the Coast Guard Reserve patrolling the docks in New Jersey at night.
After 1950, he became active in Head of the Harbor and did much to
presence the zoning regulations. He was director of the Midnight Mission
Society (an organization who helped 'unfortunate girls' i.e. unwed
mothers). He was a member of: The Century Association Knickerbocker Club
Bar, the Association of the Bar of the City of New York, the American
Bar Association, and the New York State Bar Association. Also a member
of Holland Lodge No. 8 F. and A.M., the New York State Society of the
Cincinnati, the Pilgrims of the United States, St Nicholas Society of
the City of New York, and the Society of the Mayflower Descendants.
|British Consul at
New York in 1908.
|Graduated from Yale
University in 1921, part-time vice president of the University of
Chicago 1937-1945, chairman Encyclopedia Britannica 1943-1973, assistant
Secretary of State 1945-1947 (active in organizing the United Nations),
Democrat senator 1949-1953, United States ambassador to (United Nations)
UNESCO in Paris 1963-1968, trustee of University of Chicago, trustee of
several schools and colleges.
William de la Poer
|Baron. Became a Navy
commander in 1875. Sat in Parliament as a Conservative 1875-1880.
Bombarded Alexandria, Egypt in 1882. Aide-de-camp to the Prince of Wales
1875-1876. Accompanying him on a visit to India, became a close personal
friend of King Edward VII. Again in Parliament 1885-1888 and resigned
under protest, authored “The Break-up of China” (1899), his brother was
Military Attaché at the British Embassy in Saint Petersburg, Russia,
1898-1903. In 1897 Beresford was promoted to rear-admiral and again
entered Parliament, this time representing York. He retained this seat
until 1900, although he spent much of his time in China representing the
Associated Chambers of Commerce, and from 1900 onwards was second in
command of the Mediterranean fleet. He returned to Parliament in 1902,
this time for Woolwich, but resigned in 1906 when he was promoted to
admiral and appointed chief of the Channel Fleet. He was in command of
the Mediterranean Fleet from 1905 until 1907. The first Pilgrim dinner
in New York was held in his honor.
|A well-known musical
conductor, spoke these words about the 1963 Kennedy assassination on
November 24, 1980, as written down by the Associated Press: "We
don’t dare confront the implications. I think we’re all agreed there was
a conspiracy and we don’t want to know. It involves such a powerful high
force in what we call the high places, if we do know, everything might
|Bertron, Samuel Reading
|Yale Skull & Bones
1885. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Vice president United States
Guaranty Trust. In June 1917, during WWI, Pilgrims Society member Elihu
Root was sent to Russia by President Wilson to arrange American
co-operation with the new revolutionary government. Samuel R. Bertron
went with him. Chairman of the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce.
|Berwind, Edward J.
Berwind-White Coal Mining Company. During his years at the helm of
Berwind-White Coal Mining, Berwind was closely associated with J.P.
Morgan in the consolidation, reorganization, integration, and expansion
of his coal operations. Berwind was reputed to be the world's largest
individual owner of coal mining properties. Berwind also was considered
a hard-driving businessman. He refused to bargain with employees, and
his mines were the last bastions of the open shop in the coal fields.
|Biddle, David H.
Associate Justice O. W. Holmes 1912, became a successful corporation
lawyer, chairman National Labor Relations Board 1934-1935, director
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia 1938-1939, appellate judge National
Labor Relations Board 1939-1940, Attorney General of U.S. 1941-1945,
U.S. judge for the trial of war criminals at Nuremberg 1945-1946.
|Biddle, Anthony J.
|Attended the Saint
Paul's School in New Hampshire and later Temple University. Rose in rank
from private to captain during WWI. Minister to Norway 1934-1937.
Ambassador to Poland in 1937. Deputy ambassador to France after the
Germans started invading Poland. US Ambassador to Belgium,
Czechoslovakia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Greece, Luxembourg, and
Yugoslavia, who were in exile in London (considered to be one of the
most important jobs during WWII) 1941-1944. In this position he became a
good friend of Prince Bernhard. Executive Intelligence Review wrote:
"The U.S. diplomat, Ambassador Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr., wrote to
President Roosevelt from London on Jan. 7, 1942, describing a clique
which controlled the fascist Vichy government of France, the government
which (more or less) ruled that country everywhere south of the German
zone of direct occupation. "This group," he said, "should be
regarded not as Frenchmen, any more than their corresponding numbers in
Germany should be regarded as Germans, for the interests of both groups
are so intermingled as to be indistinguishable; their whole interest is
focussed upon furtherance of their industrial and financial stakes.
Ambassador Biddle went on to detail the proof that the "Banque Worms
clique" controlled most parts of the Vichy government, with a special
emphasis on total control over all economic and related portfolios. On
paper, Banque Worms had been established earlier by the Lazard Frères
bank of Paris, on behalf of the Worms family of industrialists. In
reality, the closely integrated Lazard Brothers bank of London, Lazard
Frères of Paris, and Lazard Freres of Wall Street, had established
Banque Worms as a "cutout," a vehicle through which top financier
families could deploy the forces of the Synarchy." Resumed active
duty in the Army as a Lt. Colonel, rising to the rank of Brigadier
General in 1951. During those years he worked closely with General
Eisenhower as deputy chief of SHAEF and as a representative to EUCOM and
SHAPE. The 1950s found Biddle serving as Adjutant General of the State
of Pennsylvania. Member numerous Pennsylvania state boards and
commissions, and as a trustee at Temple University. In 1961 President
John F. Kennedy chose Biddle for his last diplomatic position, that of
Ambassador to Spain, where he served until his death.
|Bigelow, Robert W.
|Bingham, Robert Worth
|A member of a North
Carolina family of aristocratic pretensions. Robert Worth Bingham rose
to great heights as a newspaper publisher, political leader,
philanthropist, and ambassador to Great Britain (1933-1937), but his
life is surrounded by controversy to this day. Charges that he
contributed to the death of his second wife (the richest widow alive at
the time - of magnate Henry Flagler), an heiress whose bequest of five
million dollars helped purchase the Louisville Courier-Journal and
Times, followed him to the grave. For three quarters of a century the
history of the Bingham family of Louisville, Kentucky, has been one of
tragedy and controversy as well as wealth, power, and prestige. The
breakup of the Bingham dynasty in 1986, vividly chronicled on CBS
television's "Sixty Minutes" generated a flurry of books and articles on
Bingham and his family, much of it portraying Bingham as a villain. In
some accounts, Bingham drove his first wife to suicide and gave syphilis
to the second before murdering her to gain control of her inheritance.
Member American Bar Association; Society of Colonial Wars; Society of
the Cincinnati; Sons of the American Revolution; Alpha Tau Omega; Phi
|Bingham, Thomas Henry
|After the 1992
collapse of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), Lord
Bingham of Cornhill was appointed to head an official inquiry into why
the Bank of England failed to find out about the massive drug laundering
going on at this bank. Bingham and a U.S. Senate inquiry castigated the
Bank of England for its failures of supervision, but didn't conclude
anything was done on purpose. Bingham was a member of the Privy Council
since 1986, chairman Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts since
1994, trustee Pilgrim Trust (founded by Pilgrim Edward S. Harkness in
1930), president Seckford Foundation, member Advisory Council on Public
Records, the Magna Carta Trust and the British Records Association, Lord
Chief Justice of Great Britain 1996-2000. In 2002 wanted to legalize
Cannabis. Became a member of the Order of the Garter in 2005.
|Bissell, Pelham Saint
|President of the
Sons of the Revolution, council of the Society of Colonial Wars, past
commander, American Legion, Judge Advocate, Veterans of Foreign Wars and
member of the League of Nations, served on the legislative committee of
the Citizens' Union, vice-chairman of the Mayor's Fraternal Committee in
1922, president Justice of the New York Municipal Court 1934-1943.
|Black, Eugene Robert
|Yale Phi Beta Kappa,
officer in the U.S. Navy in the Atlantic during WWI, vice-president
Chase National Bank, president Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
1928-1934, chairman Federal Reserve System 1933-1934, president World
Bank 1949-1962, member Council on Foreign Relations, visitor of
Bilderberg, trustee Ford Foundation in 1967, chairman Brookings
|Bobst, Elmer Holmes
head of the The American Cancer Society beginning in 1944. Chairman of
Warner-Lambert Pharmaceutical, CEO of the New Jersey pharmaceutical
giant Warner Chilcott, and considered an architect of the modern
pharmaceutical industry. He has also been the president of La Roche, a
pharmaceutical company he admitted was involved in illegally selling
morphine to the underworld. In the seventies, Pope John Paul II Center
for Prayer and Study for Peace was located on his estate. Directors of
this center were Kurt Waldheim (Secretary General of the United Nations,
ex-nazi war criminal, friend of Arnold Schwarzenegger), Cyrus Vance
(Secretary of State, Pilgrim) and J. Peter Grace (Pilgrim, head of the
Knights of Malta in the United States). Bobst himself was a member of
the Knights of Malta. Bobst once wrote to his close friend Richard Nixon
(who started the 'War on Cancer' in 1971), "If this beloved country
of ours ever falls apart, the blame rightly should be attributed to the
malicious action of Jews." Bobst's granddaughters and
great-granddaughters have accused him of sexually abusing them. All this
didn't prevent that a huge library would be named after him.
|Boron, Robert Lew
|Boucher, Richard A.
|He entered the
Foreign Service in 1977. After studying Chinese, he served from 1979 to
1980 at the U.S. Consulate General in Guangzhou. In Washington he then
worked in the State Department's Economic Bureau and on the China Desk,
and returned to China with his wife from 1984 to 1986 as Deputy
Principal Officer at the U.S. Consulate General in Shanghai. Upon his
return to Washington in July 1986, he served as a Senior Watch Officer
in the State Department's Operations Center. From August 1987 to March
1989, he worked as Deputy Director of the Office of European Security
and Political Affairs. He started as Deputy Press Spokesman for the
State Department under Secretary Baker in March 1989 and became
Spokesman under Secretary Eagleburger in August 1992. Secretary
Christopher asked him to continue as Spokesman until June 1993. United
States Ambassador to Cyprus from 1993 to 1996. United States Consul
General in Hong Kong 1996-1999. Spoke to the Asia Society on March 24,
1998. US Senior Official for APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
forum, since July 1999. Spoke to the London Pilgrims on November 28,
2002. Has repeatedly condemned Israel's practice of killing terrorists
and instead called for negotiations to settle the Palestinian-Israeli
dispute. Supported the 2003 war against Iraq because it wasn't
cooperating with the sactions. Member of the Bohemian Grove.
|Brandi, Frederic H.
|Father was a top
coal executive in the German Steel Trust. Moved from Germany to the
United States in 1926. CEO of Dillon, Read & Co. in the 1950s and 1960s,
up until 1971. He was replaced by Nicholas Brady of the Bohemian Grove
Mandalay camp at that time. Brandi was also a member of the Bohemian
Grove camp Mandalay.
|Brewster, Kingman, Jr.
|Graduated from Yale
in 1941, where he was chairman of the Yale Daily News. His junior year,
he turned down an offer of membership in Skull and Bones. Brewster's
first job in 1941 was as a special assistant in the governmental office
of Nelson Rockefeller. In 1948, he received his law degree from Harvard
Law School. After teaching at Harvard Law School from 1950 to 1960, he
accepted the post of Provost at Yale, serving from 1960 to 1963.
President of Yale from 1963 to 1977. His presidency was marked by the
Black Panther trial and the admission of women as undergraduates. After
leaving Yale, he served as U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James (
the United Kingdom) from 1977 to 1981 and later was Master of University
College, Oxford, serving from 1986 until his death there in 1988. He was
a member of the Century Association and the Council on Foreign
|Brownlie, Ian G.M.
|He graduated from
St. Paul’s School in Garden City, N.Y., and the Lawrenceville School in
New Jersey. In 1962, he earned an M.B.A. from NYU’s Business School.
Brownlie served in the Marine Corps from 1954–56 and retired from the
Marine Corps Reserve as a captain. Professionally, he worked in real
estate, specializing in commercial leasing, beginning his career with
Brown, Harris & Stevens and was later affiliated with the Joseph F.
Bernstein Co. He became a principal with Wm. A. White & Sons, which
became Wm. A. White/Tishman East and was subsequently sold to Grubb &
Ellis. Brownlie was a member of the Gardiner’s Bay Country Club, Shelter
Island Yacht Club, the Union League Club of New York, St. Anthony Hall
of New York, Inc., and the Pilgrims of the United States. He was active
in politics in the Village of Dering Harbor, Inc., serving in various
capacities — trustee, deputy mayor, and mayor (1970–98).
|Bryce, Viscount James
|In 1886 he was made
under secretary for foreign affairs; in 1892 he joined the cabinet as
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster; in 1894 he was President of the
Board of Trade, and acted as chairman of the royal commission on
secondary education; and in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet in
1905 he was made chief secretary for Ireland; but in February 1907 he
was appointed British ambassador at Washington, D.C. (until 1913) and
took leave of party politics, his last political act being a speech
outlining what was then the government scheme for university reform in
Dublin, a scheme which was promptly discarded by his successor Augustine
Birrell. Wrote a few books including "The American Commonwealth" (1888).
In 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of
Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal
circles when the Boer War was being discussed. Meanwhile his academic
honours from home and foreign universities multiplied, and he became a
fellow of the Royal Society in 1894. In earlier life he was a notable
mountain-climber, ascending Mount Ararat in 1876, and publishing a
volume on Transcaucasia and Ararat in 1877; in 1899-1901 he was
president of the Alpine Club. He was ennobled in 1914, becoming 1st
Viscount Bryce. Following the outbreak of the First World War, Lord
Bryce was appointed by Herbert Asquith to report on alleged German
atrocities in Belgium. The report was published in 1915, and was damning
of German behavior; Lord Bryce's reputation in America was important in
influencing American opinion toward Germany before their entry into the
war. Bryce was acquainted with the Vanderbilts, and had detailed
documents about the 1915 Armenian extermination by the Turks. (Some have
argued in the past century that these local tension were exploited by
Grand Orient Masons, as to give the French Rothschilds unhampered access
to the Baku oil fields.)
|Bristol, Lee Hasting
vice-president (in 1932) and president of Bristol-Myers Inc., president
of the Association of National Advertisers.
|Brittain III, Alfred
Trust Company Director since 1966, chairman of the board of Bankers
Trust New York Corporation and Bankers Trust Company 1975-1987, member
of the Audit, Compensation and Corporate Employee Investment Committees,
trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, member
Council on Foreign Relations.
|Brittain, Sir Harry
||co-founder & chairman
|Educated at Repton
and Worcester College, Oxford, where he obtained a BA and an MA in law.
Called to the Bar in 1897 but only practiced for a week before retiring
from law in favour of business and journalism. Worked on the staff of
both the Standard and the Evening Standard. Co-founded the Pilgrims
Society in London and New York in 1902 and 1903, and became the first
chairman of the UK Pilgrims. Secretary to Sir C. Arthur Pearson, owner
of the Evening Standard. Worked with Pearson in the formation of the
Tariff Reform League in 1903. The aims of the Commission were to examine
and report on Chamberlains's fiscal proposals and their probable effects
on British trade and industries. Director of numerous daily and weekly
newspapers and other business concerns. Founded the Empire Press Union
in 1909, which became the Commonwealth Press Union in 1950. Members of
the CPU are newspapers of which there are currently over 700 from 50
Commonwealth countries in membership. These are represented by their
proprietors, senior executives and editors. The Union's aim is to uphold
the ideas and values of the Commonwealth and to promote, through the
Press, understanding and goodwill among its members. British
representative on the American Citizens Emergency Committee in 1914,
serving on a special mission throughout the USA in 1915. Staff member of
General Lloyd as captain of the London Volunteer Regiment, 1916, as
Director of Intelligence National Service Department, and as the founder
and chairman of the American officers club in London, 1917-1919. Member
of the Executive Committee of the Economic League, a very secretive
organization which was was set up in 1919 to fight Bolshevism and kept
files on thousands of 'subversives' until it was wound up in 1994. In
today's money, they millions of pounds every year working against the
British left. After the war he was the originator and honourary life
member of the Association of American Correspondents in London, 1919 and
the president of the Anglo-American delegation to Holland for the
celebration of the Pilgrim Fathers tercentenary, 1920. President of the
British International Association of Journalists 1920-1922. Patron of
the Society of Women Writers and Journalists from 1925, and was the
originator and organiser of the first Imperial Press Conference, 1932.
He was a member of the Anglo-American Brains Trust, 1942-1944 and was
awarded the Silver Medal of Merit and Diploma by the Poor Richard Club
of Philadelphia for his lifelong services to Anglo-American fellowship
and understanding in 1958. Conservative MP for Acton 1918-1929. Member
of the executive of the Empire Parliamentary Association from 1919 to
1929. Steered the Brittain Act for the protection of British birds
through Parliament in 1925. Member of the Commonwealth Parliamentary
Association from 1929. Honorary president of Friends of Italy 1936-1939.
Member of the central council of the Anglo-German Friendship Society
(mirrored by the Deutsch-Englische Gesellschaft), together with Lord
Walter Runciman and Lord McGowan. The driving force behind this
foundation, founded in 1935, was Ernest Tennant, a merchant banker and
friend of the Nazis international PR man von Ribbentrop since 1932. The
group soon gathered 50 members of the House of Commons and House of
Lords, 3 Directors of the Bank of England and "many generals, admirals,
bishops and bankers". Pilgrims Lord Lothian and Lord Londonderry were
among its council member. After the 1938 'Kristallnacht' 19 member
resigned, including its president, Lord Mount Temple (Louis
Mountbatten's father-in-law). On the other hand, 888 members did not
withdraw. In 1939 a book called 'Tory MP': "At meetings of the Anglo
German Fellowship leading Nazis advertise the merits of Germany's
internal and foreign policy; the society recommends and advertises the
writings of Nazi politicians; it shows Fascist films; it arranges a
"German educationalist" to address teachers in this country; it arranges
invitations for its members to attend the Nazi congress at Nuremberg."
In 1936 Harry Brittain, Admiral Domville, Mount Temple and Sir Frank and
Lady Newnes were "Ehrengaste" (guests of honour) at the Nuremberg Rally.
The day before the official opening a reception was held to enable them
to meet Hitler and his chief officials. Brittain was an executive member
of the Anti-Socialist Union. Amongst his other honours, he was created
KBE for public services in 1918, and CMG in 1924. He was a founder of
the Commonwealth Press Union, organized the first Imperial Press
Conferences, a Knight of the British Empire, and had a journalistic
scholarship named after him in 1960. Carlton Club. Executive of the
Anti-Socialist Union; Executive Committee, Economic League; Honorary
President of the Friends of Italy; member, Anglo-German Friendship
Society; Tory MP.
|Brown, Franklin Q.
|Listed in Who’s Who
as a mystery individual listing no date or place of birth, no marriage,
and no educational background. Involved with Redmond & Corporation,
director of American Beet Sugar Company, American Light & Traction
Company, S.A.L. Railway Company, J.G. White Engineering Corporation,
Lima Locomotive Works, M. & Salt Lake Railroad, Cuba Grapefruit Company,
Central Westchester & Fairfield Realty Company, Excess Insurance
Company, and Insurance Securities Company, National Surety Company,
president of Dobbs Ferry Bank, president of Independent Chemical
Company, United States Railroad Administration.
|Direct descendant of
Robert (I) the Bruce (1274-1329), King Of Scotland, who accepted the
Knights Templar in Scotland. One of the closest allies of the Bruce (at
the time) were the St. Clairs, which have also been represented in the
Pilgrims Society. The daughter of King Robert I married Walter Stuart
(Stewart), and their son became Robert (de Bruce) II. Father was the
late U.S. Senator William Cabell Bruce (Sr.) of Maryland. His older
brother was James Cabell Bruce, a very important New York-area banker.
Born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1898. Attended Princeton University, but
went on to serve in the US Army 1917-1920. Spent one year at the
University of Virginia Law School and the next year at the University of
Maryland Law School. Admitted to the Maryland Bar. Practiced law in
Baltimore 1921-1925. Member of the Maryland House of Delegates
1924-1926. Went to Rome as a vice consul in the Foreign Service
1925-1926. Worked at the State Department 1927-1928. W.A. Harriman & Co.
during the late 1920s. Member of the Virginia House of Delegates
1939-1942. American Red Cross chief representative in Great Britain
1940. OSS agent stationed in London where he worked with the Vatican
1941-1945. Eventually became director of the European Theater of
Operations of the OSS. U.S. Assistant Secretary of Commerce 1947-1948.
Chief of the European Cooperation Administration to France 1948-1949.
Ambassador to France 1949-1952. Under Secretary of State 1952-1953.
Special United States Observer at the Interim Committee of the European
Defense Community 1953-1954. Also Special American Representative to the
European High Authority for Coal and Steel 1953-1954. Ambassador to
Germany 1957-1959. Ambassador to Great Britain 1961-1969. Husband of
Paul Mellon’s sister (richest woman in America at the time). Their
daughter disappeared in 1967. Chief of the United States delegation to
the Paris Peace Conference on Vietnam 1970-1971. Identified as a vice
president of the Pilgrims Society in 1972, alongside John Hay Whitney.
Ambassador to China 1973-1974. Presidential Medal of Freedom 1976.
Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and has visited Bilderberg.
|Bruce, James Cabell
|Direct descendant of
Robert (I) the Bruce (1274-1329), King Of Scotland, who accepted the
Knights Templar in Scotland. One of the closest allies of the Bruce (at
the time) were the St. Clairs, which have also been represented in the
Pilgrims Society. The daughter of King Robert I married Walter Stuart
(Stewart), and their son became Robert (de Bruce) II. Father was the
late U.S. Senator William Cabell Bruce of Maryland. His brother was
David K.E. Bruce. Graduated from Princeton University in 1914, after
working in Woodrow Wilson's campaign for Governor of New Jersey.
Received his law degree from the University of Maryland in 1916. Joined
the staff of the International Banking Corporation in London, where he
was employed when World War I began. Rose from private to major in the
US Army, and served as a military aide to President Wilson at the Treaty
of Versailles negotiations in 1919. Vice president of the Exchange Bank
from 1921 to 1926 and vice president of the International Acceptance
Bank in 1926-1927. In 1927, he was elected to the board of directors of
the Commercial Credit Company of Baltimore, and a vice president of the
National Park Bank of New York. Vice president of Chase National Bank
from 1927-1931. From 1949 to 1950, he was the first director of the
Mutual Assistance Program, the forerunner of NATO, and was ambassador to
Argentina from 1947-1949. In 1931, James C. Bruce left Chase to return
to the Baltimore Trust Company as its president. In 1932, Bruce was a
director of the Commercial Credit Company of Baltimore. In 1933, he was
president of the Baltimore Trust Company, and chairman of the board of
the United Puerto Rican Sugar Company. The former president of the
Davison Chemical Company, C. Wilbur Miller, filed suit against James C.
Bruce, Albert H. Wiggin (Pilgrims) of the Chase National Bank, and
others, alleging that they conspired to wreck his company because he
refused to merge it with Rio Tinto Ltd. of England (New York Times, Jun.
28, 1933.), a company associated with the Rothschilds. One of the
defendants in sixteen lawsuits alleging negligence by twenty-three
officers and directors of the defunct Baltimore Trust, and settled his
liability for $50,000 (1936). Became a vice president of the National
Dairy Products Corporation in 1935-1947. In 1946, Bruce was vice
chairman of the United Hospital Fund. US Envoy to Argentina in
1947-1950. Rejoined Dairy Products Corporation in 1950. Director of
General American Investors, American Airlines, Avco Manufacturing
Company, Chemical Bank, Chemical Corn Exchange Bank, Niagara Fire
Insurance Company, Continental Insurance of the America Fore Group,
Hanover Bank, Fruehauf Trailer Company, Commercial Credit Company,
Grayson-Robinson Stores Inc., National Dairy Products Company and the
Republic Steel Company, and Revlon. Co-chairman of the Business Men's
Committee for Stevenson in 1956. Attended a 1960 dinner at the River
Club of presidential candidate John F. Kennedy.
|Son of Calvin
Bullock who set up the very powerful Bullock banking trust (unique among
large banking houses in that it was a proprietary business), which
included the Canadian Investment Fund (one of the most powerful Canadian
investment trusts in the thirties. People were joking why king George V
hadn't joined), Nation-Wide Securities, Carriers & General Corp. and
Dividend Shares. Calvin Bullock advertisements (father) never carry the
firm's address and Calvin himself was quite reclusive. Calvin also had a
lot of personal interest in Napoleon, Lord Nelson and their battles.
|Burden, William A.
|Vice president of
The Pilgrims at least in 1973, great great grandson of Commodore
Vanderbilt, interests in National Aviation Corporation, Brown Brothers,
Harriman & Company, William A.M. Burden & Company, investments; and was
a director of Aerospace Corporation; Allied Chemical Corporation;
American Metal Climax (AMAX); Columbia Broadcasting System; Lockheed
Aircraft Corporation; Union Oil & Gas Corporation; Cerro de Pasco
Corporation (mining interests) and Manufacturers Hanover Trust. Burden
was a member of National Aeronautics & Space Council, 1958-1959;
Ambassador to Belgium, 1959-1961; member U.S. Citizens Commission for
NATO, 1961-1962; trustee Columbia University; Foreign Service
Educational Foundation; French Institute in the U.S.; regent,
Smithsonian Institution and director of the Council on Foreign Relations
1945-1974. Member of the Atlantic Council of the United States. Burden
was decorated by Brazil; Germany; Peru; France; Italy and Belgium, in
which countries, we may reasonably assume, the Vanderbilts have
holdings. Reflecting his partnership with the British Crown in reuniting
America and Britain, he was also a director of the Atlantic Council,
which goal it seeks! The Vanderbilts intermarried with the Whitneys,
partners in Standard Oil with the Rockefellers, and we note as of late
1973 John Hay Whitney was a vice president of The Pilgrims. Virginia
Fair, daughter of Senator James Fair of California, a principal
beneficiary of the Ophir Silver Mine, part of the Comstock Lode, married
into the Vanderbilts.
|Burger, Warren Earl
|Floor manager at the
1948 and 1952 Republican conventions. U.S. Court of Appeals for the
District of Columbia in 1955. Supreme Court Chief Justice 1969-1986.
Automatically appointed chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution during
his appointment as Chief Justice. Followed up by Pilgrims Society member
William H. Rehnquist as Chief Justice. More than 800 dignitaties,
including President Clinton, Attorney General Janet Reno and 13 sitting
and retired Supreme Court justices attended the funeral services at
Washington's National Presbyterian.
|Burleigh, George W.
|Lived from the
second half of the 19th century until the first half of the 20th century
in the New York area.
|Burnham, Lord Edward
|Jewish and a member
of the B'naï B'rith. His father acquired the Daily Telegraph and Courier
in 1855, a few months after it was founded by Colonel Sleigh. Edward
Burnham became the co-editor of the newspaper from 1855 to 1873 and
later took the paper itself. The Daily Telegraph is now owned by Conrad
Black's Hollinger Group.
|Burns, Arthur Frank
|Born in Stanislau,
Austria, earned all his degrees at Columbia University and did all his
teaching there, economic adviser to president Dwight Eisenhower, Richard
Nixon, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter, chairman of the Federal Reserve
System 1970-1978, member Council on Foreign Relations.
|Bush, Irving T.
|Started to construct
a 200 acre industrial park on the waterfront in Brooklyn in 1900,
founder of the Bush Terminal Railroad, president of Bush Terminal Co.,
attended a 1908 Pilgrim meeting. He ordered the building of the London
Bush House in 1919, which became the most expensive building at that
time. It was meant to be an Anglo-American trade centre where buyers
could purchase goods in one place. It lost it's original function after
a few decades, but still exists today as an office to the BBC World
Service. The main entrance is very grand, with two statues and four big
columns reaching half the height of the nine-story building. Inscribed
above the doors is the legend "To the friendship of English Speaking
Peoples". Two statues symbolise Great Britain and America, they
each hold a flaming torch and a shield which have the British lion and
the American eagle on them. In between the statues is an altar embossed
with a Celtic cross. Irving T. Bush has no known relation to the
|Butler earned an A.B
(1882), M.A. (1883) and Ph.D. (1884), all in philosophy, at Columbia,
specializing in the writings of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. He
studied for a year at the universities of Berlin and Paris. Became a
staff member of the Department of Philosophy at Columbia College, later
known as Columbia University. In 1882, Nicholas Murray Butler was
appointed by Columbia president Henry Barnard to offer Saturday lectures
for teachers. The turnout was enormous. Member New Jersey Board of
Education from 1887 to 1895. Delegate to the Republican Convention
1888-1936. In 1891 Butler founded the Educational Review, a journal of
educational philosophies and developments. He served as its editor until
1921. Organized the New York College for the Training of Teachers in
1892, affiliated with Columbia. Chairman the Paterson school 1892-1893.
In these roles he led efforts to remove state political interference
from local New Jersey school systems. In New York City, he did the same,
spurring the creation of a citywide school board that emphasized
professionalism and policy over political spoils (1895–1897). When New
York City's consolidation was complete, New York State sought a similar
reform with Butler's advice, completed in 1904. Participated in the
formation of the College Entrance Examination Board in 1900. Had become
a close friend of Pilgrims Society member Elihu Root by this time.
President of Columbia University 1901-1945. Professor Carroll Quigley
wrote in 'Tragedy and Hope': "J.P. Morgan and his associates were
the most significant figures in policy making at Harvard, Columbia and
Yale while the Whitneys and Prudential Insurance Company dominated
Princeton. The chief officials of these universities were beholden to
these financial powers and usually owed their jobs to them... Morgan
himself helped make Nicholas Murray Butler president of Columbia."
Robert A. McCaughey wrote in 'Stand Columbia: A History of Columbia
University in the City of New York, 1754–2004': "A compulsive
name-dropper given to self-puffery, Butler was nevertheless an effective
administrator [of Columbia], and J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, and E. H.
Harriman sought to hire him to run their enterprises." Butler held
the presidency in some of their railroad companies. President of the
Germanistic Society of Columbia University in 1905-1906 and a director
from 1908-1917. It organized and sponsored lecture series for German
scholars in the United States. Travelled to Europe on occasion where he
met with Kaiser Wilhelm and Mussolini in his early fascist days. Quote
from the 1973 book 'The Glory and the Dream, a Narrative History of
America, 1932-1972', by William Manchester, pages 67-68: "Nicholas
Murray Butler told his students that totalitarian regimes brought forth
"men of far greater intelligence, far stronger character, and far more
courage than the system of elections," and if anyone represented the
American establishment then it was Dr. Butler, with his 34 honorary
degrees, and his thirty year tenure as president of Columbia
University." (quoted by Charles Savoie) Supposedly Butler agreed
with some of the Nazi racial theories about the superiority of the
Teuton race. Another quote attributed to him is: "The history of
American education and of our American contributions to philosophical
thought cannot be understood or estimated with[out] knowing of the life
work of Dr. William Torrey Harris." Harris, a supporter of Emmanuel
Kant and Georg Hegel, shaped modern American education to a large
degree. He also was highly influential in popularizing Hegel's
philosophies in the second half of the 19th century. Established a
friendship with Governor Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century.
President University Settlement Society 1905-1914. Became a trustee of
the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in 1905.
President American Academy in Rome 1905-1940s. President of the American
branch of International Conciliation, an organization founded in 1905 by
a Nobel peace laureate, Baron d'Estournelles de Constant (from an "old
aristocratic family which traced its genealogy back to the Crusades",
whatever that means). Chairman of the Lake Mohonk Conferences on
International Arbitration, which met periodically from 1907 to 1912.
President American Scandinavian Society 1908-1911. Influential in
persuading Andrew Carnegie (a Pilgrims member, Hegelian, and Social
Darwinist) to establish the Endowment in 1910 with a gift of $10,000,000
he served as head of the Endowment's section on international education
and communication, founded the European branch of the Endowment, with
headquarters in Paris, and held the presidency of the parent Endowment
from 1925 to 1945. In 1912, Roosevelt ran for the presidency as the
candidate of the Progressive Party, which drew most of its strength from
Republicans, against the nominees of the constituted party: Taft for the
presidency and Butler for the vice-presidency. By splitting the national
vote, they permitted the Democrat, Woodrow Wilson, to win the election.
President France-America Society 1914-1924. Nicholas Murray Butler, in
an address delivered before the Union League of Philadelphia, Nov. 27,
1915: "The peace conference has assembled. It will make the most
momentous decisions in history, and upon these decisions will rest the
stability of the new world order and the future peace of the world."
Both Nicholas Murray Butler and Elihu Root were staunch supporters of
the League of Nations that would emerge after WWI. In 1916 Butler failed
in his attempt to secure the Republican presidential nomination for
Root. President American Hellenic Society 1917-1940s. William Bostock
paper (University of Tasmania), 'To the limits of acceptability:
political control of higher education' (2002): "On October 8, 1917,
the famous historian Charles A. Beard resigned from Columbia University
in protest over the dismissal of two colleagues, Professors Cattell and
Dana, for having publicly opposed the entry of the United States into
World War I. Cattell and Dana urged opposition to the draft, incurring
the censure of Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler and the
Columbia Board of Trustees. There had also been a history of conflict
over academic leadership and governance between Butler and Cattell, a
distinguished psychologist." Michael Parenti, 'Against Empire'
(1995), chapter 10: "A leading historian, Charles Beard, was grilled
by the Columbia University trustees, who were concerned that his views
might "inculcate disrespect for American institutions." In disgust Beard
resigned from Columbia, declaring that the trustees and Nicholas Murray
Butler sought "to drive out or humiliate or terrorize every man who held
progressive, liberal, or unconventional views on political matters."
Elihu Root, Nicholas Murray Butler, and Stephen P. Duggan Sr. (CFR
director) founded the Institute for International Education in 1919.
Failed to secure the Republican presidential nomination in 1920. During
the 1920s Butler was a member of the General Committee of the American
Society for the Control of Cancer, chaired by Thomas W. Lamont, a
Rockefeller banker and Pilgrims Society member. John D. Rockefeller, Sr.
once wrote a public letter to Butler explaining why he supported the
prohibition movement. According to Richard Koudenhove-Kalergi in his
1958 book 'Eine Idee erobert Europa. Meine Lebenserinnerungen'
(translated): "One of my most energetic American friends and patrons
was the president of the Columbia University, Nicholas Murray Butler,
the president of the Carnegie Endowment at the same time. He wrote the
foreword to the American edition of Paneuropa." Kalergi's Paneuropa
movement was set up and funded by Max Warburg and Louis Rothschild in
1923. Paul and Felix Warburg were promoting the movement in the United
States and Rothschild-ally Leopold S. Amery was a major supporter from
the United Kingdom. Stephen P. Duggan, the CFR director and co-founder
of the Institute for International Education, became the president of
the American Cooperative Committee of the Pan-European Union (he held
this position from 1925 to 1940). In 1927 Butler assisted the U.S. State
Department in developing the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Failed to secure the
Republican presidential nomination in 1928. President of the Pilgrims
Society 1928-1946. Visitor of the Bohemian Grove and an honorary member
by 1929. Butler gave the core members of the Frankfurt School’s
Institute for Social Research a home in exile at Columbia University in
1934. These people were supporters of Georg Hegel, Karl Marx, Friedrich
Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, and Max Weber. Among these people was Herbert
Marcuse, a Jewish Marxist Hegelian, who became the 'father of the New
Left' in the 1960s. President Italy-America Society 1929-1935. Director
of the New York Life Insurance Corporation 1929-1939. Nobel Peace Prize
1931. Received a gold medal from the National Institute of Social
Sciences at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria in 1932, together with J.P.
Morgan. On November 19, 1937, Butler attended a meeting where Pilgrims
Society member Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, received a
Nobel Prize for his work in establishing the League of Nations. Both
Butler and Lord Cecil held speeches about the role the League of Nations
should have. Although it is only a rumor, Butler is supposed to have
said at this meeting (in private) that communism was a tool of the
British financial powers to knock down national governments and to bring
about a world government in the future. Chairman Carnegie Corporation of
New York 1937-1945. Vice-president International Benjamin Franklin
Society in 1939. Governor Pan American Trade Committee in 1939. Governor
of the Metropolitan Club, founded by J.P. Morgan in 1891, and which
counted among its members two Vanderbilts, three Mellons, five Du Ponts,
and six Roosevelts. He was a governor Honorary president American
Society of French Legion of Honor from 1944 on. Decorated by China,
France, Dominican, Republic, Cuba, Germany, Greece, Yugoslavia, Belgium,
Poland, Italy, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Holland, Chile
and other countries. Quigley has quoted Butler as saying "The world
is divided in to three classes of people: a very small group that makes
things happen, a somewhat larger group that watches things happen, and
the great multitude which never knows what happened."
|Order of the British
Empire, treasurer of the Population Investigation Committee in 1936,
governor of the Bank of England 1936-1961, vice president of the
Eugenics Society 1951-1952 and a long time fellow, managing director of
Cadbury Bros. Ltd., including what is now Cadbury Schweppes, a $6
billion business in beverages, confections and other items. His two sons
have taken over the business empire and one of them has also been
governor of the Bank of England. His nephew, George Woodall Cadbury,
wrote "Population changes and economics" (1941) and "The
Case for Voluntary Euthanasia" (1971). There have been more
Cadbury's busy in the eugenics/population control movement.
chairman Western Union (During the 20s and 30s he was involved with
laying the first transnational phone lines). In a Senate subcommittee
hearing Carlton and others admitted that British (Naval) Intelligence
was spying on the company and that this was the most common thing in the
world. This practice went back to at least the first half of the 19th
century. Carlton also was director International Acceptance Bank, Chase
National Bank, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., American Express Co.,
the American Sugar Refining Co., American Telegraph and Cable Co.,
American International Corporation (very involved with the Bolshevik
Revolution of 1917), World Cable Systems, member Newcomen Society.
|Born in Dunfermline,
Scotland, in 1835. His father, William Carnegie was a master handloom
weaver like his father and grandfather before him. Went to school at the
age of 8. His family moved to America in 1848 to seek a better life and
ended up just north of Pittsburgh. Carnegie went to work as a bobbin boy
in a local textile mill owned by a fellow Scot. He made $1.20 a week.
Shortly thereafter he got a better paying job in a bobbin factory of yet
another expatriate Scot. His job was dipping the bobbins into an oil
bath and firing the factory boiler. He also got to work in the Company
office on occasion where he decided he needed to learn double-entry
bookkeeping. Consequently, in addition to working 12 hour days, he went
to night school across the river in Pittsburgh. He got a job at the
O'Reilly Telegraph Company as a messenger boy. Carnegie delivered
messages to all the important businesses in the city and soon knew a
great deal about Pittsburgh's commercial affairs. In 1851 he became a
full time telegraph operator. Became a protege for Thomas A. Scott in
1853, who was president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Carnegie had come
to Scott's attention because of his reputation as being the best
telegraph operator in town and Scott needed a personal telegrapher and
secretary. Scott established the first holding company, which was
illegal at the time due to the corporate containment laws of the
revolution. Scott's influence in politics was huge, thereby breaking
another containment law, that of corporate involvement in politics.
Scott hired members of the Ku Klux Klan as board members to his
companies. He did this in order to stop the attacks by the Klan on the
railroad work crews of newly emancipated slaves. To avoid bad publicity
as much as possible, Scott was buying up newspapers in the North and
South forcing editors to censor his critics. His railroads were also
important during the Civil War, turning the tides of different battles.
In 1856 Scott persuaded Carnegie to buy some stock and even loaned him
the money to do so. Carnegie bought the stock primarily because he
admired Scott and regarded him as a father figure. The experience of
receiving dividends changed Carnegie's attitude and he became an
enthusiastic investor. In 1859 Carnegie was appointed Superintendent of
the Pittsburgh Division, the most important and difficult Division of
the railroad. Co-founded the successful Columbia Oil Company in 1861,
but grew tired of the messy oil business and got out in 1865. Went into
the iron business with his partner Thomas Miller in 1861. Carnegie,
Miller, and two other partners founded the Cyclops Iron Works in
Pittsburgh in 1864. Carnegie quit the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1865 to
start up the Keystone Bridge Company, since many bridges were destroyed
during the Civil War. In 1868 Carnegie establishes the Keystone
Telegraph Company with several associates from the railroad. The company
receives permission from the Pennsylvania Railroad to string telegraph
wire across the railroad's poles, which stretch across the entire state.
This is such a valuable asset that Keystone is able to merge almost
immediately with the Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company, allowing
Keystone's investors to triple their return. Carnegie writes himself a
letter in 1868 in which he outlines his plans for the future. He
determines to resign from business at age 35 and live on an income of
$50,000 per year, devoting the remainder of his money to philanthropic
causes, and most of his time to his education. He will change his mind.
In 1869 Carnegie met Junius Morgan (J. P. Morgan's father and a George
Peabody business partner since 1854; Peabody is said to have been an
agent of the Rothschild family) in London. Junius Morgan was one of the
leading investment bankers in London and his word "was as good as gold".
If Morgan endorsed a bond issue, it would be easily placed. Carnegie
made substantial fees (typically 2.5%) selling bonds in Europe. He
placed issues for various bridge construction projects and several
railroads. In 1870 he built his own blast furnace to guarantee supplies
of pig iron that he controlled. In 1872 Carnegie came back from a trip
to England convinced that the future was steel. While in England in
1872-1873, on one of his frequent trips to Great Britain, he met Henry
Bessemer and saw the Bessemer process of making steel. This convinced
him that steel was the future of the railroad industry. He then
organized Carnegie, McCandless & Company (with some new partners as some
of his earlier iron partners weren't convinced yet) in the United States
and built a new steel plant named the Edgar Thompson Steel Works.
Unfortunately some of his partners were unable to come up with their
shares in the project because of the financial depression of 1873. At
the same moment his mentor and friend Thomas Scott wanted Carnegie to
bail out his troubled company. Carnegie (wisely) refused, Thomas went
bankrupt, and their friendship ended. To keep his enterprise afloat
Carnegie took his partner Holley with him to London in the summer of
1874 and the two were, with the aid of Junius Morgan (the Peabody banker
and father of J.P. Morgan), able to sell $400,000 worth of bonds to
London investors. The Edgar Thomson works were completed in 1875 and the
business was an immediate success. In 1877 they already had a 13% share
in the steel rail market, which had risen to 29% by 1897. Because
Carnegie always had majority control in the partnership, he insisted
upon plowing almost all the profits back into improving the works,
always upgrading, always in search of the littlest efficiencies. He was
always concerned more with building and improving than spending
dividends. In October 1883 Carnegie bought the Homestead Works from a
group of Pittsburgh investors. In 1886 Carnegie made Charles M. Schwab
(at the age of 24; later Pilgrims Society member and known as a "master
hustler") general superintendent of the Homestead Works. Married Louise
Whitfield of New York in 1887 and they had one child, Margaret. Came up
with the idea of Carnegie Hall in 1889 and provided the funds to build
it. It was opened in 1891, although construction work continued until
1897. The Carnegie family owned the music hall until 1924 and it is
still legendary for its acoustics. In 1892 Frick persuaded Carnegie to
merge Carnegie Brothers and Carnegie, Phipps, Company into one vast
company, Carnegie Steel. It had an initial capitalization of $25,000,000
which was far below the actual value of the company. Carnegie owned 55%,
Frick 11%, Phipps 11%, and nineteen other partners 1% each. In 1895,
Andrew Carnegie presented the people of Pittsburgh with the Carnegie
Institute. It housed a library, a music hall, an art gallery, and a
museum of natural history. It's important to note that Carnegie always
(also in the future) funded the building of the actual libraries, but
required local governments to legislate commitments to fund ongoing
maintenance, staff, and book purchases from public coffers. Carnegie was
a generous financial supporter and one of the many vice presidents of
the Anti-Imperialist League, which was formed in June 1898 to fight U.S.
annexation of the Philippines, citing a variety of reasons ranging from
the economic to the legal to the racial to the moral. The league died
after the Treaty of Paris was signed in December of that same year.
Carnegie consolidated his holdings into Carnegie Steel Co. in 1899 at
which moment he controlled 1/4 of American steel production.. In 1900
Carnegie provided $1 million to the Carnegie Technical Schools in
Pittsburgh which developed into the Carnegie Institute of Technology in
1912. Sold Carnegie Steel in 1901 to J.P. Morgan for $480 million and
used the money to retire. Morgan renamed the company to U.S. Steel.
Carnegie had been a director of American Express, Illinois Central
Railroad, United States Trust Company of New York, Western Union
Telegraph, City & Suburban Homes, and Cuban-Dominican. Gave the New York
Public Library $5.2 million for 65 branch libraries in 2001. Created the
Trust for the Universities of Scotland in 1901. The gift of $10 million
that endowed the trust was larger by several orders of magnitude than
the assistance provided by the government of the day to the four ancient
Scottish Universities. Established the Carnegie Institution of
Washington in 1902, an organization for scientific discovery. His
intention was for the institution to be home to exceptional individuals
- men and women with imagination and extraordinary dedication capable of
working at the cutting edge of their fields. The first president of the
institution was Daniel Coit Gilman (incorporated Skull & Bones into the
Russell Trust). The Carnegie Teachers' Pension Fund was established in
1905 and Carnegie endowed the fund with $10 million. It was incorporated
in the following year as the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
Teaching and did a lot to improve the level of education in the US.
Member of the Philippine Independence Committee in 1904 and a vice
president of the Filipino Progress Association 1905-1907. Established
the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission in the US in 1904 to help people that
had been struck by some kind of disaster. It was established in Britain
in 1908 and was soon followed by nine Funds on the European continent:
France, Germany (doesn't exist anymore), Belgium, Denmark, Italy, the
Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. Funded the first 'Temple
of Peace', known as the Bureau of American Republics in Nicaragua, which
was ready in 1908. Funded the second 'Temple of Peace', known as the
Central American Court of Justice, which was ready in 1910. Contributed
to the building of the 'House of the Americas' in Washington D.C. in
1910, which became the headquarters of the Pan American Union. The
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was set up in 1910 at the
initial direction of Pilgrims Society member Nicholas Murray Butler (of
the Pilgrims). The first president of the Carnegie Endowment was Elihu
Root (1910-1925; Pilgrims), who became a primary founder of the Council
on Foreign Relations in later years. The Carnegie Endowment publishes
Foreign Policy magazine since 1970, which was established by Samuel P.
Huntington (who wrote ‘The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of
World'). The Endowment conducts programs of research, discussion,
publication, and education on international affairs and US foreign
policy. Today it is funded by the Rockefeller, Luce, and Ford
Foundations, AIG, Boeing, Citigroup, and other corporations. Andrew
created the Carnegie Corporation of New York in 1911, which is the
grant-making organization. Funded the third 'Temple of Peace', known as
the Palace of Peace at the Hague, which was ready in 1913 and is owned
by the Carnegie Foundation. The Dutch Royals were present at the
inauguration. Created the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust in 1913. It was
involved in the restoration of some 3,500 church organs throughout the
British Isles and the creation of the more than 2800 Carnegie libraries
in the United States, Canada, the British Isles, and many countries of
the British Commonwealth. 660 of these libraries were located in the
United Kingdom and Ireland. The Church Peace Union (today known as the
Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs) was established at
a meeting at the home of Andrew Carnegie in 1914 with an endowment of
over $2 million. When WWI broke out in 1914, Carnegie left Scotland. The
Carnegie Endowment established the American Council of Learned Societies
in 1919. Elihu Root prepared the final will of Carnegie on March 31,
1919. When he died that same year, Carnegie had given away over $350
million. He was known as a Social Darwinist (supporting the work of
Darwin and Herbert Spencer) and a follower of William Torrey Harris, the
highly influential American educator who popularized the theories of
Georg Hegel and Emmanuel Kant.
Today the Carnegie Endowment is one of the
driving forces of the globalization process and funds numerous United
Nations programs. The Carnegie Corporation of New York sponsors the CFR
on a continuous basis with grants ranging from $25,000 to $900,000
annually and the Atlantic Council of the United States with $25,000 to
$100,000 annually. It donated $200,000 to the Royal Institute of
International Affairs in 2003. The American Red Cross receives several
hundred thousand dollars a year. The Staten Island Zoological Society
and the Museum of Jewish Heritage (the ‘Living Memorial to the
Holocaust') each receive $100,000 a year. Some other organizations that
receive large amounts of grants are the Institute of Semitic Studies,
the Center for Jewish History, the American Assembly, the American
Museum Of Natural History (Charles Darwin), the American Foreign Policy
Council, and the Moscow School of Political Studies. The Carnegie
Corporation makes (globalist) research grants to almost, if not all the
major universities in the United States and southern Africa. These
grants add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars annually to even
several million a year to some of the larger universities. The
universities in the United States that receive these grants are:
America, Arizona, Bradford, Boston, Brigham Young, California, Carnegie
Mellon, Catholic, Chicago, Cincinnati, Claremont, Colorado, Columbia,
Connecticut, DePau, Dillard, Duke, Emory, Fort Hare, Georgia,
Georgetown, George Washington, Harvard, Illinois, Indiana, Johns
Hopkins, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Northwestern, Notre
Dame, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Princeton, Queens, Rutgers,
Stanford, Syracuse, Temple, Tennessee, Texas, Tufts, Utah, Virginia,
Washington, Wisconsin, and Yale. The universities in southern Africa
that receive Carnegie grants are: Cape Town, KwaZulu-Natal, Pretoria,
Witwatersrand, Western Cape, Makerere, Dar es Salaam, Ghana, Obafemi
Awolowo, Jos, Ahmadu Bello, Stellenbosch, Rand Afrikaans, Rhodes, and
Makerere. Many of these South African universities receive $2 million a
year. Other universities that receive Carnegie research grants are the
University of the Pacific, the Central European University (chaired by
George Soros), the American University of Beirut, and the Australian
National University. The Carnegie Corporation also funds several
umbrella organizations in the international education system. Among them
are the American Association of University Professors, the American
Forum for Global Education, the Association of American Colleges and
Universities, the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and
Colleges, and the Association of African Universities. The Carnegie
Corporation works closely with the Ford Foundation, the MacArthur
Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and others.
educated at Eton and RMA Sandhurst. In 1938 he succeeded his father as
6th Baron Carrington and took his seat in the House of Lords on his 21st
birthday in 1940. In WWII he served as a major in the Grenadier Guards
and was awarded the Military Cross. Went into politics and joined the
Conservatives. Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry for Agriculture
and Food 1951-1954. Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Defence
1954-1956. High Commissioner to Australia 1956-1959. Became a member of
the Privy Council in 1959. First Lord of the Admiralty 1959-1963.
Minister without Portfolio and Leader of the House of Lords 1963-1964.
Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords 1964-1970. Defence
Secretary 1970-1974. Chairman of the Conservative Party 1972-1974.
Secretary of State for Energy from January to March 1974. Stepped
temporarily out of politics in 1974. Has been a director of Rio Tinto,
Barclays Bank, Cadbury Schweppes, Hollinger International, Amalgamated
Metal, British Metal, and Hambros Bank. Attended the Trilateral
Commission in the 1970s. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and
the Royal Institute for International Affairs. One of the few who was in
the loop of Brian Crozier's (Le Cercle) Shield Committee that succeeded
in getting Margaret Thatcher elected in 1979. British Foreign Secretary
for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 1979-1982. Resigned over the
Falkland crisis although he expressed his opinion that much of the
criticism was unjustified. President of the Pilgrims of Great Britain
since 1983. Joined Kissinger Associates in the 1983-1984 period.
Secretary General of NATO 1984-1988. Member of the Order of the Garter
since 1985. Identified as a governor of the Atlantic Institute for
International Affairs in 1987. Chairman of Bilderberg 1989-1998.
Governor of the Ditchley Foundations.
|Cates, Louis S.
Mining Congress, chairman Phelps-Dodge Corporation (the world's number
two leading producer of copper and molybdenum and is the world's largest
producer of continuous-cast copper rod) 1930-1947. The Phelps-Dodge
company was a main financier of the 1934 fascist plot against FDR. The
vice president of Phelps-Dodge Corporation, Cleveland Dodge, was one of
the Crusaders' National Advisors, who were working together with The
American Libert League to turn public opinion pro-fascist. They worked
together with the du Ponts, Morgans, Harrimans and many other wealthy
influential families, many of them Pilgrims.
|Cates, John Martin,
|Member of the
executive committee of the Wolf’s Head Society of Yale, worked at the
United States Mission to the United Nations and worked close with
McGeorge Bundy and George Wildman Ball, president Center For
Inter-American Relations in New York, member Council on Foreign
|Catlin, George Edward
|Educated at St
Paul's School, New College, Oxford, and Cornell University, where he was
professor of politics 1924-1959. He was lecturer at various
universities, including Yale, Calcutta, Columbia, Peking and Berkeley.
An Assistant Professor of Politics at Cornell by the age of 28 and
subsequently twice acting chairman. In 1925 Catlin wrote the first of
many articles advocating the closest Anglo-American cooperation on every
level, in fact organic union. In 1926 he was appointed Director of the
National Commission (Social Research Council) to study the impact of
prohibition in the United States. Between 1928 and 1931 Catlin was
attached to the personal staff of Sir Oswald Mosley, a period before
Mosley had made his final break with the Labour Party. From 1929 onwards
Catlin attempted to win a suitable Labour Party nomination and he
unsuccessfully stood for Brentford in 1931 and for Sunderland in 1935.
In 1929 he assisted H.G. Wells, Arnold Bennett and other literati in
establishing The Realist magazine and between 1935 and 1937 he served on
the executive of the Fabian Society. During the 1930s Catlin traveled
abroad extensively, journeying to Germany where he witnessed the
Dimitrov trial, with its sinister foreshadowing of what Nazism was to
become, to Russia for a prolonged examination of the newly established
Communist regime and to Spain during the depths of the Civil War.
Throughout this period Catlin wrote a large number of journalistic
pieces, principally for the Yorkshire Post. He served on the campaign
team of Presidential candidate Wendell Wilkie during 1940 and his book,
One Anglo-American Nation appeared in 1941. In 1931 Catlin met Gandhi
for the first time in London and he became an early advocate of Indian
independence, visiting the sub-continent in 1946 and again in 1947 and
publishing his tribute to the assassinated leader, In the Path of
Mahatma Gandhi, during 1948. He lectured in Peking in 1947, served as
Provost of Mar Ivanios College in Indiana in 1953-54 and a Chairman and
Bronfman Professor in the Department of Economics and Political Science
at McGill University between 1956 and 1960. His autobiography, on which
he had worked sporadically since the end of the First World War, was
finally published in 1972 as For God's Sake, Go.
|Catto, Henry Edward,
|Graduate of Williams
College. Deputy representative to the Organization of American States
1969-1971. U.S. ambassador to El Salvador 1971-1973. Chief of protocol
of the White House and Department of State 1974-1976. U.S.
representative to the United Nations Offices in Geneva 1976-1977.
Assistant secretary of Defense for Public Affairs and Pentagon spokesman
1981-1983. Vice chairman and president of Broadcast Group at H & C
Communications 1983-1989 (operator of network television stations
Houston, Orlando-Daytona Beach, San Antonio). U.S. ambassador to Great
Britain 1989-1991. Director of the United States Information Agency
1991-1993. Partner in the insurance firm Catto & Catto.
Diplomat-in-residence at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Member
of the Smithsonian National Board. Vice-chairman of the Aspen Institute.
Member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Chairman of the Atlantic
Council of the United States since 1999.
|Calhoun, John Calwell
|Was with the
Confederate Army at the Battle of Fort Sumter. His wife, Linnie Adams,
was grandniece of Richard M. Johnson, vice president of the U.S.,
1837-1941. After the war he had agricultural interests in Alabama,
Mississippi and Arkansas and was part of the management of the Cotton
Exposition in 1884 at New Orleans. He was special ambassador to France
in 1897, sent by the S.A.R.---Sons of the American Revolution (France
assisted the Colonies in becoming free from the British). Calling
himself a "financier" (perhaps the Erlangers put him in business) in the
1897-1942 volume, he was president of the Baltimore Coal Mining &
Railroad Company and “Albertite Oilite & Cannel Coal Co. Ltd."
|Caulcutt, Sir John
|Director of large
companies. No other info.
|Cave, Viscount George
|Having served as
standing Counsel to Oxford University for two years as well as Attorney
General to the Prince of Wales, in 1915 Cave was appointed Solicitor
General and knighted. The following year, he was made Home Secretary in
Lloyd George's coalition government, a post he held for three years. In
1918, Sir George Cave was ennobled as Viscount Cave, of Richmond in the
County of Surrey. The following year, he became a Lord of Appeal, and
chaired a number of commissions, including the Southern Rhodesian
commission and the Munitions Enquiry Tribunal. In 1922, he became Lord
Chancellor in Bonar Law's government, and again served in this capacity
in Baldwin's first administration. Having been made GCMG in 1921, he was
also elected Chancellor of Oxford University in 1925.
|Cecil, Lord Robert
||Member of the very
powerful Cecil family that has produced numerous members of the Order of
Garter and the Privy Council, starting with Sir William Cecil in the
1500s. They intermarried with elite blue blood families as de Vere,
Arundel, Plantagenet, and Cavendish. William Cecil and his protégé Sir
Francis Walsingham devised an intricate spy network during the latter
years of Elizabeth I's reign that succeeded in uncovering numerous
Catholic plots against the monarch. Sir William Cecil's daughter, Anne,
married Edward de Vere, the 17 th Earl of Oxford and a member of what
was quite possibly the bluest of blue blood families in existence. De
Vere had worked for William Cecil and the throne since a young age and
was later rumored to have written the works of Shakespeare. Lady Diana
Cecil married the 18th Earl of Oxford.
Third son of his namesake Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of
Salisbury, who was a member of the Order of the Garter and the Privy
Council. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury was the Chancellor of Oxford
University from 1869 to 1903, a fellow of All Souls, and a British prime
minister for 14 years. Carrol Quigley described the Rhodes secret
society and the Round Table Group (All Souls, Oxford) as the 'Cecil
Bloc'. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury and his family were really the
prime movers behind this network. Robert grew to like Benjamin Disraeli,
who he had previously distrusted as a Jew. Disraeli eventually became a
housefriend to the family and was invested into the Order of the Garter.
Baron Lionel de Rothschild was another close friend of Disraeli. One of
Cecil's sisters was the mother of Arthur J. Balfour (An occultist who
wrote a letter to Lionel de Rothschild in November 1917 declaring that
the British government stood behind zionist plans to build a Jewish
national home in Palestine) and Gerald W. Balfour. Even today, the
Hatfield House is the Hertfordshire home of the family, built between
1609 and 1611 by the1st Earl of Salisbury; a Privy Councillor and Knight
of the Garter who was the Chief Minister to James I.
Robert Cecil, the third son of 3rd Marquess of
Salisbury, was educated at home until 1877, which he considered superior
to his later college education. Went to Eton College and Oxford where he
studied law and turned out to excel at debate. Admitted to the Bar in
1887. Married Lady Eleanor Lambton in 1889. Law career from 1887 to
1906. Member of the Coefficients diner-debate Club which organized
monthly meetings between 1902 and 1908. Other members were H.G. Wells,
Arthur Balfour (a cousin of Cecil), Alfred Milner, Halford Mackinder,
Earl Bertrand Russell (often with a different, but not more humane
opinion than the others), Viscount Edward Grey, Sidney and Beatrice
Webb, and Leopold Amery (Rothschild associate). Member of the
Conservative Party to the House of Commons 1906-1910. Set up the RT
Group in 1910 with Lionel Curtis and others. Independent Conservative
member House of Commons 1911-1923. Worked for the Red Cross 1914-1915.
Became a member of the Privy Council in 1915. Assistant Secretary of
State for Foreign Affairs 1915-1916. Minister of Blockade from 1916 to
1918, being responsible for devising procedures to bring economic and
commercial pressure against the enemy. Assistant Secretary of State for
Foreign Affairs 1918-1919. Chancellor of Birmingham University
1918-1944. Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council of the Versailles
Peace Treaty in 1919 and one of the principal draftsmen of the League of
Nations Covenant. Co-founder and first chairman of the Royal Institute
of International Affairs in 1920. Became the first 1th Viscount of
Chelwood in 1923. Lord Privy Seal 1923-1924. President of the British
League of Nations Union 1923-1945. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1924-1927. In 1985 John Coleman named Robert Cecil as the brainchild
behind the Unity of Science Conferences that ran from 1929 to 1941.
Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937 for his work in establishing the
League of Nations. During this meeting he and co-Pilgrims Society member
Nicholas Murray Butler spoke in favor of expanding the role of the
League of Nations. Present at the final meeting of the League of Nations
in 1946 and ended his speech with the words: "The League is dead, long
live the United Nations." Cecil's autobiography, 'All the Way', was
published in 1949. Member Pilgrims Society. Today, his great great
nephew, 7th Marquess of Salisbury, is a member of Le Cercle and the
|New York lawyer,
vice president of the China Society of America.
|Chaffee, Adna Romanza
|A General in the
United States Army. Chaffee took part in the Indian Wars, played a key
role in the Spanish-American War, and was instrumental at crushing the
Boxer Rebellion in China. He also fought in the Philippine-American War
in 1901 and 1902. Chaffee was the Chief of Staff of the United States
Army from 1904 to 1906, overseeing far-reaching transformation of
organization and doctrine in the Army.
||he first half of his
career was spent in business and, after 1911, in the city government of
Birmingham, of which he became lord mayor in 1915. In 1917 he was
director of national service, supervising conscription, and the
following year, at the age of 50, he was elected to Parliament as a
Conservative. During the 1920s he served both as chancellor of the
exchequer (1923–24) and minister of health (1923, 1924–29). In the
latter position, he enacted a series of important reforms that
simplified the administration of Britain's social services and
systematized local government. In 1931 he again became chancellor of the
exchequer and held that office until he succeeded Stanley Baldwin as
prime minister in 1937. During the 1930s, Chamberlain's professed
commitment to avoiding war with Hitler resulted in his controversial
policy of “appeasement,” which culminated in the Munich Pact (1938).
Although contemporaries and scholars during and after the war criticized
Chamberlain for believing that Hitler could be appeased, recent research
argues that Chamberlain was not so naive and that appeasement was a
shrewd policy developed to buy time for an ill-prepared Britain to
rearm. After Germany's invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1939, he pledged
military support to Poland and led Britain to war in September. After
the British debacle in Norway, he was forced to resign in May, 1940. He
was lord president of the council under Winston Churchill until Oct.,
1940, and died a few weeks later.
||He was educated at
Jacksonville Episcopal High School, the University of Florida, Florida
State University and New York University. Mr. Charles is a well-known
interior designer having worked for several major architectural firms
before founding Michael H. Charles Associates in 1985. Member of the
Advisory Council of the Hereditary Society Community of the United
States of America (researches history and genealogy). His designs have
been published in numerous magazines and books over the years and he was
the recipient of the prestigious Wool Bureau Award for fabric design.
Michael H.Charles Associates maintains offices in New York City and St.
Augustine, Florida. Mr. Charles is a member of the Pilgrims of the
United States, New York, as well as The Honourable Company of Freemen of
London.. He is also a member of St. Thomas Church of Fifth Avenue
wherehe serves as Head Usher, and on the Choir School Benefit Committee,
as Acquisitions Chairman, and on the Stewardship Committee. He is a life
member of the Society of Mary; Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament;
Guild of All Souls; Society of St. King Charles the Martyr; and the
Church Club of New York where he also serves as a member of Events
Committee. Mr. Charles is Worshipful Master of the Masonic Independent
Royal Arch Lodge #2 F&AM, of New York City. He has served as Junior
Warden and Master of Ceremonies. Mr. Charles is also a member of Long I
Grotto; Scottish Rite, Valley of New York, 32 degree; Ancient Chapter,
Royal Arch Masons, New York City; Columbian Council, Cryptic Masons, New
York City; Morton Commandery, Knights Templar, New York City; Paumonock
Council, Knight Masons, New York City; Quartro Coranotti Lodge, London,
England. He is a member of the Ponte Vedra Club of Jacksonville, FL; the
Royal Scottish Automobile Club of Glasgow, Scotland; and the Lansdowne
Club of London of London, England. Society of the Cincinnati in the
State of Virginia (life member); General Society of Colonial Wars
(Secretary and life member of the New York Society; regular member of
the Florida Society Society; Gentleman of the Council in New York and
Florida Societies); Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York (life
member; Member of the Council); Colonial Order of the Acorn (life
member); Order of the Indian Wars of the United States (life member);
General Society Sons of the Revolution (member in the States of New York
and Pennsylvania; life member of NY Society; Fraunces Tavern Museum
Board Member); Saint Andrews Society of New York (life member) Saint
David Society of New York (life member); Saint George's Society of New
York (life member; Board member; Chairman Activities; Chairman - Queen's
Jubilee 2002; Ball Committee); Society of the Sons of Saint George of
Philadelphia (life member); Military Society of the War of 1812 (life
member); Veteran Corps of Artillery State of New York (life member); The
Huguenot Society of America (life member; Registrar General; Member of
the Membership Committee); Colonial Society of Pennsylvania Military
Order of the Stars and Bars (life member; Commander of the New York
Society); Order of the Southern Cross (life member); Dutch Settlers
Society of Albany (life member); Huguenot Society of Pennsylvania (life
member); National Society Sons of the American Colonists (life member;
former Vice President General); Society of the Descendants of the
ColonialClergy (life member); Hereditary Order of the Descendants of
Colonial Governors (life member; Third Vice President General); Order of
Americans of Armorial Ancestry (life member); Flagon and Trencher (life
member); Descendants of the Founders of New Jersey (life member);
National Society Descendants of Early Quakers (life member); Friendly
Sons of St. Patrick of Philadelphia (life member); Order of Descendants
of Colonial Physicians & Chirurgiens (life member); Sons and Daughters
of the Colonial & Antebellum Bench and Bar 1585-1861 (life member);
National Society Sons of the American Revolution (Florida State, Past
Regional Vice President; Organizing President, St. Augustine Chapter;
First Continental Chapter, New York City, Member of the Council);
General Society of the War of 1812 (former Florida State President);
National Society Sons and Daughters of the Pilgrims (Florida and New
York; Councilor - New York Branch); Most Venerable Order of the Hospital
of St. John of Jerusalem (Officer); Sovereign Military Order of the
Temple of Jerusalem (Prior of St. Michael & St. George New York City
Priory; Silver Pilgrim Shell); Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Cavalieri)
|Choate, Joseph H.
|He was born at
Salem, Massachusetts, the son of Dr George Choate, a noted physician,
and was a nephew of Rufus Choate, a well known lawyer and politician.
Graduated from Harvard Law school in 1854. Admitted to the Massachusetts
bar in 1855. Admitted to the New York bar in 1856. Entered the law
office of Scudder & Carter in New York City in 1856. Republican and
frequent speaker in presidential campaigns, beginning with the one of
1856. His success in his profession was immediate, and in 1860 he became
junior partner in the firm of Evarts, Southmayd & Choate, the senior
partner in which was William M Evarts. This firm and its successor, that
of Evarts, Choate & Beaman, remained for many years among the leading
law firms of New York and of the country, the activities of both being
national rather than local. Became a member of the Committee of Seventy
in New York City in 1871, which was instrumental in breaking up Boss
Tweed and his crime gang (Pilgrim Elihu Root also played a role in this
process). Chairman at an 1882 meeting where the panel unanimously
denounced the Jewish persecution in Russia (an Anson Phelps-Stokes was
also chairman who's was a S&B member in 1896, just as many other
Phelps). Lawyer for John D. Rockefeller during an 1888 Trust
investigation of the Senate of New York State. Served on other occasions
as attorney for the Rockefeller family. President of the 1892
Constitutional Convention working close with later Pilgrim Elihu Root.
President of the New York state constitutional convention in 1894.
Successfully challenged the Income Tax Act of 1894 (saw it was
Communist). Candidate for the Republican senatorial nomination against
Senator Thomas C. Platt in 1897. Ambassador to Britain 1899-1905, and
very popular in this country. One of the US representatives at the
second Peace Congress at the Hague in 1907. Here the United States
failed in its effort to secure the establishment of a world court. Long
time friend of Skull & Bones, Pilgrims Society, and Corsair Club member
Chauncey M. Depew. Choate also was a member of Morgan's elite Corsair
Club, just as William Rockefeller. Identified as a president of the
Pilgrims of the United States in 1913.
In December 1914 the National Security League
was founded to support universal military training, military
preparedness, patriotism, and the extermination of values which were
"un-American." The energy displayed by war advocates was often
misdirected against anyone suspected of unpatriotic actions, words, or
even thoughts. Intense anti-German feeling swept the state and nation.
It became unpopular, if not unpatriotic, to play German music, to speak
or read German. Enrollment in German courses in the University dropped
from 1,300 to 150. In the name of the National Security League, Van Tyne
attacked University employees suspected of pacifism, disloyalty, or
"subversive" thought. Many citizens of German descent suffered from
suspicion and anti-German propaganda. ... The NSL was a public service
organization founded in 1914 to lobby for increased and improved
preparation for America's defense from enemies at home and abroad... The
national security state was built from blueprints drawn by the leaders
of the NSL during the First World War.
the National Security League was launched,
funded by U.S. Steel, the Rockefeller oil companies, and others
concerned with national defense.
This League of bankers and industrialists,
including Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Coleman du Pont and H.H. Rodgers of
Standard Oil, promoted increases in arms production and universal
military training. By 1917, they had helped build war hysteria to a
Soon after WWI and the Russian revolution, many
among America’s wealthy elite felt threatened by rising radicalism,
particularly among unions. In April 1919, letter bombs, destined for
John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan and others, were supposedly discovered
in the U.S. postal system. The media quickly stirred up a massive Red
Scare by blaming unions, communists, anarchists and foreign agitators.
John Spivak says: “Trade unions were openly disbelieving and denounced
with anger the so-called discoveries as a deliberate frame-up to provide
excuses for more raids against organized labour” (A Man in His Time,
1967). This incident and others were used as pretexts for the Palmer
Raids, during which the government rounded up more than ten thousand
activists across the country.
Served as honorary president. The first acting
president was Robert Bacon, a partner in J.P. Morgan.
A Rockefeller attorney. Ambassador to Britain
1899-1905. U.S. delegate to the International Peace Conference at The
Hague in 1907. Attended a 1908 Pilgrim meeting. Used to be a member of
J.P. Morgan's elite Corsair Club.
|Studied law at
Stanford, deputy attorney general under President Lyndon Johnson, deputy
secretary of state under President Jimmy Carter (he was the chief
American negotiator in the 1981 talks that ended the Iranian hostage
crisis), director Council on Foreign Relations 1982-1987, vice-chairman
Council on Foreign Relations 1987-1991, Stanford University trustee,
Secretary of State 1993-1997 (particularly involved in seeking
Arab-Israeli peace agreements and in negotiating a peace in Bosnia),
chairman of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police
Department, director of Chevron-Texaco, Lockheed, Southern California
Edison and First Interstate Bancorporation. Anno 2005, Chairman of the
Carnegie Corporation in New York.
|Founder of the
Chrysler Corporation (now part of DaimlerChrysler A.G.). He began as a
machinist’s apprentice and rose within the industry to become vice
president in charge of operations at General Motors in 1919. In 1920 he
undertook the reorganization of the Willys Overland and Maxwell
companies. In 1924 he brought out the first Chrysler car and within a
short time he made the company one of the largest automobile
rose to a major during WWI, engineer of Transportation of the Port
Authority of New York.
|The son of Lord
Randolph Churchill, who was (very) close to Nathaniel de Rothschild, and
an American mother. He was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. After a
brief but eventful career in the army, he became a Conservative Member
of Parliament in 1900. Invested into the Albion Lodge of the Ancient
Order of Druids on August 15, 1908. He held many high posts in Liberal
and Conservative governments during the first three decades of the
century. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First
Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to
1915. In May 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence and
remained in office until 1945. As opposed to many other influential
businessmen and politicians Churchill did not want peace with Germany.
On January 27, 1942 during Parliamentary debates at the House of Commons
Churchill confirmed: "We have also to remember how oddly foreigners
view our country and its way of doing things. When Rudolf Hess flew over
here some months ago he firmly believed that he had only to gain access
to certain circles in this country for what he described as "the
Churchill clique" to be thrown out of power and for a Government to be
set up with which Hitler could negotiate a magnanimous peace." On
15 June 1942, Churchill suggested that British bombers wipe out three
German villages for every one Czech settlement destroyed. Was of the
opinion that top Nazis should be summarily executed without being tried.
He took over the premiership again in the Conservative victory of 1951
and resigned in 1955. However, he remained a Member of Parliament until
the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election. Queen
Elizabeth II conferred on Churchill the dignity of Knighthood and
invested him with the insignia of the Order of the Garter in 1953. Among
the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention
should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which
President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963. Chancellor of the University
of Bristol 1929-1965. Usually spent winters at La Capponcina, owned by
Lord Beaver-brook. Churchill's close friendship with Lord Beaverbrook is
quite remarkable as the latter was a close friend to Rudolf Hess and
Hitler who negotiated peace with them after their invasion of Europe.
Churchill was responisble for killing that proposel.
|Clarke, Sir Caspar
archaeologist and museum director, had been on purchasing expeditions on
behalf of the Victoria and Albert Museum to Turkey, Syria, Greece,
Spain, Italy and Germany. He spent two years as a special commissioner
in India, which is when he acquired the Hamzanama (painting of an uncle
of the prophet Muhammed).
Insurance Group in the first part of the 20th century. All the
|Clews, James B.
|Stayed at the
Waldorf-Astoria. All the information available.
|In 1897-1898 he was
chief of the Office of Naval Intelligence; member of the Board on
Construction of Vessels, 1897-1899; member War and Strategy board, 1898;
commanded U.S.S. Bancroft, May 1, 1898, until end of Spanish-American
War; served as Naval Attaché in London, 1900-1903; commanded as Rear
Admiral, the U.S.S. Wisconsin, Asiatic region, 1904-1905; and served as
president of the Board of Inspection, 1906-1908.
|Coleman, Charles P.
Railroad (Vanderbilt and Rockefeller ownership), director
American-Russian Chamber of Commerce from its founding in 1922. Father
of Leighton H. Coleman.
|Emeritus director of
RJ. Reynolds Industries. Son of Charles P. Coleman.
Vincent was born in London in 1931 and educated at Aldenham and The
Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham. His command appointments
have included a battery in the Commonwealth Brigade in Malaysia,
Regimental Command in Germany and the United Kingdom (with an
operational tour in Northern Ireland), Command of an Infantry Brigade
and, as a Major General, Commandant of the Royal Military College of
Science. Starting in 1983, Lord Vincent served for four years on the
Army Board as the member responsible for the acquisition of new land
weapon systems and equipment and he took up his first Chief of Staff
appointment as Vice Chief of the Defence Staff in 1987. In this latter
appointment he was directly involved in initiating high level military
contacts with the former Soviet Union, where he travelled widely in
response to the Gorbachev reforms. Lord Vincent was promoted Field
Marshal and appointed Chief of Defence Staff in April 1991. He was then
elected to the NATO appointment of Chairman of the Military Committee
from 1993 to 1996 at a time when The Alliance forged closer
relationships with the nations of central and eastern Europe and became
increasingly involved with operations in former Yugoslavia, ultimately
launching the NATO led IFOR operation in 1995. In addition to his
military qualifications, he holds a DSc (Hons) from Cranfield
University, is a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the
Royal Aeronautical Society, Imperial College London and The City and
Guilds of London Institute. He is a Freeman of the City of London, a
Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Wheelwrights, an Aldenham School
Governor and a Governor of the Ditchley Foundation. He is a member of
the Jordanian Order of Merit and the United States Legion of Merit in
the rank of Commander. Since finishing his full-time military career in
1996, he has been created a life peer and held the appointment of Master
Gunner, St James's Park until 2001. He is also Chairman of the Council
of Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Chairman of
Insys Limited (formerly Hunting Defence Limited), and a Director of
Vickers Defence Systems. He became President of The Defence
Manufacturers Association in 2000 (Vice-President 1996) and President of
the Council of University Military Education Committees in 1999. In 1998
he became Chancellor of Cranfield University and is President of the
Cranfield Trust and Patron of the INSPIRE Charity Foundation. He is a
Member of The Pilgrims. Has received the Order of the British Empire and
is a Knight Commander of the British Empire. Today he is a Chancellor of
|Collier, Barron Gift
|One of the founders
of INTERPOL and largest landowner in Florida, for whom is named Collier
County. Collier senior was chairman of Police Magazine; special police
commissioner for New York, 1922-1928; treasurer, American Electric
Railway Association, director, Empire Trust Company; Baltimore
Commercial Bank; Bank of the Everglades; Florida Trust & Banking
Company; Waldorf Astoria Incorporated; First National Bank of Arcadia,
Florida; Inter-County Telephone & Telegraph Company; Manhattan
Mercantile Corporation; Florida Railroad & Navigation Corporation;
Florida Gulf Coast Hotels; Street Railways Advertising Company; and
others. Collier was a governor of the George Washington/Sulgrave
Institution and chaired the executive committee of James Monroe Memorial
Association and Foundation.
|Collins, Richard Henn
||One of the leading
judges at turn of the century. Justice of the Court of Appeals, Supreme
Court of the Judicature, and member of the Privy Council. Master of the
Rolls from 1901 to 1907.
|Collins, Robert Moore
|A reporter for
several important newspapers and worked as an editor in the Washington
and New York offices of the Associated Press. He did chiefly political
work for the Associated Press. He was the chief newsman for Reuters and
the Associated Press for many stories coming out of the Orient.
|Connelly, Joan Breton
||A.B. in 1976
(Classics) from Princeton University. M.A. in 1979 of Bryn Mawr College
and a Ph.D. in 1984 (Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology).
Affiliations: Society for the Preservation of the Greek Heritage,
Trustee; Society of Anitquaries of London; Royal Geographical Society,
Explorers Club; Society of Women Geographers; Archaeological Institute
of America; Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute (former
trustee); Oxford Philological Society; Pilgrims of the United States.
Fellowships/Honors: Honorary Citizenship, Peyia Municipality, Republic
of Cyprus; Lillian Vernon Chair for Teaching Excellence, New York
University; Appointed to the United States Cultural Property Advisory
Committee by President George W. Bush, (February 2003); John D. and
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship; Visiting Fellowships All
Souls College, Magdalen College and New College, Oxford; Phi Beta Kappa
Visiting Fellowship; New York University Presidential (Mellon)
Fellowship; New York University Golden Dozen Teaching Award;
Metropolitan Museum of Art Classical Fellowship and Norbert Schimmel
|Corbin, Henry Clark
|Was a Northern Civil
War combatant as a brigadier General of volunteers. He was detailed for
duty in March 1877 at the Executive Mansion (White House) and was
secretary of the Sitting Bull Commission. According to page 260 of the
1897-1942 Who Was Who, Corbin was "with President Garfield at the time
he was shot and at his bedside at Elberon, where he died. In recognition
of his services, and the part he took in war with Spain, Congress
conferred upon him the rank of major General commanding the Atlantic
|Knight of the
British empire, directly descended from the original Lord Charles
Cornwallis (1738-1805), who invaded America at the direction of the
British Crown and fought many battles, some directly against George
Washington. (Although he seemed to have opposed the heavy taxes England
imposed on the Colonies) The most recent (3rd) Baron Cornwallis is
Fiennes Neil Wykeham Cornwallis, born in 1921. The name on the Pilgrim
probably referred to the second Baron Cornwallis.
|His father fled
France during the revolution to escape the guillotine. Coudert and his
brothers founded Coudert Brothers LLP in 1853 in NY. It would become a
powerful law firm, which would still exist anno 2005. Coudert became a
leading figure in New York’s legal, social and diplomatic circles. It is
believed that he twice turned down appointments to the Supreme Court of
the United States. He is also credited with helping to bring the Statue
of Liberty to New York Harbor, raising funds and intervening to smooth
over diplomatic entanglements. Today the firm has 27 offices in 18
and Morristown Schools in New York City; was graduated from Columbia
University in 1918 and from its law school in 1922; served as a first
lieutenant in the One Hundred and Fifth United States Infantry,
Twenty-seventh Division, with overseas service, in 1917 and 1918; was
admitted to the bar in 1923 and commenced practice in New York City;
assistant United States attorney for the southern district of New York
in 1924 and 1925; unsuccessful Republican candidate for district
attorney of New York County in 1929; delegate to the Republican State
conventions from 1930 to 1948; delegate to the Republican National
Conventions 1936-1948; member of the State senate 1939-1946; elected as
a Republican to the Eightieth and to the five succeeding Congresses
(1947-1959); was not a candidate for renomination in 1958 to the
Eighty-sixth Congress; engaged in the practice of law in New York City;
member of State Commission on Governmental Operations of the city of New
York 1959-1961; retired from the practice of law due to ill health and
resided in New York City, where he died May 21, 1972.
|Kid brother of
Frederic Coudert Jr. Law clerk at the U.S. Supreme Court 1938-1939. Law
professor at Columbia University. Director of French-American Banking
Corporation, Peugeot Motors, Pellon Corporation, Unity Fire & General
Insurance, and Planned Parenthood of Manhattan. 25 year managing partner
of the Coudert Brothers.
|Crankshaw, Sir Eric
Lieutenant-Colonel, secretary of the Government Hospitality Fund, Knight
Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. Heavily involved
with British empire building surrounding WWII. He met with many Pilgrims
and organized some dinner parties.
|Prominent lawyer in
New York, accountant with the New York law firm of Algernon S. Sullivan,
partner in Sullivan and Cromwell 1879, established the William Nelson
Cromwell Foundation. Could be one of the direct descendant of Oliver
Cromwell, who is said to have been sponsored by the money changers in
western Europe to take the throne of England in 1649.
|Crossley, Sir Julian
of the Barclay’s Bank.
|Crowe, William J., Jr.
|At the beginning of
the Great Depression, Crowe's father moved the family to Oklahoma City.
Crowe's Naval career began at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis,
Maryland, from which he graduated in 1947. From 1954 to 1955 he served
as Assistant to the Naval Aide of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. From
1956 to 1958 Crowe served as Executive Officer of the submarine USS
Wahoo. In 1958 he served as an aide to the Deputy Chief of Naval
Operations. In 1960 Crowe took command of USS Trout, homeported in
Charleston, South Carolina, and served as Commanding Officer of that
boat until 1962. From there, Crowe earned a Master's Degree and Ph.D.
from Princeton University, returning to service in 1966 to take command
of Submarine Division 31, homeported in San Diego, California. Appointed
Senior Adviser to the Vietnamese Navy Riverine Force in 1970. Promoted
to Rear Admiral and made Deputy Director, Strategic Plans, Policy,
Nuclear Systems and NSC Affairs Division, Office of the Chief of Naval
Operations in 1973. Director, East Asia and Pacific Region, Office of
the Assistant Secretary of Defense 1975-1976. Commander Middle East
Force 1976-1977. Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Plans and Policy
1977-1980. Commander in Chief, Allied Forces, Southern Europe 1980-1983.
Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command 1983-1985. Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff 1985-1989. Chairman of the President's Foreign
Intelligence Advisory Board 1993-1994. Ambassador to the United Kingdom
1994-1997. Chairman of two Accountability Review Boards charged with
investigating the bombings of the embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam
1998-1999. He has sat on the Boards of Texaco, Merrill Lynch, Pfizer,
Norfolk Southern Corporation, General Dynamics, and GlobalOptions, Inc.
At present, Crowe serves as the Chairman of the Board of Visitors for
the International Programs Center of Oklahoma University. Member of the
Council on Foreign Relations' Task Force on Emergency Responders.
Received the Medal of Freedom.
but his cousin is. Hugh has been vice chairman of Philip Morris Company,
director of United Virginia Bancshares, president Richmond Corp., the
Foreign Policy Association, and the International Chamber of Commerce.
|Cullman, Joseph F.
|Trustee Bank of
England 1958-1970, president and CEO Philip Morris Company (sixties),
director Ford Motor Company, IBM, Bankers Trust Company and others.
Cullman is well-known for stating categorically "I do not believe that
cigarettes are hazardous to one's health", which he said in a 1971
interview after the TV tobacco advertising ban was begun. He is a member
of the Peace Parks foundation.
|Curzon, Lord George
|A brilliant student,
at Eton College he won a record number of academic prizes before
entering Oxford University in 1878. He was elected president of the
Oxford Union in 1880 and although he failed to achieve a first he was
made a fellow of All Souls College in 1883. A member of the Conservative
Party, Curzon was elected MP for Southport in 1886. It was a safe Tory
seat and Curzon neglected his parliamentary duties to travel the world.
This material provided the material for Russia in Central Asia (1889),
Persia and the Persian Question (1892) and Problems of the Far East
(1894). In November, 1891, Marquis of Salisbury appointed Curzon as his
secretary of state for India. Curzon lost office when Earl of Rosebery
formed a Liberal Government in 1894. After the 1895 General Election,
the Conservative Party regained power and Curzon was rewarded with the
post of under secretary for foreign affairs. Three years later the
Marquis of Salisbury granted him the title, Baron Curzon of Kedleston,
and appointed him Viceroy of India. Curzon introduced a series of
reforms that upset his civil servants. He also clashed with Lord
Kitchener (Freemasonry grand master), who became commander-in-chief of
the Indian Army, in 1902. Arthur Balfour, the new leader of the
Conservative Party, began to have doubts about Curzon and in 1905 he was
forced out of office. Curzon returned to England where he led the
campaign against women's suffrage in the House of Lords. In 1908 he
helped establish the Anti-Suffrage League and eventually became its
president. In 1916 the new prime minister, David Lloyd George, invited
Curzon into his War Cabinet. Curzon served as leader of the House of
Lords but refused to support the government's decision to introduce the
1918 Qualification of Women Act. Despite Curzon's objections, it was
passed by the Lords by 134 votes to 71. Curzon was appointed foreign
secretary in 1919 and when Andrew Bonar Law resigned as prime minister
in May, 1923, Curzon was expected to become the new prime minister.
However, the post went to Stanley Baldwin instead. He continued as
foreign secretary until retiring from politics in 1924.
|Chairman City &
Suburban Homes Co., surrounded by other Pilgrims in daily life.
|Davis, John William
congressman from West Virginia 1911-1913. U. S. Solicitor general
1913-1918. Ambassador to Great Britain 1918-1921. Present at the 1919
Versailles Peace Conference. President of the American English-Speaking
Union. Chairman Davis, Polk and Wardwell law firm (clients included J.P.
Morgan and Company, and U.S. Steel). Founding president of the Council
on Foreign Relations 1921-1933. Other founders of the CFR were Elihu
Root and Paul Warburg. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1933-1955.
Rejected appointment to the U.S. Supreme Court 1922. Democratic
presidential candidate 1924. President of the Association of the Bar of
the City of New York 1931-1932. Director American Telephone & Telegraph.
Trustee Rockefeller Foundation. Davis supported the Crusaders, which was
one of the Fascist front groups trying to overthrow FDR and his New
Deal. The main organization was American Liberty League. He was also a
main organizer of the anti-New Deal Liberty league against FDR.
meeting 1910. His son was in the Skull & Bones class of 1920, just as a
couple of other members of the Davison family. This family is
intermarried with the Aldrich, Rockefeller, Peabody and Stillman family
(all Pilgrims). Involved with the Red Cross during WWI and received at
least one 2 million dollar donation from co-Pilgrim George F. Baker.
|Dawes, Charles G.
|Comptroller of the
Currency 1897-1901, organized the Central Trust Company of Illinois at
Chicago in 1902, chairman of the General Purchasing Board of the Allied
Expeditionary Forces during World War I (decided who got the contracts),
the 1924 Dawes plan to save Germany's economy from total collapse was
named after him, Nobel Peace Prize 1925, vice President of the United
States 1925-1929, ambassador to Great Britain 1929-1932, chairman
Reconstruction Finance Corporation starting in 1932
|Dean, Arthur Hobson
|John Dulles' Law
Partner in Sullivan & Cromwell. Special Ambassador to Korea (1953-1954).
Director Council on Foreign Relations 1955-1972. Attended the 1957
Bilderberg meeting. Chairman of the U.S. Delegation on Nuclear Arms
Testing, Geneva, Switzerland in 1962. Vietnam War hawk. Member of
Committee for An Effective and Durable Peace in Asia. New York Social
Register. Century Club. Pacific Union Club. Member of the Foreign Policy
Association. Director of the UN Association and Lazard Funds, Inc.
Trustee Carnegie Foundation. Director or trustee of the Japan Society.
|Debs, Richard A.
|CEO of the Federal
Reserve Bank of New York; member of the FED's Federal Open Market
Committee; Founding president of Morgan Stanley International and
continues as a member of its International Advisory Board; vice chairman
of the US Saudi Arabian Business Council; chairman and a member of the
New York Stock Exchange International Committee; member of the Group of
Thirty; U.S. chairman of the Bretton Woods Commission; served as an
advisor to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the European
Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Federal Reserve Bank of New
York, and the Russian American Bankers Forum; trustee of the Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace; chairman of the Board of Trustees of
the American University of Beirut until 2005 (joined in the board in
1976); chairman emeritus of Carnegie Hall, where he continues to serve
on the Executive Committee, and a trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace, Institute of International Education, Federation of
Protestant Welfare Agencies, and director of several international
business and financial corporations. Trustee of the Institute of
International Education; He is also a member of the Economic Club of New
York, Japan Society, American Council on Germany, and Council on Foreign
Relations. He was a Fulbright Scholar in Egypt and a Ford Foundation
Fellow, and holds a PhD from Princeton, a JD from Harvard Law School and
an AMP from the Harvard Business School.
||co-founder & exec.
|Yale Skull & Bones
1856. Admitted to the bar in 1858. United States Minister to Japan.
Twice elected U.S. senator from New York. Colonel and judge advocate of
the fifth division of the New York National Guard 1873-1881. President
of the New York Central & Hudson River railroad 1885-1899 and it's later
chairman. Co-founder Pilgrim Society. Member of J.P. Morgan's elite
|Son of a Polish Jew.
Harvard. Studied the methods of the money changers as Rothschild and
Morgan. Together with James Forrestal he set up Foreign Securities
Corporation in 1915 to finance the French Government’s purchases of
munitions in the United States. Established National Cash Register.
Bought Dodge Brothers. Saved Goodyear from bankruptcy. Bought a majority
interest in William A. Read & Company in 1916. Asked by Bernard Baruch
(a very important banker at the time), chairman of the War Industries
Board, to become his assistant chairman at the War Industries Board.
Changed the name of W.A. Read & Company into Dillon, Read & Company in
1920. James Forrestal joined Dillon, Read & Company in 1923. General
William H. Draper Jr. joined the firm in 1926 and described Forrestal
already as the #2 man, right below Dillon. In January 1926, Dillon Read
created the German Credit and Investment Corporation in Newark, New
Jersey and Berlin, Germany. That same year, Dillon Read created the
Vereinigte Stahlwerke (German Steel Trust), incorporating the Thyssen
family interests under the direction of New York and London finance.
Thyssen, together with banker Hjalmar Schacht, were the first major
sponsors of Hitler. At the same time, Prescott Bush and the Harrimans,
friends of Dillon, set up the Union Banking Corporation with Thyssen.
William H. Draper, Jr. was made director, vice president, and assistant
treasurer of the German Credit and Investment Corp. His business was
short-term loans and financial management tricks for Thyssen and the
German Steel Trust. Clarence Dillon was brought before the 1932-1934
Pecora Commission, which was established to investigate the causes of
the Wall Street Crash of 1929. The Dillon Read investment bank, which
would become one of the largest of its time, was one of the companies
that made large loans to Nazi Germany in the 1930s. Nicholas Brady, a
Knight of Malta and Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay visitor, joined Dillon,
Read & Company in 1954, eventually rising to the chairmanship under C.
Douglas Dillon. In 1957, Fortune Magazine listed Dillon as one of the
richest men in the United States, with a fortune then estimated to be
from $150 to $200 million.
|Son of the above
Nazi trader Clarence Dillon and grandson of a Polish Jew. Born on a
business trip in Geneva. At the Pine Lodge School in Lakehurst, N.J.,
Dillon's schoolmates included Nelson, Laurance and John Rockefeller III.
Went to Harvard and graduated in 1931. In 1931 his father gave him
$185,000 to buy a seat on the New York Stock Exchange. Director of
United States & Foreign Securities Corporation and the United States &
International Securities Corporation 1937-1953. Director of Dillon Read
& Company 1937-1938, a company deeply involved with the Nazi trade at
that moment. Became vice president of Dillon Read & Company in 1938.
Served in the Navy during WWII. Chairman of Dillon Read & Company since
1946, but left after a short period. Trustee Harvard University's Board
of Overseers 1952-1958 and served a while as its president. US
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France 1953-1957.
Nicholas Brady, a Knight of Malta and Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay
visitor, joined Dillon, Read & Company in 1954, eventually rising to the
chairmanship under C. Douglas Dillon. Again chairman of Dillon Read &
Company 1960-1985. United States treasury secretary 1961-1965. Director
Council on Foreign Relations 1965-1976. His daughter became Princess
Joan de Luxembourg, after having married Prince Charles of Luxembourg in
1967. Charles was a son of Felix of Bourbon, Prince of Parma (direct
descendant of Henri IV; president of the Luxembourg Red Cross between
1923 and 1932 and again between 1947 and 1969). Chairman Brookings
Institution 1968-1975. Chairman Rockefeller Foundation 1971-1975.
Vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1976-1978. Trustee
Metropolitan Museum of Art 1977-1983. Member Atlantic Council of the
United States. Member Royal Institute for International Affairs.
Director Chase Manhattan Bank and American Telephone & Telegraph. Owner
of France’s Haut-Brion vineyards. Received the Presidential Medal of
Freedom in 1989.
|Yale Skull & Bones
1938, chairman of Rockefeller Center, Rockefeller Family & Associates
since 1958, director Chase Manhattan Bank, International Basic Economy
Corporation, Selected Risk Investments, R.H. Macy, Squibb
Pharmaceuticals, Omega Fund and Diamond Shamrock Corporation, trustee of
both Yale University and Rockefeller University, member Council on
|Dinkey, Alva Clymer
|From water boy in
the steel mills to self-made millionaire, first job was in the Edgar
Thompson Works, one of the plants of the Carnegie Steel Company, became
a telegraph operator, a machinist and electrician, president of the
Carnegie Steel Company 1903-1915, president of the Midvale Steel Company
|Chairman of Campbell
Soup Corporation (founded by his father). Today he and his family are
multimillionaires and billionaires.
Douglas, the second son of an assistant cashier of the National Park
Bank, was born in Brooklyn, New York, April 6, 1892, and started his
education at Trinity Chapel School in New York City. At the age of 17,
Donald Douglas entered the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis where he
spent much of his time building and testing model airplanes. Left the
Naval Academy in 1912. He soon realized he needed to learn more about
his chosen career field and completed the four-year bachelor of science
program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in only two years.
Because of his academic performance, Douglas was immediately hired at
MIT as an assistant professor in aeronautics. Worked for different
aircraft companies. Eventually, in 1921, he founded Douglas Aircraft,
which became a world leader in the aircraft building industry. In 1932,
he started building the DC-1 and launched his career as a builder of
transports. By 1940, sales of DC-2 and DC-3 transports and their
military derivatives rose to nearly $61 million. Co-founder of the RAND
Corporation in 1948, a not-for-profit private institute created out of
Douglas Aircraft. Produced some 45,000 aircraft in WWII. Donald Wills
Douglas Sr. was company president until 1957, when his son, Donald
Douglas Jr., took over that position. Donald Douglas Sr. remained
chairman of the board. At the age of 75, on April 28, 1967, Douglas
merged his company with the McDonnell Aircraft Company and retired. He
remained honorary chairman of the McDonnell Douglas board until his
death on Feb. 1, 1981.
|Fought in WWI in the
artillery from 1917 to 1919, instructor of history at Amherst College in
1920, engaged in mining and general business, member of the Arizona
State house of representatives 1923-1925, elected as a Democrat to the
Seventieth Congress, reelected to the three succeeding Congresses
1927-1933, director of the budget by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
1933-1934, vice president and member of the board of a chemical company
1934-1938, principal and vice chancellor of McGill University, Montreal,
Canada 1938-1939, president of an insurance company 1940-1947, director
Council on Foreign Relations 1940-1964, chairman of the board on leave
of absence 1947-1959, deputy administrator of the War Shipping
Administration 1942-1944, United States Ambassador to Great Britain
1947-1950, director General Motors Corporation 1944-1965, chairman and
director, Southern Arizona Bank & Trust Company 1949-1966, appointed by
the President to head Government Study of Foreign Economic Problems in
1953, member, President’s Task Force on American Indians 1966-1967,
director International Nickel Company of Canada, director Continental
Oil Company. His daughter, Sharman Douglas, supposedly had a 2-year
lesbian affair with Queen Elizabeth II's younger sister, Princess
Margaret Windsor. She also married Pilgrim Andrew Hay from 1968 to 1977.
|Drum, Hugh Aloysius
Boston College in 1898. Joining the Army, he was made a second
lieutenant in the 12th infantry. Climbing quickly up the ranks, he
became assistant Chief of Staff to General Pershing in France. In 1918
he was promoted to colonel, and became Chief of Staff of the First Army,
AEF. Following the war Colonel Drum was engaged in various military
schools. He was promoted to Major General by 1931 and sent to Honolulu
to serve as commander. In 1940 he was promoted to Lieutenant General in
charge of the New York national guard. From 1944 until his death, he was
the president of Empire State Inc. During his career he was awarded the
Silver Star, Distinguished Service Medal, and the Croix de Guerre.
|Duke, James Buchanan
|James Buchanan Duke
goes to New York to develop the new industry of pre-rolled, packaged
cigarettes. He establishes the American Tobacco Company with money from
New York city financiers, especially Oliver Payne (advisor -
intermarried with the Whitneys) and William Collins Whitney (Skull &
Bones 1863 - comes from a family of Pilgrims) and starts buying out the
competition. Duke made a deal with British Tobacco companies not to
invade the European market and the British promised not to invade the
American market. This deal lasted until about 1901. In 1905, James Duke
co-founded the Southern Power Company, now known as Duke Power, one of
the companies making up Duke Energy, Inc. Within two decades, this
company is supplying electricity to more than 300 cotton mills and
various other factories, electric lines, and cities and towns primarily
in the Piedmont region of North and South Carolina. In 1911, the United
States Supreme Court orders the dissolution of the tobacco trust.
|Duke, Angier Biddle
|From the family who
owns or owned the American Tobacco Company, Duke Power, Duke Endowment
and Duke University. Angier has been ambassador to El Salvador
1952-1953, chief of protocol to JFK and LBJ, ambassador to Spain
1965-1968, Denmark 1968-1969, Vietnam 1973, and Morocco 1979-1981,
chairman U.S.-Japan Foundation 1981-1986, became president of the
Council of American Ambassadors in 1992, decorated by Great Britain,
France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Morocco and Greece.
|Dulles, John Foster
|Brother of Allen W.
Dulles; Princeton and George Washington University; Sullivan & Cromwell
1911-1916. Married Janet Pomeroy Avery in 1912. Special agent for the
Department of State in Central America in 1917; Captain and Major in the
United States Army Intelligence Service 1917-1918; assistant to chairman
War Trade Board 1918; present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference;
Rejoined Sullivan & Cromwell in 1919. Became senior partner in Sullivan
& Cromwell in 1926. Polish Plan of Financial Stabilization 1927;
American representative of the Berlin Debt Conferences 1933; member of
the United States delegation to the San Francisco Conference on World
Organization 1945; adviser to Secretary of State at Council of Foreign
Ministers in London 1945; Moscow and London 1947 and Paris 1949; In
1945, Dulles participated in the San Francisco Conference (at which
Nelson Rockefeller played an important role), worked as adviser to
Arthur H. Vandenberg, and helped draft the preamble to the United
Nations Charter. Representative to the General Assembly of the United
Nations 1946-1950; chairman of the United States delegation in Paris
1948; trustee of Rockefeller Foundation; chairman of the board of the
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Deeply religious and a
member of the Presbyterian Church. His son, Avery Dulles, joined the
Society of Jesus in 1946 and became a priest in that order in 1956
(teaches and lectures regularly at Fordham University); member of the
New York State Banking Board 1946-1949; Republican to the United States
Senate July 7, 1949 to November 8, 1949; United States representative to
the Fifth General Assembly of the United Nations 1950; In 1950, Dulles
was co-founder of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the
USA and served as its chairman for a while. Consultant to the Secretary
of State 1951-1952; appointed Secretary of State by President Dwight D.
Eisenhower 1953-1959. Together with Secretary of Defense Charles E.
Wilson he advised Eisenhower on who to pick for the Jackson Committee in
January 1953. This committee's recommendations transformed the
Psychological Strategy Board to the Operations Coordinating Board (OCB).
Seen as the strongest person in the Eisenhower cabinet. In 1956 Dulles
strongly opposed the Anglo-French invasion of the Suez Canal, Egypt
(October-November 1956). However, by 1958 he was an outspoken opponent
of President Gamal Abdel Nasser and stopped him from receiving weapons
from the United States.
|Dulles, Allen Welsh
|Brother of John F.
Dulles. Princeton up to 1916. Attended Cap & Gown events, according to
Kay Griggs, just as Donald Rumsfeld, William Colby, Frank Carlucci,
James Baker, George Griggs, and George P. Shultz (August 3, 2005,
Rense). Sent to Bern, Switzerland to work under State Department senior
Hugh Wilson (Skull & Bones 1909) to collect political information on
Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1916-1918. Joins his older
brother, John Foster Dulles (Pilgrim), and David Bruce (Pilgrim) as
members of President Woodrow Wilson's staff at the Versailles Peace
Conference in 1919. Became a partner in Sullivan & Cromwell from 1927.
Director of Schroder Co. Director Council on Foreign Relations
1927-1933. Secretary Council on Foreign Relations 1933-1944. In May 1941
he urges the U.S. to enter World War II. Recruited by OSS intelligence
chief and Knight of Malta Colonel William J. Donovan 1941. Sets up and
runs a spy post in Bern, Switserland 1942-1945. Vice-president Council
on Foreign Relations 1944-1946. Said to have been involved in Operation
Paperclip where about many German scientists and their families were
secretly imported into the United States and placed into the
Military-Industrial complex. President Council on Foreign Relations
1946-1950. Director Central Intelligence Agency 1953-1961. Member of
President Johnson’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy
1963-1964 (forerunner of the Warren Commission). Primary United Fruit
Company shareholder. Dulles International Airport in Washington, D.C. is
named after him. Member of the Pilgrims Society and the Order of Malta.
Seems to have been a member of the 'Knight's Templar' (together with
Kermit Roosevelt and Frank Wisner), an elite intelligence group within
|Born in Edinburgh,
Scotland, New York banker 1851-75, president of Great Western Insurance
Company during the American civil war, sat together with J.P. Morgan on
the Advisory Committee of Robinson & Cox (attorneys for United States
Lloyds, one of the most powerful institutions of the City of London),
the only American member of London's exclusive club, the Travelers
(since 1868, when relations between the U.S. and England were strained
over the Alabama claims), president and later chairman of the board of
the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, didn't attend a 1908 Pilgrim dinner (as
president) due to sickness.
Institute of Electrical Engineers 1911- 1912, president J.G. White
Engineering Corporation in 1913 (founded by a Pilgrim), member War
Department Nitrate Commission 1916-1918, chairman State Department
Special Committee on Submarine Cables 1918, chairman National Research
Council 1923-1928, executive committee member World Power Conference
1936, director Guaranty Trust Company, Panhandle Eastern Pipeline
Company and Radio Corporation of America and National Broadcasting
Company, member U.S. Patent Office advisory committee, trustee Greenwich
Savings Bank, trustee of Barnard College, consultant National Defense
Committee, president of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science,
vice-president of the Pan American Society of the U.S.
|Du Pont, Lammot
|Harvard, worked in
the laboratory of the Fabrics and Finishings Department at DuPont’s
Fairfield. In 1942 he replaced his father, Charles Copeland, on DuPont’s
Board of Directors and was appointed to the Board’s Finance Committee.
He served on the Development Department’s postwar planning board during
World War II and became secretary in 1947. Copeland was named vice
president and chair of the Finance Committee in 1954 and was appointed
to the Executive Committee in 1959. Copeland served as DuPont’s 11th
president from 1962 to 1967. Copeland retired as president in 1967. He
remained as chairman of the Board of Directors until 1971 and continued
to sit on the board until 1982. Du Pont was also a director of
Wilmington Trust Company, a director of Christiana Securities, father in
law to James Biddle, who married his daughter Louisa. James Biddle is a
direct descendant of Nicholas Biddle, head of the British affiliated
(Rothschild-Windsor) second Bank of the United States. The du Pont
family was the largest funder of The American Liberty League, the main
institute behind the 1934 fascist plot against FDR. Lammot, for example,
donated at least 15.000 dollar to The American Liberty League and
another 5.000 dollar to similar organisations.
|Received A.B., M.A.
and LL.D. degrees from Whitman College and Princeton University and is
presently Professor of Business (Emeritus) at Columbia University, and
Special Advisor to the President of Columbia University; also special
advisor to the president of the New York Botanical Garden. During his
past 15 years service at Columbia University he was Director of Studies
of the Modern Corporation, adjunct professor of Business, and councillor
to the Dean of Graduate School of Business. Previously, manager of
Public Policy Research, General Electric Company (NYC) for ten years.
Field director, Near East College Association (AUB and others).
Following military service in the USAF, he was Chief of the Division of
Aeronautics and Holder of the Guggenheim Chair of Aeronautics, The
Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.). He has received grants from the
Rockefeller Foundation and Sloan Foundation and has served as consultant
to IBM, General Electric, Rockefeller Bros. Fund, and others. He is the
author and co-author of fifteen books on corporate social policy matters
(and spionage) and the editor of thirty-five volumes on business
|Ekblom, Harry E.
|Retired as chairman
and CEO of European-American Banking Corporation in 2002. He had been a
member of the board since 1984. Partner in Ekblom & Ekblom LLC and
president of Harry E. Ekblom & Co. Inc. He is the former vice chairman
of A.T. Hudson & Co. Inc. Director Harris & Harris Group Inc.
|Eliot, Ellsworth, Jr
|Yale; joined the
surgical staff of Presbyterian Hospital in 1893; he remained at the
Hospital as an Attending Surgeon until 1918 and was thereafter
consultant in surgery until his death. He was Chief of Surgery of
Vanderbilt Clinic of P&S from 1895 to 1900 and at various times held
surgical professorships at both P&S and the Cornell University Medical
|William Phelps Eno
|Yale Skull & Bones
1882. Director of the Central Trust Company of New-York. An American
businessman responsible for many of the earliest innovations in road
safety and traffic control. He is sometimes known as the "Father of
traffic safety". Though automobiles were rare until Eno was an older
man, horse-drawn carriages were already causing significant traffic
problems in urban areas like Eno's home town of New York City.
|Usually described as
"secretive" or "mysterious" together with "lot's of influence". Wrote
confidential memoranda for Queen Victoria. Supposedly had bizarre sexual
interests and stood in contact with the Rothschild family. A British
statesman who stood in close contact with Pilgrim Henry Morgenthau Jr.'s
|Evans, James H.
Chicago Law School, high positions at Reuben H. Donnelley Corp., Dun &
Bradstreet Inc., and the Seamen's bank for Savings, in the navy during
WWII, chairman 1965 Red Cross Campaign for Greater New York, chairman of
the Union Pacific Corporation, director Citicorp, AT&T, Bristol-Myers,
General Motors Corp. and Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., governor
Foreign Policy Association, trustee Rockefeller Brothers Fund,
University of Chicago and the American Youth Foundation, Bohemian Grove
|Had mining and
railroad interests in the United States, which were created by his
father. Much of the American fortune, which the 1st Lord Fairhaven
inherited, was energetically deployed in the collection of works of art
and the Abbey is now the permanent home of an outstandingly rich
collection of furniture, pictures and art objects. Lord Fairhaven was
also involved with landscape gardening.
|Farish is an
American millionaire. Owner of a trust company in Houston, Texas called
W.S. Farish & Co. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom 2001-2004. Member
of the Council of American Ambassadors. Horse-breeder. Chairman of
Churchill Downs. Major Republican Party donor and a family friend of
President George W. Bush for several decades. He was awarded an honorary
Doctor of Laws from the University of Kentucky in 2003. When George Bush
was elected vice president in 1980, Texas mystery man William Stamps
Farish III took over management of all of George Bush's personal wealth
in a "blind trust." Known as one of the richest men in Texas, Will
Farish keeps his business affairs under the most intense secrecy. Only
the source of his immense wealth is known, not its employment. Will
Farish has long been Bush's closest friend and confidante. He is also
the unique private host to Britain's Queen Elizabeth: Farish owns and
boards the studs which mate with the Queen's mares. That is her public
rationale when she comes to America and stays in Farish's house. On
March 25, 1942, U.S. Assistant Attorney General Thurman Arnold announced
that William Stamps Farish (grandfather of the President's money
manager) had pleaded "no contest" to charges of criminal conspiracy with
the Nazis. Farish was the principal manager of a worldwide cartel
between Standard Oil of New Jersey and the I.G. Farben concern. The
merged enterprise had opened the Auschwitz slave labor camp on June 14,
1940, to produce artificial rubber and gasoline from coal.
|Faulkner, Sir Eric
Bradfield and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, lieutenant-colonel of
the Royal Artillery, chairman Union Discount Co. 1959-1970, chairman
Glyn, Mills & Co., chairman of Lloyd’s Bank (City of London), governor
Hudson's Bay Co., director of Vickers, advisory director of Unilever,
negotiated with rebel Rhodesian leader Ian Smith in 1965 at the
directions of the Prime-Minister of England, chairman British Bankers'
Association 1972-1973 and 1980-1984, chairman Committee of London
Clearing Bankers from 1972-1974, chairman Industrial Society 1973-1976,
Order of the British Empire 1974, organized the formation of the City
Communications Organisation in 1976 (City of London interests).
|Owned Marshall Field
& Company which had factories in the U.S., Europe, China and Australia.
He owned stocks and bonds in about one hundred and fifty corporations,
and he was a director of many. He owned many millions of bonds and
stocks in railroads. The history of many of them reeked with thefts of
public and private money; corruption of common councils, of
legislatures, Congress and of administrative officials; land grabbing,
fraud, illegal transactions, violence and oppression not only of their
immediate workers, but of the entire population. He owned Baltimore &
Ohio stock; Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe; Chicago & Northwestern, and
tens of millions more of the stock or bonds of fifteen other railroads.
He also owned an immense assortment of the stocks of a large number of
trusts. The affairs of these trusts have been shown in court, at some
time or other, as overflowing with fraud, the most glaring oppressions,
and violations of law.
|His mother was from
the Harkness family, worked at L.G. Harkness and Company, partner in the
newly organized D. M. Harkness and Company in 1952, married married Mary
Harkness in 1853, founded the Flagler and York Salt Company in 1862, the
end of the Civil War caused a drop in the demand for salt and the
Flagler and York Salt Company collapsed, bringing him heavily into debt,
after borrowing money he reentered the grain business as a commission
merchant and became acquainted with John D. Rockefeller, Rockefeller,
Andrews and Flagler start Standard Oil in 1870 (with a loan from
National City Bank of Cleveland) and two years later it will dominate
the US oil market, Flagler later goes into the railroad business and
becomes the second largest land owner in Florida.
|Folsom, Frank Marion
|Born in Washington
state in 1894. Enlisted in the Army in 1917 for duty during WWI.
Following the war he used his natural salesman skills in a variety of
retail positions. Vice president of Montgomery Ward 1933-1940. National
Defense Advisory Commission 1940-1941. Chief procurement officer for the
U.S. Navy at the Office of Production Management 1941-1943. Here he
became a good friend of David Sarnoff. Involved with planning for the
D-Day invasion until late 1943. Vice president of the Radio Corporation
of America 1943-1949, which was owned by Sarnoff. After the war, Sarnoff
wanted to introduce B&W television as soon as possible, and he put Frank
Folsom in charge of marketing. The 630TS television was introduced in
1946 at a cost of $375. President of the Radio Corporation of America
1949-1957. During this time the major events that took place at RCA were
the FCC's adoption of RCA's color TV standard, and RCA's marketing of
color TV receivers starting with the CT-100 in 1954. Vice chairman and
chairman of the RCA 1957-1961. Remained on the board of directors until
his death in 1970.
|Son of the Forbes
Magazine founder. A 1941 graduate of Princeton University. Publisher of
Forbes magazine 1964-1990. Legendary for his lavish lifestyle, his
private Capitalist Tool jet, his Highlander yachts, and huge art
collection. Has a substantial collection of Harley Davidson motorbikes.
Member of the Bohemian Grove and the Pilgrims Society. Member of the
American Society of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John
Stevenson "Steve", Jr.
and editor-in-chief Forbes Magazine. Director Americas Society. Lost the
1996 presidential nomination to Bob Dole. Lost the 2000 presidential
nomination to George W. Bush.
received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Art History from Princeton
University in 1972. Director of Forbes, Inc. since 1977. Corporate
Secretary at Forbes 1981-1989. Appointed to the Board of Regents of the
Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. in 1987.
Vice-chairman of Forbes Inc. since 1989. He is responsible for Forbes’
advertising and promotion departments. Director of Senesco Technologies
since 1999 (genetech). Director of Raffles Holdings. Sits on the Boards
of The New York Historical Society, The Newark Museum, The Business
Committee for the Arts, The Brooklyn Museum, The Friends of New Jersey
State Museum, The New York Academy of Art, The Victorian Society in
America, The Princess Margarita Foundation and the Prince Wales
Foundation. He is also a member of the Board of Advisors of The
Princeton University Art Museum, a National Trustee of the Baltimore
Museum of Art, and serves on the Advisory Committee of the Department of
European Decorative Arts of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Member of
the Knickerbocker, The Century Association, The Brook, Essex Hunt,
Grolier, American Society of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of
St. John of Jerusalem.
|Franklin, George S.,
|His father was a CFR
director. Franklin Jr. attended Harvard University and was a roommate of
David Rockefeller. Franklin was a Council on Foreign Relations executive
director from 1953 to 1971. Franklin was the first secretary of the
Atlantic Council of the United States, co-founded by Pilgrim Dean
Acheson. Franklin was a co-founder of the Trilateral Commission in 1973,
together with David Rockefeller, and became a secretary of this
Commission in later years.
|Law professor and
trustee at Columbia University 1914-1917. Director NY Federal Reserve
Bank. President of the First National Bank of New York. President of the
Bank for International Settlements. Director of General Electric, U.S.
Steel, and Mutual Life Insurance of New York. Director Council on
Foreign Relations 1936-1945
|Received a Bachelor
of Arts degree from College Basile Moreau. She earned a degree in
history from the University of Montreal in 1970 and a post-graduate
diploma in economic studies at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium
in 1978. Ms. Fréchette began her career in 1971 in Canada's Department
of External Affairs. She was part of her country's delegation to the
General Assembly in 1972, and then served as Second Secretary at the
Canadian Embassy in Athens until 1975. From 1975 to 1977, Ms. Fréchette
worked in the European Affairs Division in Canada's Department of
External Affairs. Returning to Europe, she served as First Secretary at
the Canadian Mission to the United Nations in Geneva from 1978 to 1982.
During that period, she participated in a session of the Conference on
Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Madrid from November 1980
to July 1981. After serving as Deputy Director of the Trade Policy
Division in the Department of External Affairs from 1982 to 1983, Ms.
Fréchette became Director of the European Summit Division from 1983 to
1985. She received her first ambassadorship in 1985, serving as Canada's
ambassador to Argentina with concurrent accreditation to Uruguay and
Paraguay. Ms. Fréchette was named Assistant Deputy Minister for Latin
America and the Caribbean in the Department of External Affairs and
international trade in October 1988. In that capacity, she directed a
review of Canada's relations with the region, which led to Canada's
entry into the Organization of American States (OAS). In January 1991
she became Assistant Deputy Minister for Economic Policy and Trade
Competitiveness. She served as Permanent Representative of Canada to the
United Nations from 1992 to 1995. Deputy Minister of National Defence of
Canada from 1995 to 1998. Became the first Deputy Secretary-General of
the United Nations in 1998. Also chairs the steering committee on U.N.
Reform and Management Policy. In 1998, she was appointed Officer of the
Order of Canada. Spoke to the Canadian Institute of International
Affairs in 1998. In 1999, when corruption in the oil-for-food program
was rampant, Frechette intervened directly to stop United Nations
auditors from forwarding their investigations to the U.N. Security
Council. She and he assistant Iqbal Riza were hiding and shredding years
of documents. In 2000 she attended a Bilderberg meeting. Gave a speech
to the annual luncheon meeting of the Pilgrims of the United States in
New York on April 25, 2001.
|Funston, George Keith
|A banker's son, he
worked his way through Trinity College and Harvard Business School
before becoming a salesman for American Radiator, and later, Sylvania.
President Trinity College 1945-1951. President New York Stock Exchange
1951-1967. Chairman Olin Mathieson Chemical Co. 1967-1972. Director
Illinois Central Industries, National Aviation Corporation, Putnam Trust
Company, Chemical Bank, IBM, Metropolitan Life Insurance, Republic
Steel, Winn Dixie Stores, Avco Corporation, Paul Revere Investors, and
|Great grandson of
Albert Gallatin (1761-1849 - born in Geneva in an old noble family), who
was a U.S. Treasury Secretary between 1801 and 1814. During the War of
1812, Albert made it possible for his associate, John Jacob Astor, to
transport his furs across the battle lines. Albert also was a U.S.
diplomat to England and France. Eugene Gallatin was a professional art
|Gardner, John W.
|B.A. and M.A. in
psychology from Stanford University, Ph.D. from the University of
California, analyzed enemy propaganda broadcast to Latin America
1942-1943. Marine Corps and the OSS 1943-1945. Joined the Carnegie
Corporation in 1946. President of the Carnegie Corporation of New York
and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 1955-1965.
Founder and chairman of Common Cause (lobby force of private citizens).
Edited a volume of JFK's speeches and position papers. Presidential
Medal of Freedom 1964. Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare under
LBJ 1965-1968. Chairman of the National Urban Coalition (group of
leaders who came together to tackle the problems of race and poverty
that underlay the nationwide riots of 1968). Governor Nelson Rockefeller
asked Gardner to fill Kennedy's vacant Senate seat (he declined) 1968.
Trustee Stanford University 1968-1982. Founder and chairman of
Independent Sector 1980-1983 (lobby force of private citizens). Director
Institute of Medicine. Member of The Scientific Advisory Board of the
Air Force. Member of the Advisory Board of the Jet Propulsion
Laboratory. Director or advisor of Rockefeller Brothers Fund,
Rockefeller University, Shell Oil Company, American Airlines, the
Enterprise Foundation and National Center for Action. Member Council on
Foreign Relations. Founding member of the national advisory board of the
Haas Center. John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities was
established at Stanford University in 2000.
|Son of an investment
banker. Graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1928 and joined
the investment banking firm of Drexel and Company in Philadelphia.
Became became a partner in 1940. Rose to the rank of lieutenant
commander in the Navy 1940-1945. Under-secretary of the Navy 1953-1957.
Secretary of the Navy 1957-1959. Secretary of defense 1959-1961, who
authorized U-2 reconnaissance flights. Director and president Morgan
Guaranty Trust Company 1961-1965. CEO and chairman of Morgan Guaranty
Trust Company in 1965. Nixon appointed him chairman of the Advisory
Commission on an All-Volunteer Force, which presented its influential
report in November 1969. Ambassador to China 1976-1977. Member Council
on Foreign Relations. Member Pilgrims Society. Member Bohemian Grove.
|Gerard , James W.
|Lawyer, New York
state Supreme Court justice 1908-1913 (Hearst's newspapers opposed his
appointment), ambassador to Germany 1913-1917 and expelled when the
submarine war against the U.S. began, treasurer of the Democratic
National Committee 1914-1932, again New York state Supreme Court justice
1917-1921, delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York in
1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1944 and 1948.
||A leading barrister,
politician and government minister, serving as Solicitor General and
Lord Chancellor (1886-1892 and 1895-1905) of Great Britain. His lasting
legacy was the compilation of a the complete digest of "Laws of England"
(1905-1916), a major reference work published in many volumes and often
called simply "Halsbury's". "Halsbury's Laws" was followed by a second
multiple-volume reference work in 1929, "Halsbury's Statutes", and later
by "Halsbury's Statutory Instruments". During the crisis over the
Parliament Act of 1911, Halsbury was one of the principal leaders of the
rebel faction of Tory peers that resolved on all out opposition to the
government's bill. Giffard was also President of the Royal Society of
Literature, Grand Warden of English Freemasons, and High Steward of the
University of Oxford.
|Gifford, Walter S.
Harvard. President of American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) from 1925
to 1949. Videoconferencing was first introduced in 1926 when Walter S.
Gifford used Video Teleconferencing to speak with the Secretary of
Commerce, Herbert Hoover. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom from
|Gilman, Daniel Coit
|Incorporated Skull &
Bones into the Russell Trust, together with William Huntington Russell.
American educator who worked for a long time at Yale. Established and
became the first president of Johns Hopkins University in 1875-1876.
Co-founded the Carnegie Institution of Washington with Andrew Carnegie
in 1902 and became its first president until 1904.
|Deputy Secretary of
Defense under Kennedy, special adviser to Kennedy and part of his
"Special Group" (on Cuba), director CBS, trustee Rockefeller Brothers
Fund, member Council on Foreign Relations.
|Received his MBA at
Harvard, one of the old banking titans, acquired the investment banking
house of Kidder, Peabody & Co. in 1931 and chaired it until 1968, opened
offices of this company in Hong Kong and Japan, director of Sloan
Kettering Hospital, Paine Webber Inc., The Americas Society, and the New
York Road Runners Club, member Council on Foreign Relations.
|Gordon, Lord John Campbell
|Descendant of one
the most powerful Scottish families which gained prominence in the 12th
century. The original Dukes of Aberdeen were likely of Anglo-Norman
descent and have been involved for centuries with the kings and queens
of Scotland and England. The 4th Earl of Aberdeen, a Privy Councilor and
Knight of the Order of the Thistle, was Prime Minister of the United
Kingdom from 1852 to 1855. Lord John Gordon, 7th Earl of Aberdeen, was
educated at St Andrews and Oxford. High Commissioner to the General
Assembly of the Church of Scotland 1881-1885. Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland
in 1886. Became a member of the Privy Council in 1886. Purchased the
Coldstream Ranch, located in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, in
1891. Governor-General of Canada 1893-1898. Received the Knight Grand
Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) in 1895. President
of the Highland and Agricultural Society 1901-1902. Appeared on a 1903
membership list of the Pilgrims of Great Britain. Again Lord-Lieutenant
of Ireland 1905-1915. Became a Knight of the Order of the Thistle in
1906. Received the Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
(GCVO) in 1911. Lord Rector of St Andrews University 1913-1916. Again a
High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in
1915. Created 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair in 1916. Honorary
chief of both the Six Nations and Blackfoot people.
|Jay Gould’s son
(famous for being extremely cruel), chairman of the St. Louis &
Southwestern Railroad which owned the Arkansas & Texas Railway, director
Paragould & Southeastern Railway, director Bowling Green Trust Company,
consolidated competition into the Diamond Match Company in 1899, member
Jekyll Island Georgia Club, member of the Pilgrims of New York in 1903.
|Gould, Samuel B.
|M.A. degree from New
York University 1936, during World War II he served as an officer in the
Navy, president of Antioch College for five years, president Boston
University for six years, first chancellor of the Santa Barbara State
College 1959-1962, director of National Commercial Bank & Trust,
American Council on Education, chairman of the Institute of Man and
Science, chairman Research Foundation of the State University of New
York, trustee John D. Rockefeller III Fund, Salk Institute Educational
Records Bureau Kettering Foundation, and other positions.
|Grace, J. Peter
|Bachelor of Arts
from Yale University in 1936, president and CEO of the chemical giant
W.R. Grace & Co. 1945-1992 (also big in South-America), director
Citibank, chairman of the Order of the Knights of Malta in the United
States, chairman National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory
Medicine, president Catholic Youth Organization for the Archdiocese of
New York, member Willard Garvey's International conference on
privatizing education, chairman of the American Institute for Free Labor
Development, involved in Project Paperclip 1945, trustee American
Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (Pilgrim Heinz II also),
involved with Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe in which Fascists and
the CIA were involved, chairman President’s Private Sector Survey on
Cost Control (under Reagan), chairman Advisory Committee of AmeriCares
1982-1995 (involved with Bush, Brzezinski & Powell), director Friends of
the Democratic Center in Central America (involved the Iran-Contra
affair), member and governor Council for National Policy, member Council
on Foreign Relations, member 1001 Club, member Newcomen Society.
|Graham, William J.
|News message about
his death: William J. Graham, long a prominent actuary and outstanding
insurance executive, died February 11, 1963, in Southside Hospital, Bay
Shore, Long Island, at the age of 85. Mr. Graham's name became almost
synonymous with the development of group insurance during the first half
of the century. He was frequently re- ferred to as the, "Father of Group
Insurance," for he played a key part in the 1911 discussions with the
Montgomery Ward Company which led to the first of the modern forms of
group insurance. From that point on, Mr. Graham crusaded for the use of
group insurance in industry and commerce, and he was personally
responsible for much of its spectacular growth and en- largement into
the fields of annuities and health. Mr. Graham was born in Louisville,
Kentucky, September 23, 1877. A graduate of Xavier College in
Louisville, he also held an M.A. from St. Fran- cis Xavier College in
New York. In 1938 he was awarded an honorary LL.D. from Hobart College.
His mathematical aptitude early led him into the actuarial field. He be-
came an Associate of the Actuarial Society of America at 21, and four
years later became a Fellow. Later, he became a Charter Member of the
Casualty Actuarial Society and an Associate of the British Institute of
Actuaries. Mr. Graham started his insurance career as an actuary with
the Sun Life Insurance Company of America (Louisville) in 1898, and from
1902 to 1905 he served on the actuarial staff of the Metropolitan Life
Insurance Company. In 1905 his career gained considerable momentum
through the service he rendered as consulting actuary (jointly with S.
Herbert Wolfe) to the investi- gation of the life insurance companies of
New York conducted by a group of state insurance departments. Almost
simultaneously, he was invited to help reorganize the Northwestern
National Life Insurance Company, which he served'as a vice-president,
actuary, and director from 1905 to 1911. Mr. Graham joined the Equitable
as western superintendent of agencies in 1911. When the Equitable
established a Group Insurance Department the following year, he was made
its superintendent. He thereafter rapidly rose, becoming vice president
in 1929. He was elected a member of the Equitable's Board of Directors
in 1937 and given charge of all agency activities, both group and
ordinary. After more than 37 years of service with the Equitable, he
retired on June 30, 1948, continuing, however, to serve on Equitablc's
Board until December 31, 1958. Among Mr. Graham's innumerable writings
was an insurance bestseller entitled The Romance of Life Insurance.
Appearing first as a series of arti- cles in the 1908 issues of The
World Today, it told a constructive story of life insurance which was
much needed in those post-investigation days. Mr. Graham's broad human
sympathies caused his interests to spread far beyond his employment and
even beyond the insurance field. He headed the Insurance Institute of
America and served as vice-president of the New York Chamber of
Commerce; president of the American Management Association (which he
helped to found); director of the American Arbitration Associa- tion;
chairman of the Group Association; member of the Insurance Commit- tee
of the United States Chamber of Commerce; governor of the National
Industrial Conference Board; and a member of the New York Southern So-
ciety. His New York club memberships included the Links, Nassau County,
and the Pilgrims. He was also a member of the Pendennis Club in Louis-
ville; the Royal Societies in London, England; and the Kentuckians. An
imaginative, courageous, and dedicated master builder, Mr. Graham has
left an indelible imprint not only on the insurance world, but on the
social and economic life of our country. A hard taskmaster, he commanded
and en- joyed great admiration, respect, and loyalty on all sides. His
engaging, attrac- tive personality, and his endless drive and enthusiasm
won him high praise not only as an expert technician but as one of the
best all round salesmen in the insurance world. Mr. Graham is survived
by a daughter, Mrs. William S. Adams, Jr., and four grandchildren.
|Greenwood, Lord Hamar
Greenwood. Canadian-born Liberal member of parliament 1906-1922.
Secretary of the Overseas Trade Department 1919-1920. Member Privy
Council since 1920. Chief Secretary for Ireland 1920-1922. Conservative
Member of parliament 1924-1929. Treasurer Conservative Party. Baron
since 1929. Viscount since 1937. Director of one of England's greatest
steel firms - Dorman, Long, and Company. President British Iron and
Steel Federation 1938-1939.
|Grenfell, Lord William Henry
Athlete, sportsman, and public servant. He filled almost all the offices
in local government and local justice which were open to him in
Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, and it has been calculated that at one
time he was actually serving on no fewer than 115 committees, where his
services were recognized as of real value. During the war of 1914-18 he
was president of the Central Association of Volunteer Training Corps
which passed more than a million men into the regular army and was
eventually taken over by the War Office. In 1915 he represented the
minister of munitions in France. Appointed chairman of the British
Olympic Association in 1905. Chairman of the London Pilgrims 1919-1929.
In 1921, he declined for family reasons, to become Governor-General of
|Grenfell, Sir William
|A British diplomat.
This person was a member from the Grenfell family of Grenfell & Company,
a British merchant bank, that merged with Morgan to become Morgan,
Grenfell & Company. These days it still exists as Morgan Grenfell Asset
Management, which is owned by Deutsche Bank. Pilgrim Lord Desborough was
also a Grenfell.
|Grey, Lord Edward
|1st Viscount Grey of
Fallodon. Educated at Winchester College and at Balliol College, Oxford.
Elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal in 1885, having previously
succeeded to his grandfather's baronetcy in 1882. He served under Lord
Rosebery as Parliamentary Undersecretary for the Foreign Office in
Gladstone's last government, from 1892 to 1895. During the Boer War
(1899-1902), when the Liberals split between radical Pro-Boers and
Liberal Imperialists, Grey stood decidedly on the side of the
Imperialists like Rosebery and Herbert Henry Asquith. Foreign Secretary
1905-1916. In 1914, Grey played a key role in the crisis leading to the
outbreak of World War I. His attempts to mediate the dispute between
Austria-Hungary and Serbia by a "Stop in Belgrade" came to nothing due
to the tepid German response, and when Germany declared war on France (3
August) and invaded Belgium (4 August), Grey was able to muster enough
support to bring Britain into the war on August 4, 1914, despite initial
radical wariness. In the early years of the war, Grey negotiated several
important secret treaties, bringing Italy into the war (1915) and
promising Russia the Turkish Straits. He maintained his position as
Foreign Secretary when the Conservatives came into the government to
form a coalition in May 1915, but when the Asquith government fell due
to machinations between Lloyd George and the Tories, Grey went into
opposition. Liberal Leader in the House of Lords in 1923-1924. Presided
over a 1930 Pilgrims dinner attended by the international delegates of
the London Naval Conference. He is probably best remembered for a remark
he supposedly made to a friend one evening just before the outbreak of
the First World War, as he watched the lights being lit on the street
below his office: "The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall
not see them lit again in our lifetime."
|6th Duke of
Westminster. His wife can be traced directly to the Russian Peter the
Great. Personal fortune is estimated at 5 billion pounds. Chairman
Grosvenor Group. Owns over 300 acres of the best property in downtown
London, plus large land holdings in Canada, Australia, Hawaii and
elsewhere. Possibly a partner of the Royal Bank of Scotland through the
National Westminster Bank. Joined the Territorial Army in 1970 as a
Private. After long service he became Honorary Colonel-in-Chief of
several regiments, including The Royal Mercian and Lancastrian Yeomanry,
and Colonel Commandant Yeomanry. In November 2003, he was honoured by
the catholic Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George and the
Royal Order of Francis I. Knight of the Order of the Garter. Knight of
the Order of the British Empire. In 2004, he was appointed to the new
post of Assistant Chief of Defence Staff (Reserves and Cadets) with
promotion to the rank of Major-General. He is the first reservist
holding such rank since the 1930s. In 2005, he became chancellor of the
University of Chester.
General Lord Guthrie of
Craigiebank. Educated at Harrow School and went to the Royal Military
Academy Sandhurst in 1957. Commissioned into the Welsh Guards in 1959.
Served with his Regiment as a young officer in the United Kingdom,
Libya, Germany and Aden. Joined the SAS in 1966 and served in the Middle
East, Malaysia and East Africa. Returned to the Welsh Guards in 1970 and
for two years commanded an armoured infantry company in Germany. After a
year as a student at the Staff College, he served in the Ministry of
Defence as the Assistant to the Head of the Army, the Chief of the
General Staff. Brigade Major of the Household Division 1975-1977.
Commanded the Welsh Guards in Berlin and Northern Ireland 1977-1980.
Appointed as a Colonel to the branch overseeing operations worldwide and
during his time there became briefly the Commander British Forces New
Hebrides (Vanuatu). In this function he recaptured the island of
Espirito Santo, which had been taken over by insurgents. Awarded the
Order of the British Empire in 1980. Appointed Commander of the 4th
Armoured Brigade in Munster, West Germany, in 1981. Chief of Staff,
Headquarters 1st British Corps in Bielefeld, early 1980s. Became the
General Officer Commanding the 2nd Infantry Division and North East
District in 1985. In 1986, he became Colonel Commandant of the
Intelligence Corps. Knighted in 1990. Appointed Aide-de-Camp General to
the Queen in 1993. Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 1994.
After a further tour in the Ministry of Defence he became in succession
the Commander of the 1st British Corps, the Northern Army Group, the
British Army of the Rhine before becoming the Chief of the General Staff
and finally the Chief of the Defence Staff (1997-2001). CFR/MORI report
2001: "In his valedictory speech to the Pilgrims Society in London
in May of this year, the outgoing Chief of the British Defence Staff,
Field Marshall Lord Guthrie, stated that the USA was the most important
ally Britain had ever had, and that NATO was its most important
alliance." Became a Colonel of the Life Guards and Gold Stick to
the Queen in 1999. Colonel Commandant of the SAS in 2000. Became Lord
Guthrie of Craigiebank in June 2001. Special adviser to Aon Special
Risks, the market leading Counter-Terrorism, Political Risks, Kidnap and
Ransom insurance broker and risk consultant. Non-executive director of
Advanced Interactive Systems Inc. and Colt Defense LLC. Joined N.M.
Rothschild & Sons as a non-executive director at the latest in 2002.
Annual visitor of the Trilateral Commission since 2002. Member of the
International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Member of the
steering committee of the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS).
Member of the European Council of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. In
December 2002, Blair sent Lord Guthrie and Jack Straw to Turkey as an
unofficial military envoy to shore up support for an invasion of Iraq
and to discuss plans to remove Saddam Hussein from power. In November
2003, he was honoured by the catholic Sacred Military Constantinian
Order of Saint George and the Royal Order of Francis I. Became a
non-executive special advisor of Aon Special Risks in 2004, a leading
Counter-Terrorism, Political Risks and Kidnap and Ransom insurance
broker and risk consultant. Freeman of the City of London. Knight of the
Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Patron of the Order of Malta's Care
Trust. Patron of the (Catholic) Cardinal Hume Centre. Vice-president of
the Trinity Institute for Christianity and Culture. Commander of the
Legion of Merit USA. Member of the House of Lords. In May 2004, Guthrie
said at a conference on terrorism that terrorists might kill millions in
the future due to biological or even nuclear weapons. He also said that
he did not think that Iraq had nuclear weapons, but that this was an
understandable mistake of the Bush Administration. In that same year he
stated that Syria was one of the largest supporters of terrorism and has
been exploiting Lebanon for a long time. Attended a discussion of the
Windsor Leadership Trust in 2005. October 7, 2001, The Observer:
"Lord Guthrie, the suave former British Chief of Defence Staff, has been
a close friend of [Pakistani president] Musharraf for more than 20
years." Visited Oman as a paid advisor between 9 to 11 January 2004
and 10-12 January 2005. Made two 1-day visits to Libya, 4 April, 2004
and 27 June 2004, which was paid for by Government of Libya. Patron of
the The Second World War Experience Centre, together with the 7th
Marquess of Salisbury (Robert Gascoyne-Cecil), who is a member of Le
Cecle. Sits on the board of the Ben Gurion University in Israel.
Ben-Gurion was the initial premier of Israel and a close friend to the
Rothschilds. Sits on the board of the Moscow School of Political
Studies, which receives grants from the Carnegie Corporation of New
York. Council Member of the Institute of International and Strategic
Studies and a member of the Center for Strategic and International
Studies in Washington. Patron of the UK Defence Forum. Vice patron of
the Atlantic Council Partnership for Peace. Knight Commander of Justice
and member of the Council of the British and Irish Delegation of the
Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St George (catholic). The wife of
Guthrie and the Duchess of Norfolk are dames of this order.
|Hacking, Lord David
|Son of another
Pilgrims Society member. Baron Douglas David Hacking. Served in Royal
Navy Reserve 1954-1964; in active service in Royal Navy 1956-1958;
retired in rank of Lieutenant RNR; Worked as a barrister-at-law in
London 1964-1975; US Attorney and Counselor-at-Law 1975-1976; Solicitor
of the Supreme Court 1977-1999; Barrister, arbitrator and mediator in
Littleton Chambers since 1999. Appointed as Arbitrator/Mediator by the
ICC, the AAA, the LCIA, Hungarian Court of Arbitration, GAFTA, The
Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and others. Acts as
Arbitrator/Mediator in all commercial arbitrations/mediations with
specialist knowledge of aviation, commodities, construction and
pharmaceutical industries; Parliament: Independent Peer 1972 - 1992,
Conservative Peer 1992 - 1998, Labour Peer 1998 - 1999; Member of the
Joint Committee (of House of Commons and Lords) on Consolidation Bills:
1973-1975 and 1999; Member of the House of Lords Select Committee on the
European Communities: Sub Committee E (Law and Institutions) 1989-1995,
1996-1999 and Sub Committee F (Justice and Home Affairs) 1999;
Participated in Committee in House of Lords in numerous Public Bills
including the Arbitration Bill 1979, the Financial Services Bill 1986,
the Latent Damage Bill 1986, the Courts and Legal Services Bill 1990,
the Competition and Service [Utilities] Bill 1992, the Maastricht Bill
1993, the Civil Aviation [Amendment] Bill 1996, the Arbitration Bill
1996, the Access to Justice Bill 1999 and the Contracts [Rights of Third
Parties] Bill 1999 and conducted through the House of Lords various
Private Bills; Freeman of the City of London, President of the Civil
Court Users Association, Member of the British American Parliamentary
Group, Member of the Pilgrims, and Trustee of Carthusian Trust.
|Haggard, Sir Godfrey
|Order of the British
Empire. British Consul-General at New York.
|Halifax, Lord Edward
|Came from an
important Anglo-Catholic political family. His grandfather served as
Chancellor of the Exchequer in Lord John Russell's (younger brother of
the 7th Duke of Bedford) government, which lasted from 1846 to 1852.
Also served as president of the Board of Control under Lord Aberdeen
(father of an initial Pilgrims Society member), as First Lord of the
Admiralty, and as Secretary of State for India. He married to the
daughter of the elite 2nd Earl Grey, a Knight of the Garter and Privy
His father spent much of his
adult life as president of the English Churh Union and played a
prominent role in the (failed) attempt to bring about dialog between the
Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England on the subject of
Lord Halifax himself was educated at Eton and
Christ Church, Oxford. Member of Parliament 1910-1925. Member of the
Conservative Party. Saw some active service during WWI but remained
mostly behind the lines, being moved to a desk job in 1917. President of
the Board of Education 1922-1924. Minister of Agriculture 1924-1925.
Viceroy of India 1926-1931, picked at the suggestion of George V. After
he was appointed he ignored Mahatma Gandhi for nineteen months. Signed
the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931, after which the Civil Disobedience
Movement was suspended. Knight of the Garter since 1931. Inherited the
title Viscount Halifax in 1934. War secretary for 5 months in 1935. Lord
Privy Seal and leader of the House of Lords 1935-1937. In 1936, Halifax
visited Nazi Germany for the first time. Halifax's friend, Sir Henry
(Chips) Channon, reported: "I had a long conversation with Lord
Halifax about Germany and his recent visit. He described Hitler's
appearance, his khaki shirt, black breeches and patent leather evening
shoes. He told me he liked all the Nazi leaders, even Goebbels, and he
was much impressed, interested and amused by the visit. He thinks the
regime absolutely fantastic, perhaps even too fantastic to be taken
seriously. But he is very glad that he went, and thinks good may come of
it. I was rivetted by all he said, and reluctant to let him go."
(Henry "Chips" Channon, member of the House of Lords and very
anti-communist; diary entry, December 5, 1936) Lord President of the
(Privy) Council 1937-1938. In November 1937, prime minister Neville
Chamberlain sent Lord Halifax to meet Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels, and
Hermann Goering in Germany. In his diary, Lord Halifax records how he
told Hitler: "Although there was much in the Nazi system that
profoundly offended British opinion, I was not blind to what he (Hitler)
had done for Germany, and to the achievement from his point of view of
keeping Communism out of his country." Whereas Lord Halifax
supported Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy, the foreign
secretary, Anthony Eden, was highly critical of this way of dealing with
Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. On February 25, 1938, Eden resigned
over this issue and Lord Halifax became the new foreign secretary. In
March 1938, Hitler declared Austria a part of Germany. On September 29,
1938, Neville Chamberlain, Adolf Hitler, Edouard Daladier and Benito
Mussolini signed the Munich Agreement which transferred to Germany the
Sudetenland, a fortified frontier region that contained a large
German-speaking population. Winston Churchill and Anthony Eden attacked
the agreement. In March 1939, Hitler broke the Munich Agreement and the
German Army seized the rest of Czechoslovakia. England and France vow to
intervene if Poland is attacked. In September 1939, Germany and later
the USSR invade Poland while England and France do nothing. On November
8, 1939, the first assassination attempt on Hitler fails. In April 1940,
Germany invades Denmark and Norway. On May 10, 1940, Chamberlain is
followed up by Churchill, the same day Germany's invasion of the Benelux
begins. Churchill keeps Lord Halifax as foreign secretary. In May-June
1940, 338.000 British, Belgian, and French troops are evacuated from
Dunkirk, which is only made possible by Hitler's continuous stallings of
the German panzer attack. This will allow England to continue the war.
Hitler's commanders opposed these orders. In December 1940, Lord Halifax
was replaced as foreign secretary by his long-term opponent, Anthony
Eden. British ambassador to the United States 1941-1946. British
delegate to the United Nations San Francisco Conference in March 1945,
in which the Rockefellers played a major role. Attended the first
session of the United Nations in 1945. Became Chancellor of Sheffield
University and chairman of the BBC. Knight of the Order of St Michael
and St George.
|Hambro, Rupert N.
|Educated at Eton
College and Aix en Provence University. Hambro began his distinguished
business career in 1962 with Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co in Manchester
and London. He then joined Hambros Bank in 1964, trained in Denmark
(1964), Canada (1966) and the USA (1968), became a Director in 1969,
Deputy Chairman in 1980 and Chairman in 1983. He left in 1986 to form JO
Hambro with his father and two brothers. JO Hambro engages in private
client investment management through JO Hambro Investment Management and
investment management through JO Hambro Capital Management Ltd. Current
directorships include JO Hambro Ltd (Chairman); Rupert Hambro & Partners
Ltd (Chairman); Mayflower Corporation Plc (Chairman); Pioneer Holdings
Plc; Telegraph Group Ltd (director); Wiltons (St James’) Ltd (Chairman);
Longshot Ltd (Chairman); Chatsworth House Trust Ltd, and Woburn Golf &
Country Club Ltd (Chairman). Other involvements include the
International Advisory Board of Montana AG, Vienna; member of United
States Information Agency, International Council, Washington; Treasurer,
National Art Collections Fund; Chairman of Govenors of Museum of London;
Chairman of Trustees, The Silver Trust (co-founded in 1987); Chairman,
Society of Merchants Trading to the Continent; Chairman of the Trustees,
The Square Mile Charitable Trust; Chairman of the Trustees, The Boys’
Club Trust; Hon. Fellow of the University of Bath; Fellow of the RSA;
Hon. President, The Anglo-Danish Society, and Vice-Patron of the Royal
Society of British Sculptors. In addition, Rupert Hambro is a Member of
the Court of the Company of Goldsmiths; a Member of the Company of
Fishmongers, the Corporation of London, and The Pilgrims Society of
|Harbord, James G.
|Born in Illinois, he
grew up near Bushong in Lyon County, and graduated from Kansas State
Agricultural College in 1886. After a short teaching career he enlisted
in the army as a private and in 1891 he received a commission. His first
overseas experience came as a member of the occupation army in Cuba
after the Spanish American War. That was followed by 12 years service in
the Philippines. He was on the Mexican border with General John J.
Pershing in 1916 and when the United States entered the European
conflict he went to France as Pershing's chief of staff, which won him a
promotion to brigadier general. When the American marine commander in
France became ill, Harbord replaced him and directed the marine action
at Chateau Thierry and Belleau Wood, operations which smashed the German
offensive directed at Paris in June 1918. In August 1918 the necessity
for greater efficiency in troop and supply movement became apparent and
Harbord was recalled from the front and put in charge of supply. This
was described as the largest business undertaking that was ever
conducted by one man in all history. His success won him Allied praise
and the Distinguished Service Medal. At the end of the war he was
commissioned a major general in the regular army and commanded at Camp
Travis, Texas. When Pershing was appointed chief of staff, Harbord
became his deputy. In 1922 General Harbord retired from the army and
assumed the presidency of the Radio Corporation of America. He served as
president of the Radio Corporation America for seven years and then as
chairman of the board until 1947, the year of his death. Member of the
Newcomen Society and decorated a Knight Commander of the Order of St.
Michael and St. George.
|Harbord, John O.
|Likely a family
member of James G. Harbord, chairman Radio Corporation of America.
Attended a Pilgrim meeting in 1939.
descendants of William the Conqueror, Executive director of the IMF and
the World Bank 1954-1957.
|Yale. Married Mary
Stillman (Pilgrim family) in 1904. Family fortune was estimated at $800
million in 1924. One of the largest stockholders in Standard Oil. Large
amount of stocks in many of the largest companies in the world as
Michigan Central Railroad, New York Central Railroad, West Shore
Railroad, C.C.C. & St. Louis Railroad, P. & L.E. Railroad and Southern
Pacific Railroad. First president of the Commonwealth Fund (Harkness
Fellowship). Founded the Pilgrim Trust in 1930, which helped build
Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. Edward was a
philanthropist who wasn't on the board of many companies and avoided to
and financier. Director Newsweek. Controlled at various times the
Illinois Central. Chairman Union Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific
Railroad. Lost a fight with James Hill to gain control of the Northern
Pacific Railroad in a struggle that contributed to the stock market
panic of 1901. James Hill, Edward Harriman and J. P. Morgan combined
forces in 1906 to create a monopoly, the Northern Securities Company,
but the Supreme Court ruled in favor of a government order to break up
the firm. Edward was a director of Union Banking Corporation, which was
a Nazi holding company. UBC did business with the Nazis up to 1943, when
it was seized by the U.S. government under the trading with the enemy
|Yale Skull & Bones
1913. Scion of the Harriman railroad family. Director Guarantee Trust
Company (merged with J.P. Morgan). Formed the Merchant Shipbuilding
Corporation in 1917 (became the largest merchant fleet). Together with
his brother he formed W.A. Harriman & Company in 1922. Became acquainted
with Fritz Thyssen during his trip to Germany in the early 1920s. Brown
Brothers Harriman traded with the Soviets durin gthe 1925-1929 period.
Chairman New York State Committee of Employment 1933. Administrative
Officer of Roosevelt's NRA 1934. Union Banking Corporation. Secretary of
Commerce. US Ambassador to Russia during World War II. Director Council
on Foreign Relations 1950-1955. Head Mutual Security Administration
1951-1953. During this time the Psychological Strategy Board was
created, initially headed by Gordon Gray. Governor of New York
1954-1958. Undersecretary of state for Far Eastern Affairs 1961-1964.
Actively sought the removal of Republic of Vietnam President Ngo Dinh
Diem and helped draft the telegram to U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge
that implied U.S. support for a coup against him. Named as a Soviet spy
by Anatoli Golitsin in 1962. In charge of African affairs at the
Department of State 1964-1965. Ambassador-at-large for Southeast Asian
affairs in 1965. U.S. representative at the Paris Peace Talks (about
Vietnam) 1968. Confidential adviser to Presidents Roosevelt, Truman,
Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon and Carter. Organized the H. Smith Richardson
Foundation, which participated in MK-ULTRA.
|Lawyer and financial
expert, assistant general counsel and counsel Federal Reserve Bank of
Washington D.C.1914-1920, counsel and deputy governor Federal Reserve
Bank of New York 1920-1928, governor and president Federal Reserve Bank
of New York 1928-1941, special consultant to the Secretary of War,
president and chairman New York Life Insurance 1941-1953, chairman
Interim Policy Committee on Atomic Energy, active on behalf of the
American National Red Cross, trustee Columbia University.
|Owner of The Great
Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (founded by his grandfather), owner Oil
Shale Corporation, owner Paradise Island in Nassau, the Bahamas,
director Institute for British American Cultural Exchange in 1961,
director New York World Fair 1964-1965, member of the United States
Committee for the United Nations and the U.S. National Commission for
UNESCO, established the Huntington Hartford Gallery of Modern Art.
|After a career in
journalism and insurance, he became involved in the construction and
administration of electric railroads, a venture that brought him a
fortune. In 1899 he bought the North American Review, and, with the
backing of J. P. Morgan, he assumed control (1901) of Harper's Weekly.
Harvey retired (1913) from the editorship of Harper's Weekly but later
(1918) founded Harvey's Weekly as a medium for virulent attacks on
Woodrow Wilson (his former friend and protégé) and the peace
negotiations. After the election of Warren G. Harding, Harvey was
appointed ambassador to Great Britain (1921-1923).
statistician Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1939, Princeton University
economics professor 1940-1942, Navy reserve 1942-1946, chief Division of
Research and Statistics New York State Banking 1947-1950, assistant
chairman McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 1950-1952, assistant to
president Eisenhower for Economic Affairs 1953-1958 (opposed Senator
Joseph McCarthy's anti-Communist crusade and favored liberalized foreign
trade policies), director Trust company 1959, treasurer Council on
Foreign Relations 1964-1981, Bilderberg Steering Committee, chairman
Manufacturers Hanover Bank 1971-1979 (joined in 1958 - 4th largest bank
of the US at that time).
|Hay, Andrew "Anthony"
daughter Sharman Douglas from 1968 to 1977, who, according to ITV
(competitor of the BBC), had a 2-year lesbian affair with Queen
Elizabeth II's younger sister, Princess Margaret Windsor. Andrew Hay is
only described as a "food importer".
Oxford, Rhodes Scholar, analyst in the investment department of the City
Bank Farmers Trust Company 1933-1940, bond department of the National
City Bank 1940-1942, assistant secretary in the investment department
New York Trust Co. 1942-1944, served as a naval lieutenant in financial
planning for military government, and in the office of the Foreign
Liquidation Commissioner in Washington and Rome 1944-1946,
vice-president New York Trust in 1946, New York Trust Co. foreign
division board 1947-1956, trustee Lignan University in Canton, China
1947-1954 (Mao’s Communist takeover was in 1949), president Federal
Reserve Bank of New York 1956-1975, chairman Morgan Stanley
International 1975-1981, director National Distillers & Chemical, member
Council on Foreign Relations.
|Healy, Harold Harris,
|Son-in-law of Eli
Whitney Debevoise (Pilgrim), Yale 1943, Phi Beta Kappa & Order of the
Coif, U.S. Army Field Artillery landing in France 1943-1946, partner in
Debevoise, comment editor and executive editor of the Yale Law Journal,
executive assistant U.S. Attorney General 1957-1959, Plimpton Lyons &
Gates, U.S. counsel for N.M. Rothschild & Sons, advisory council
Ditchley Foundation, member of the Council on Foreign Relations,
executive council American Society for International Law 1977-1980,
trustee, treasurer and chairman of Vassar College 1977-1986, long-time
member of the American Bar Association, first president of the
Internationale des Avocats, persuaded the American Bar Association to
join the previous organisation, director and president Legal Aid
Society, director Metropolitan Opera Association, director Academy of
American Poets, French Legion of Honor 1984.
California and Columbia, appointed chairman of the Commission on
Campaign Costs by JFK, Chancellor of Vanderbilt University 1963-1972,
chairman Alfred P. Sloan Foundation's study of presidential elections in
America in 1982, director Time Incorporated, member Council on Foreign
|Heinz, Henry John II
|Yale Skull & Bones
1931. Chairman of the family's firm H.J. Heinz Company (very large
international food manufacturer). Chairman Howard Heinz Endowment. Very
close with Carnegie and Mellon interests. Trustee American Committee for
Liberation from Bolshevism 1950 (together with Pilgrim and Knight of
Malta head J. Peter Grace). Member Council on Foreign Relations. Went to
the first Bilderberg meeting in 1954. He was an organizer of the
Bilderberg meetings, which he regularly attended, National Review, March
27, 1987: "He was an organizer of the Bilderberg meetings, which he
regularly attended." He is the father of Teresa Heinz Kerry's (born
in Mozambique, brought up in South Africa, Carnegie trustee, global
environmentalist sponsor, and considers herself a "world citizen") first
husband, John Heinz III (who died in a plane crash). Teresa remarried
with 1966 Skull & Bones member John F. Kerry, who became the main
presidential opponent in 2004.
|Chairman of the New
York State Assembly. First chairman of the Economic Club of New York. In
1879 he organized a committee to investigate malpractices and the
plausible existence of a monopoly in the oil industry. During the
hearings, a witness testified that "nine-tenth of the refiners in the
country were in "harmony" with Standard Oil." The committee's report
focused mainly on the railroad companies and their illegal favoritism to
certain companies in terms of transportation of oil, but it also noted
that Standard Oil was a "mysterious organization." Indeed, Rockefeller
had managed to become one of the wealthiest man in America without
attracting the attention of the public, unlike other industrialists such
as Jay Gould who were despised by the American people.
|Herbert, Sir Michael
to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century.
On January 24, 1903 U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and British
Ambassador Michael H. Herbert created a joint commission to establish
the Alaskan border. On October 20, 1903, the joint commission (6
members, 3 from each side) ruled in favor of the United States in a
boundary dispute between the District of Alaska and Canada. Sir Michael
Herbert was a son of Baron Sidney Herbert, British War Minister from
1845-1846 and 1852-1855.
|Oxford. Called to
the bar at the Inner Temple in 1902. Member of parliament for Leicester
1913-1922. Solicitor General 1919-1922. Lord Chief Justice of England
on the battleship California in WWII on which his Cabin Mate was
co-Pilgrim Gabriel Hauge, married into the Deere fortune of Deere &
Company (heavy agricultural machinery), chairman Deere & Company,
director of Continental Illinois National Bank, Continental Oil Company,
A.T.&T. and the United Nations Association, director of both the U.S.
and U.S.S.R. Trade & Economic Council, director of the National Council
for U.S.-China Trade, advisor Chase Manhattan Bank, trustee Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace, life trustee Caltech, member
Trilateral Commission, Americas Society, Asia Society, Council on
Foreign Relations, Committee for Economic Development, National
Corporation for Housing Partnerships, Atlantic Institute for
International Affairs, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars,
International Executive Service Corps, California Institute of
Technology and Stanford Research Council, openly loyal to the King of
|Hill, John Warren
|Member of the
finance committee for New York county of the American Legion 1927-1928,
member of the Joint Legislative Committee on Interstate Cooperation
1946, director of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene.
|Hill, James J.
|He and others
purchased the nearly bankrupt St. Paul and Pacific Railroad in 1878,
which he and his partners made into one of the most successful railroad
companies of the U.S. In a later stage of his life, Hill was also
involved with coal and iron ore mining, Great Lakes and Pacific Ocean
shipping, banking and finance, agriculture and milling. He owned many
million acres of land and immense iron ore deposits in Minnesota. He
amassed a personal fortune of about 63 million dollars. He was one of
the initial directors of American International Corporation, formed in
November 1915. Temporary offices were opened in the National City Bank
|Hoffman, Paul Gray
Corporation 1935-1948, founder and chairman Committee for Economic
Development 1942-1948, president Ford Foundation 1950-1953, chairman
Studebaker Corporation 1953-1956, delegate to the United Nations
1956-1957, managing director UN Special Fund (UN Development Program)
1959-1972, director Encyclopedia Britannica
|Hogan, Frank J.
University law degree 1902, founded Hogan & Hartson (D.C. area major law
firm), became a nationally famous trial lawyer, among his clients were
Theodore Roosevelt and Andrew Mellon, president of the American Bar
Association in 1939, addressed the Pilgrims in 1939.
|Hogg, Douglas McGarel
|British lawyer and
politician, Queen's Privy Council 1922, attorney general 1922-1928, Lord
Chancellor in the UK conservative government 1928-1929, Secretary of
State for War 1931-1935, U.K. Leader of the House of Lords 1931-1935.
|Yale and Columbia
University, disappointed with the traditional education of lecture and
recitation, president Rollins College, assisted in the formation of The
League of Nations, Holt was a founder of the Italy-America Society and
the Netherlands-America Foundation (Carnegie was acquainted with the
Royal Dutch house of Orange-Nassau, interlocked with his patrons, the
|Hornblower, Henry II
|Owned Hornblower &
Weeks, Hemphill-Noyes investment bankers, founded the Plimoth
Plantation, trustee of another Pilgrim Society, founded in 1820, which
is a genealogical and historical organization at Plymouth, Mass, member
of the American Antiquarian Society.
Corporation. Bought a controlling interest in Tiffany & Company
(originated from New York) in 1955 and became its chairman.
|Houghton, Alanson Bigelow, Jr.
founded Corning Glass Works, was initially successful, but went bankrupt
in 1868. His sons Amory and Charles revived the firm and turned it into
a great success. Alanson, a son of Amory, was an undergraduate of
Harvard. Vice-president of Corning Glass Works from 1903 to 1910 and
president from 1910 to 1918. During this time, Houghton tripled the size
of Corning Glass. It produced about 40% of the bulbs and tubing for
incandescent electric lights and 75% of the railway signal glass used in
the U.S. It was one of the largest glass producers in the industry.
Member of Congress from 1919 to 1922. US Ambassador to Germany
1922-1925. US Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1925-1929. Involved in
the Dawes Plan (1924), the Locarno Treaties (1925), and the
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928). His son, Amory Houghton Sr., was
Eisenhower's ambassador to France. And his son, Amory Jr., has been a
Republican member of Congress since 1987.
Minister Billy Hughes. Present at a 1918 Pilgrims dinner in 1918. In
1919, Hughes and former Prime Minister Joseph Cook travelled to London
to attend the Versailles peace conference. He remained away for 16
months, and signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of Australia - the
first time Australia had signed an international treaty. At Versailles
Hughes demanded heavy reparations from Germany and frequently clashed
with President Woodrow Wilson of the United States. He succeeded in
securing Australian control of Germany's colonial possessions in New
|Hughes, Charles Evans
|Brown University and
Columbia University. Trustee Rockefeller’s University of Chicago.
Uncovered gas rate fraud in NY in 1905 and was appointed to investigate
the insurance industry. Governor of New York 1907-1910. Declined
vice-presidential nomination by William Howard Taft in 1908. Associate
Justice of the Supreme Court 1910-1916. Defeated by Woodrow Wilson in
1916 presidential race. Favored the ratification of the treaty creating
the League of Nations in 1920. Secretary of State under Warren G.
Harding & Calvin Coolidge 1921–1925. Served as a judge of the Permanent
Court of Arbitration and the Permanent Court of International Justice in
The Hague, The Netherlands in the second half of the twenties. At a
London Pilgrim meeting in 1924, Hughes was photographed sitting next to
the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Connaught. President of the
Association of the Bar of the City of New York 1927-1929. Chief Justice
of the United States 1930-1941. Automatically appointed chancellor of
the Smithsonian Institution during his appointment as Chief Justice. Led
the fight against Franklin Delano Roosevelt's attempt to pack the
Supreme Court after they regarded the New Deal as unconstitutional.
|Hyde, James Hazen
president of Equitable Life Assurance Society 1899-1905, involved in an
insurance scandal and fled to Versailles, France, co-founders Alliance
Française, awarded the Grand Cross of the French Legion of Honor.
|Inge, Lord Peter
1956-97; Commissioned Green Howards 1956; Served Hong Kong, Malaya,
Germany, Libya and UK; ADC to GOC, 4 Division 1960-61; Adjutant, 1 Green
Howards 1963-64; Student, Staff College 1966; Ministry of Defence
1967-69; Company Commander, 1 Green Howards 1969-70; Student, Joint
Services Staff College 1971; BM, 11 Armoured Brigade 1972; Instructor,
Staff College 1973-74; CO, 1 Green Howards 1974-76; Commandant, Junior
Division, Staff College 1977-79; Commander, Task Force C/4 Armoured
Brigade 1980-81; Chief of Staff, HQ 1 (BR) Corps 1982-83; Colonel, The
Green Howards 1982-94; GOC, NE District and Commander 2nd Infantry
Division 1984-86; Director General, Logistic Policy (Army), Ministry of
Defence 1986-87; Commander, 1st (Br) Corps 1987-89; Colonel Commandant,
Royal Military Police 1987-92; Commander, Northern Army Group and
C-in-C, BAOR 1989-92; ADC General to HM The Queen 1991-94; Chief of the
General Staff 1992-94; promoted to the rank of Field Marshal in 1994;
Chief of the Defence Staff 1994-97; Constable, HM Tower of London
1996-2001; Raised to the peerage as Baron Inge, of Richmond in the
County of North Yorkshire 1997; President of the British-German
Officers' Association; Member of the Board and Council of St. George's
House at Windsor Castle; Deputy Chairman of Historic Royal Palaces;
Member of Council of Marlborough College; Member of the Council of the
Interfaith Dialogue; Commissioner of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea; Member
of the Council of King Edward VII's Hospital Sister Agnes; Freeman of
the City of London; Member of the Order of the Bath; Member of the Order
of the Garter; Member of the Privy Council since 2004; He was a member
of the Butler Inquiry team, chaired by Robin Butler, Baron Butler of
Brockwell, that determined that the intelligence used to declare Iraq's
possession of "Weapons of Mass Destruction" was flawed. When Inge was
appointed to sit in judgment on whether our spies were wrong about Iraq
or whether their messages were distorted, he was still a member of the
Hakluyt Foundation, a supervisory board for Hakluyt, a firm which hires
former MI6 agents to work for private companies like Shell and BP.
Today, Lord Inge is also a consultant to BAE Systems, Vickers plc.,
Investcorp (a Middle Eastern bank), and OWR AG (a German firm making gas
masks, protective suits, decontamination trailers and other specialist
protection against nuclear, biological and chemical warfare). Since
2003, the year it was created, Lord Inge is the non-executive chairman
of Aegis Defence Services, a London-based company which offers
mercenaries and related services to governments at war. Aegis was
awarded a $293 million contract by the Pentagon in May 2004 to act as
the "coordination and management hub" for the fifty-plus private
security companies in Iraq. They also contributed seventy-five teams of
eight armed civilians each to assist and protect the Project Management
Office of the United States and provided protection for the Oil-for-Food
Program inquiry. The CEO of Aegis is Lt. Col. Tim Spicer, a former
officer of the SAS and a former CEO of Sandline International. Sandline
|Jackson, N. Baxter
University graduate who became a trustee, chairman Chemical Bank in
1946, director American Chain & Cable Company, Home Life Insurance,
French-American Banking Corporation, General Reinsurance Corporation,
North Star Reinsurance, and Warner Lambert Pharmaceutical, member
|Jenkins, Roy Harris
minister in 1964, home secretary 1965-1967 and 1974-1976, chancellor of
the Exchequer 1967-1970, president European Commission 1977-1981,
co-founder Social Democratic Party, SDP member of parliament 1982-1987,
chancellor Oxford University in 1982 and made a life peer, president of
the Royal Society, minister of aviation, leader House of Lords. In 1997
he was appointed head of a commission, set up by the Labour government,
to recommend, in 1998, a new voting system for elections to Parliament.
Jenkins has contributed frequently to British newspapers and periodicals
and is a distinguished writer whose biographical subjects have included
Henry Asquith, Harry Truman, Clement Attlee, and Stanley Baldwin.
|Jennings, Oliver Gould
|Born about 1863.
Yale Skull & Bones 1887. Sat on the boards of Bethlehem Steel, United
States Industrial Alcohol Company, McKesson & Robbins, Kingsport Press,
Signature Company, National Fuel Gas Company, and Grocery Store
|Johnson, Joseph Esrey
|Seems to have had a
honorable grandfather, Johnson studied at Harvard University, where he
earned his bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees. His first teaching
position was as a professor of history at Bowdoin College in 1934 and
1935. From there he moved on to Williams College in Massachusetts in
1936, where he was an assistant professor of history until 1947, and a
full professor from 1947-1950. During the years from 1943-1947, however,
Johnson was on leave from Williams College, and served in a variety of
positions with the State Department and United Nations. Initially
Johnson was appointed chief of the international affairs division in the
State Department. While in this post, he played a role in the creation
of the United Nations, attending both the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in
1944 as well as the San Francisco Conference in 1945. Johnson later
served as an adviser to the U.S. delegation at the first U.N. General
Assembly at Lake Success, New York in 1946, and assisted the U.S.
representative to the Security Council, which met in London. Johnson
returned to Williams College in 1947, yet his time in academia proved to
be short-lived. In 1950 he was appointed to be a trustee, and then
president, of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he
was able to apply his growing expertise in the field of brokering
peaceful solutions to international disputes. Although he served as a
consultant at numerous international conferences, and was an alternate
U.S. delegate to the United Nations General Assembly in 1969, he is
perhaps best remembered for his role on the U.N. Conciliation Commission
for Palestine in 1961. As part of the commission Johnson was named a
special envoy, and traveled throughout the Middle East, meeting with
various governments in search of a means of providing Palestinian
refugees with a homeland of their own. Johnson’s final report
recommended that refugees who were forced out of their homes by the 1948
war be allowed to return to their former homes in Israel. However,
neither side accepted Johnson’s proposals. Johnson was also a director
of the Council on Foreign Relations between 1950 and 1974, Bilderberg
|Kahn, Otto Hermann
|Born in Mannheim,
Germany. Emigrated to U.S. in 1893, partner Kuhn, Loeb & Co., together
with Jacob Schiff (later Pilgrim) and Paul Warburg (later Pilgrim), NY
1897-1934 and it's main stockholder from 1908 and on. Chairman and
president Metropolitan Opera Company of NY 1911-1931, trustee Carnegie
Institute of Technology, director Italy-American Society, director
Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1934, Knight Order of Charles II,
Order of the Crown (Italy), order of the Rising Sun, vice-president
English-Speaking Union. His attempt to become President of the
English-Speaking Union was defeated by the timely exposure of his role
in financing the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. His house was a meeting
place for Soviet agents as Nina Smorodin, Claire Sheridan, Louise Bryant
and Margaret Harrison.
|Kellogg, Frank B.
|After five years on
the farm, he entered a law office in Rochester, Minnesota, supporting
himself as a handyman for a Rochester farmer and teaching himself law,
history, Latin, and German with the aid of borrowed textbooks. Having
passed the state bar examination in 1877, he became the city attorney
for Rochester and two years later the attorney for Olmsted County. A
cousin, Cushman Kellogg Davis, the leading lawyer of St. Paul and later
a United States senator, recognizing Frank Kellogg's energy, tenacity,
and skill, invited him, in 1887, to join his law firm. In the next
twenty years Kellogg earned a substantial fortune. He became counsel for
some of the railroads, the iron mining companies, and the steel
manufacturing firms that developed the rich Mesabi iron range in
Minnesota and, consequently, a friend of some of the great business
figures of the day, among them, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller,
and James J. Hill. Despite such associations, Kellogg achieved national
fame as a 'trustbuster'. He won an antitrust victory against E. H.
Harriman and the Union Pacific Railroad, and another in 1911 against
John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company in one of the most
dramatic legal battles of the pre-World War I era. In 1912 he was named
president of the American Bar Association. Kellogg was a member of the
National Committee of the Republican Party from 1904 to 1912 and a
delegate to its national conventions in 1904, 1908, and 1912. In 1916 he
was elected to the U.S. Senate, taking his seat on March 4, 1917, in
time to vote for America's entry into World War I on April 6. He always
supported Woodrow Wilson. Tried hard to obtain senatorial ratification
of the Treaty of Versailles and of the Covenant of the League of
Nations. A poor campaigner, Kellogg lost his try in 1922 for a second
term in the Senate. In March, 1923, President Harding sent him on his
first diplomatic mission as a delegate to the fifth Pan-American
Conference, which was held in Chile. When he came back he was appointed
ambassador to Great Britain. The most important diplomatic affair in
which he figured in his fourteen months in England was the London
Reparations Conference convened to accept the Dawes Committee report. In
1925 Kellogg succeeded Charles Evans Hughes as secretary of state in
Coolidge's cabinet, holding the position until 1929. In pursuance of his
faith in the efficacy of the legal arbitration of international
disputes, Kellogg arranged for the signing of bilateral treaties with
nineteen foreign nations. Of the eighty treaties of various kinds which
he signed while in office - a total breaking the record set by William
Jennings Bryan from 1913 to 1915 - none was so important to him as the
Pact of Paris, commonly called the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928). Kellogg
returned to St. Paul early in 1929 and during the months that followed
traveled extensively in America and in Europe to receive many honors,
among them the Nobel Peace Prize, the French Legion of Honor, and
honorary degrees from many universities. In 1930 he filled Hughes's
unexpired term on the Permanent Court of International Justice and was
then elected to a full term of his own. Because of failing health,
however, he was forced to resign from the Court in 1935.
Economics at Princeton University, president of the Economists National
Committee on Monetary Policy in 1937, according to The Commercial &
Financial Chronicle Kemmerer (1938) Kemmerer was one of 60 economics who
signed a resolution at a summit against silver coinage, director of U.S.
& Foreign Securities Corporation and U.S. & International Securities
Corporation from 1947. He wrote more than a dozen books, the most
well-known was "The ABC of the Federal Reserve System" (1918), which ran
to twelve editions.
|Harvard graduate. He
engaged in banking, shipbuilding, investment banking, and motion-picture
distribution before he served as chairman of the Securities and Exchange
Commission in 1934 and 1935, chairman U.S. Maritime Commission
1935-1937, U.S. ambassador to Great Britain 1937-1940, supported the
overtures of the Chamberlain government to Hitler and was generally
noninterventionist, informal adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt,
went back in (successful business after this) Knight of Malta, 2 of his
3 sons were publicly murdered. The last son is a member of the CFR.
|Kerr of Kinlochard, Lord John
|MA from Oxford
University. Member of the UK Diplomatic Service from 1966 to 2002.
Ambassador to the European Union from 1990 to 1995. Ambassador to the US
from 1995 to 1997. From 1997 to 2002 he was Permanent Under-Secretary of
State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Head of the Diplomatic
Service, making him the first member of the Service to hold its three
top jobs. In 2000 he became the most senior UK official to visit Tripoli
(Libya) since 1984. From 2002 to 2003 he was Secretary-General of the
European Convention, which prepared the EU Constitutional Treaty
(rejected by the Dutch and French citizens in 2005). Ennobled in June
2004. Member of the Advisory Board of the Centre for European Reform.
Director of Rio Tinto Plc and Rio Tinto Australia since 2003. Director
of Shell Transport and Trading who was a key architect of the plan to
merge the company with Royal Dutch Shell in 2005. Director of the
Scottish American Investment Trust. Since 2004 he is chairman of the
Court and Council of Imperial College, London. Here he followed up Lord
Vincent of Coleshill, another Pilgrim. Trustee of the Rhodes Trust.
Trustee, National Gallery. Honorary governor of the Glasgow Academy.
Honorary fellow of the Pembroke College, Oxford. Honorary president of
the Universities Association for Contemporary European Studies. Member
of the House of Lords. Member of the Trilateral Commission at least
since 2002. Visited Bilderberg in 2004 and 2005. Governor of the
Ditchley Foundation anno 2005. Chaired the 2004 Ditchley discussion
group 'The future direction of an enlarged Europe'. Knight of the Order
of St Michael and St George.
|Kerr, Lord Philip
|Served on various
government commissions in South Africa and was a member of Viscount
Alfred Milner's (Pilgrims Society) "kindergarten" 1905-1910. Co-founder
and editor of a liberal scholarly journal called the "Round Table"
1910-1916. David Lloyd George's private secretary 1916-1921. Active at
the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Important member of the Royal
Institute of International Affairs. Secretary of the Rhodes Trust since
1925. Inherited the title of 11th Marquess of Lothian in 1930.
Represented the Liberal party in the National government as chancellor
of the duchy of Lancaster 1931-1932. British Ambassador to the United
States. Chairman of the India franchise committee 1932. Advocated
appeasement of Nazi Germany until 1939 when he came round to a vigorous
advocacy of resistance to Adolf Hitler. Invited to a Pilgrim banquet
held in his honor at Hotel Plaza, New York City, October 25, 1939.
Became a Knight of the Thistle in 1940.
|Keswick, Sir William
|Son of Henry
Keswick, who was the son of William Keswick, the person that took
control of Jardine Matheson in 1886 (1834-1912). Jardine Matheson has
its origins in the 1830s, when founders William Jardine and James
Matheson invested their substantial returns from opium trade in China.
According to EIR, they are still involved in the drug business today.
Hugh Matheson founded Rio Tinto Zinc (RTZ) in 1873, which the
Rothschilds owned for 1/3 in 1905. Tony is the older brother of Sir John
Tony was head of Jardine Matheson's Shanghai
office from 1935 to 1941. During this period, he was also chairman of
the Shanghai Municipal Council. Became managing director of Matheson &
Co. in London after WWII. Governor of the Hudson Bay Company 1952-1965
(chartered in 1670 by Charles II of England) in which Jardine Matheson,
the Keswick's family company, had a controlling interest. Governor of
the Bank of England in the late 1960s. Director British Petroleum and
Sun Alliance. Vice-chairman of the Alliance Assurance. Tony Keswick was
a member of the Pilgrims Society while Henry Keswick, chairman of
Jardine Matheson, has been identified as a member of the 1001 Club.
The Keswick family of Jardine Matheson bought a
20% stake in Rothschilds Continuation Holdings in 2005. They are the
only non-Rothschild shareholders.
Kinnaird. 11th Lord Kinnaird. Knight of the Thistle.
|Kirk, Grayson Louis
|Advised the State
Department on international politics in the 1940s, helped create the
United Nations, professor Columbia University 1940-1949, provost
Columbia University 1949-1953, president Columbia University 1953-1968
(successor to Dwight D. Eisenhower), trustee of Columbia University
after 1968, appointed Bryce Professor of the History of International
Relations during his Columbia presidency, director Council on Foreign
Relations 1950-1964, president Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1971,
in 1968 he made a strong and widely reported appeal to the government to
get out of Vietnam as quickly as possible, vice-chairman Council on
Foreign Relations 1971-1973. Kirk was the author of several works on
international relations and was a member of the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and Phi Beta Kappa. He
was president of the American Society of the French Legion of Honor and
vice president of the Pilgrims of the United States (right from his
Columbia University biography). He was a director or trustee of the
Academy of Political Science, the Tinker Foundation, the Asia
Foundation, the French Institute, the Institute of International
Education, and of Consolidated Edison Company of New York, IBM and the
Greenwich Savings Bank. Kirk received numerous international awards from
universities and other institutions.
"Henry " Alfred
|Henry Kissinger was
born in the Bavarian city of Fuerth. He was a son of Louis and Paula
Stern Kissinger. The elder Kissinger was a school teacher and after
Hitler's rise to power, the family immigrated to London in 1938. After a
short stay, they moved to Washington Heights in New York City. Recruited
by Fritz Kraemer during WWII. Served in the U.S. Army Counter
Intelligence Corps 1943-1946. According to Hersh, Kissinger stayed on
active duty in West Germany after the war and was eventually assigned to
the 970th CIC Detachment, whose functions included support for the
recruitment of ex-Nazi intelligence officers for anti-Soviet operations
inside the Soviet bloc. Captain in the Military Intelligence Reserve
1946-1949. Went to Harvard in 1947, where he was picked by the
Rockefellers, three of whom were overseers there at the time. Executive
director Harvard International Seminar 1951-1969. Became an consultant
to the Operations Research Office in 1951. According to Hersh, that
unit, under the direct control of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, conducted
highly classified studies on such topics as the utilization of former
German operatives and Nazi partisan supporters in CIA clandestine
activities. Became a consultant to the Director of the Psychological
Strategy Board in 1952, a covert arm of the National Security Council.
The first director (and primary founder) was Gordon Gray, who served in
this position from June 1951 to May 1952. Under Eisenhower, on September
2, 1953, the role of this department was expanded and the name became
Operations Coordinating Board (OCB). Became an consultant to the
Operations Coordinating Board in 1955, which was then the highest
policy-making board for implementing clandestine operations against
foreign governments. JFK would abolish the OCB in 1961 although a
similar unacknowledged structure would remain operational. Became known
as the most trusted aide to Nelson Rockefeller in the mid 1950s, who by
then had served as Eisenhower's Special Assistant for Cold War Planning
and overseer of all the CIA's clandestine operations. Member of the
Department of Government, Center for International Affairs, Harvard
University, 1954-1969. Study director of nuclear weapons and foreign
policy at the Council on Foreign Relations 1955-1956. Director Special
Studies Project for the Rockefeller Brothers Fund 1956-1958, which
worked out basic cold war policy manifestoes (hardline). They were in
large part adopted by successive administrations in Washington. Author
of 'Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy', released in 1957. Consultant
Weapons Systems Evaluation Group of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1959-1960.
Consultant National Security Council 1961-1962. Consultant RAND
Corporation 1961-1968. Consultant United States Arms Control and
Disarmament Agency 1961-1968. Consultant to the Department of State
1965-1968. Right-hand man to Nelson Rockefeller during the 1968
Republican nomination campaign. Nixon's National Security Advisor
1969-1973. Chairman of the secretive Forty Committee, the covert
apparatus of the National Security Council, from at least 1969 to 1976,
which oversaw the CIA's clandestine operations. Nelson Rockefeller, even
in his Senate bio, has been named as an (earlier) chairman of the Forty
Committee. As head of this committee Kissinger had access to more
information than the other members and he is said to have distorted it
at times. During this same time period Kissinger also set up and headed
the Washington Special Action Group (WSAG), another very important
foreign policy group. Committee Secretary of State 1973-1977. Made two
secret trips to China in 1971 to confer with Premier Zhou Enlai.
Together with David Rockefeller involved in setting up the National
Council for US-China Trade in 1973. Negotiated the SALT I and ABM treaty
with the Soviet Union. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1973. Made other
secret trips to China in later years to make extremely sensitive
intelligence exchanges. Robert C. McFarlane was among those who went to
China with Kissinger, in his case between 1973 and 1976. Negotiated the
end of the Yom Kippur War in 1973. Said to have played a role in the
1973 Augusto Pinochet coup. Approved President Suharto's invasion of
East-Timor in 1973, which resulted in a bout 250,000 dead communists and
socialists. Suspected of having been involved in Operation Condor which
started around 1975 and was an assassination and intelligence gathering
operation on 3 continents. Director Council on Foreign Relations
1977-1981. Together with Cyrus Vance and David Rockefeller he set up the
US-China Business Council in 1979, the sucessor to the Council for
US-China Trade. Annual visitor of Bilderberg since at least the 1970s.
Annual visitor of the Trilateral Commission since the late 1970s.
Visited Le Cercle. Member of the 1001 Club and the Pilgrims Society.
Visitor of Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay. Founder of Kissinger Associates
in 1982, a secretive consulting firm to international corporations. Some
of the first members to join Kissinger Associates were Brent Scowcroft
(vice-chairman), Lawrence Eagleburger (president), Lord Carrington, Lord
Roll of Ipsden, and Pehr Gyllenhammar. Some served until 1989, others
were still active for Kissinger Associates in the late 1990s. Chairman
National Bipartisan Commission on Central America 1983-1984. Set up the
America-China Society in 1987, together with Robert McFarlane and Cyrus
Vance. Appointed chairman of AIG's advisory council in 1987. Director of
the Atlanta branch of the Italian Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL) from
1985 to 1991. This was during the 1989 BNL Affair (Iraq Gate) in which
it became known that the Atlanta branch had made $4 billion in
unreported loans to Iraq. After the revelation, the money was said to be
used by the Iraqis to buy food and agriculture equipment, but in reality
they were buying loads of military equipment. His consultancy firm,
Kissinger Associates, set up the China Ventures fund with CITIC in 1989,
which would be in the same year that he defended the Tiananmen Square
massacre, arguing against sanctions being placed on China. In 1990, he
sat on boards of American Express, Union Pacific, R.M. Macy, Continental
Grain, CBS, and the Revlon Group. Also a consultant to ABC news at this
time. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Member of the
Council of Advisors of the United States-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce.
Trustee of the Center Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the
Arthur F Burns Fellowship, the Institute of International Education, and
the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Honorary Governor of the Foreign Policy
Association. Patron of the Atlantic Partnership and the New Atlantic
Initiative. Chairman of the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, the Nixon
Center, and the American Academy in Berlin. Co-chairman of the Editorial
Board of 'The National Interest' magazine. Chancellor of the College
William and Mary. Honorary chairman World Cup USA 1994 (Kissinger has
attended football matches with his friend and colleague Etienne Davignon).
Named Honorary Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George, 1995.
Director Freeport-McMoRan 1995-2001. Director of Conrad Black's
Hollinger International Inc. Member of J.P. Morgan's International
Advisory Council. Former member of the Advisory Council of Forstmann
Little & Co. and American Express. Advisor to China National Offshore
Oil Corp (CNOOC). Member of the Europe Strategy Board of Hicks, Muse,
Tate & Furst. Director of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation. Chairman of
the International Advisory Board of the American International Group
(AIG), a partner of Kissinger Associates. Also chairman of the Advisory
Boards of AIG Asian Infrastructure Funds I & II and a director of AIG
Global. In 1997, Kissinger became the central advisor to the Business
Coalition for US-China Trade, a group of about a 1000 leading companies
willing to invest in China. In 2000, Henry Kissinger was quoted by
Business Wire: "Hank Greenberg, Pete Peterson and I have been close
friends and business associates for decades." Maurice Greenburg is
head of AIG and Peter G. Peterson is head of The Blackstone Group, which
is the other major partner of Kissinger Associates. Peterson is also a
former chairman of Lehman Brothers. Kissinger is a friend of Lynn
Forester and introduced her to Sir Evelyn de Rothschild at the 1998
Bilderberg conference. They would soon become married. After Pulitzer
Price winning journalist Peter Arnett produced a CNN report on Operation
Tailwind (a Vietnam operation in which US Special Forces allegedly
killed US defectors with Sarin) in 1998, Kissinger and his friends
called up CNN to demand that the news network should distance itself
from the story (a story which CNN initially approved) and made sure that
the producers of the show were publicly humiliated and fired. Arnett was
fired again by NBC and National Geographic in March 2003 immediately
after he said the Bush Administration was looking for a plan B now that
Iraqi resistance turned out to be much more intense than expected.
Within 24 hours the Daily Mail hired him. When Henry Kissinger is
invited to speak at the United Nations Association on April 11, 2001
Lord Jacob Rothschild is flanking his side. Picked as the initial head
of the 9/11 investigating committee in 2003, although he turned out to
be too controversial to remain in that position. Henry Kissinger is a
patron of the Open Russia Foundation since 2001, together with Lord
Jacob Rothschild. The Foundation was set up by Mikhail Khodorkovsky, a
controversial oligarch, later locked up by Putin. Honorary trustee of
the Aspen Institute. Because of previous international attempts by
European and South American judges to question him, he is known to take
legal advice before traveling to certain countries in either continent.
When Otto von Habsburg visited the United States in April 2005, one of
the few people he spoke with, besides the general meetings, was Henry
|Kitchener, Lord Horatio H.
||Member of the Order
of the Garter, the Order of Saint Patrick, the Order of the Bath, the
Order of Merit, the Order of the Star of India, the Order of the Indian
Empire, the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, and the Privy
Council. Also an Aide de Camp to Queen Victoria. Kitchener was born in
Ballylongford, County Kerry in Ireland. Educated in Switzerland and at
the Royal Military Academy, he offered to fight with the French in the
Franco-Prussian War before he joined the Royal Engineers in 1871. In
1874 Lt. Horatio Kitchener was appointed as assistant to Lt. C.R. Conder,
on the Survey of Western Palestine. During 1874 and 1875, along with
their team of Royal Engineers N.C.O.s and enlisted men, they surveyed
large areas of the country. In 1882, Kitchener served with the British
forces in Egypt during the suppression of the nationalist revolt led by
Col. Arabi. In 1883, he took part in the Survey of the Wady Arabah and
northeastern Sinai with Professor Edward Hull, on behalf of the Fund.
After duty in Palestine and Cyprus, he was attached (1883) to the
Egyptian army, then being reorganized by the British. Initiated into
freemasonry in La Concordia Lodge, Cairo in 1883. He took part (1884–85)
in the unsuccessful attempt to relieve Charles George Gordon at
Khartoum. He was then (1886–88) governor-general of Eastern Sudan and
helped (1889) turn back the last Mahdist invasion of Egypt. In 1892 he
was made commander in chief of the Egyptian army and in 1896 began the
reconquest of Sudan, having prepared the way by a reorganization of the
army and the construction of a railway along the Nile. A series of
victories culminated (1898) in the battle of Omdurman and the
reoccupation of Khartoum. After becoming Sirdar of the Egyptian Army he
headed the victorious Anglo-Egyptian army at the Battle of Omdurman on
September 2, 1898, a victory made possible by the massive rail
construction program he had instituted in the area. Kitchener quite
possibly prevented war between France and Britain when he dealt firmly
but non-violently with the French military expedition to claim Fashoda,
in what became known as the Fashoda Incident. He also reformed the debt
laws, preventing rapacious moneylenders from stripping away all assets
of impoverished farmers, guaranteeing them five acres (20 000 m²) of
land to farm for themselves and the tools to farm with. In 1899
Kitchener was presented with a small island in the Nile at Aswan as in
gratitude for his services; the island was renamed Kitchener's Island in
his honour. Became freemasonry District Grand Master of Egypt and Sudan
in 1899. During the Second Boer War (1899–1902), Kitchener arrived with
Lord Roberts and the massive British reinforcements of December 1899.
Kitchener was made overall commander in November 1900 following Roberts'
removal due to illness. Following the defeat of the conventional Boer
forces, and the failure of a reconciliatory peace treaty in February
1901 (due to British cabinet veto) that Kitchener had negotiated with
the Boer leaders, Kitchener inherited and expanded the successful
strategies devised by Roberts to crush the Boer guerrillas. His
no-prisoners policy became quite controversial. Following this,
Kitchener was made Commander-in-Chief in India (1902–1909), where he
reconstructed the greatly disorganised Indian army, against the wishes
of the bellicose viceroy Lord Curzon (pilgrims Society), who became a
passionate and lifelong enemy. Kitchener was promoted to Field Marshal
in 1910; however, largely due to a Curzon-inspired whispering campaign,
he was turned down for the post of Viceroy of India in 1911. He then
returned to Egypt as Viceroy of Egypt and the Sudan (1911–1914). At the
outset of World War I (1914), Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith
quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War. Against
cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that would
last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat Germany,
and suffer huge casualties before the end would come. In 1916, Lord
Kitchener embarked aboard the armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire for his
diplomatic mission to Russia. While en route to the Russian port of
Arkhangelsk, Hampshire struck a mine during a Force 9 gale and sank west
of the Orkney Islands. His body was never found.
|Kleinwort, Sir Cyril Hugh
|Son of Sir Alexander
Drake Kleinwort. Member of a British merchant and banking family that
goes back to the 18th century. In 1897 Kleinwort, Sons & Co. went into
business with Goldman Sachs & Co. of New York, today one of the largest
investment firms on the planet. Director of Kleinwort, Benson, Lonsdale
Ltd. Director of Commercial Union. According to the Telegraph in 2003,
the British Invisible Exports Council (later British Invisibles, now
IFSL) was the brainchild of Cyril Kleinwort. The acquisition of the
bullion dealer Sharps Pixley in 1966 gave Kleinwort Benson a seat on the
London gold price fixing committee that met twice daily in the offices
of N M Rothschild & Sons. Co-founded Population Concern in 1977 with
Earnest Kleinwort, Prince Philip, Lord Caradon, Lord Renton and Lord
McCorquodale. In 1995 Kleinwort Benson was taken over by Dresdner Bank
to form Dresdner Kleinwort Benson. The bank subsequently merged with
Wasserstein Perella of New York to become Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein
and is a subsidiary of Allianz.
His nephew Kenneth Drake Kleinwort was a member
of the 1001 Club.
|Attorney Shearman &
Sterling, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1977-1983, member
Council on Foreign Relations, director National Leadership Bank, heir to
the Whitney fortune, trustee Asia Foundation.
|Krech, Alvin W.
Trust Co. in the 1920s, involved with financing Communism.
education includes: Duke University (Phi Beta Kappa), The University of
Michigan (M.A., History), graduate studies in law at Oxford University,
and Harvard Law School (J.D.). He has been awarded honorary doctorates
by 14 American and British universities and colleges. President of Sea
Pines Company and Executive Vice President of the late Sir James
Goldsmith’s US holding company. His education includes a juris doctorate
from Harvard Law School, a master of arts degree in history from the
University of Michigan, a bachelor of arts degree (Phi Beta Kappa) from
Duke University, as well as graduate studies in law at Oxford
University. In 1981 Lader founded the Renaissance Weekends. His wife,
Linda LeSourd Lader, is President of the Renaissance Institute. Between
1991 and 1993 he was president of the controversial first private
university in Australia, Bond University. White House Deputy Chief of
Staff and Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and
Budget 1993-1994. From October 1994 until 1997 he was the Administrator
of the U.S. Small Business Administration. US Ambassador to Britain
1997-2001. As ex-ambassador, almost reduced to tears in a British show 2
days after 911. Lader tried to express his sadness over the attacks when
a number of audience members had shouted him down to voice their anti-US
opinions. Lader is an Honorary Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford
University, and London Business School, an Honorary Bencher of the
Middle Temple, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and
Chief Executives Organization. Currently a Senior Advisor to Morgan
Stanley, a director of RAND, Marathon Oil and AES Corporations, a member
of the Council of Lloyds, a trustee of the British Museum, and a board
member of Saint Paul's Cathedral, the Windsor Leadership Trust, the
Prince of Wales' Trust and the British-American Business Advisory
Council. He is also a partner in the law firm, Nelson, Mullins, Riley &
Scarborough. Non-executive chairman of WPP since 2001, the
communications company that owns PR companies including Hill & Knowlton,
Burson-Marsteller, GCI, and Cohn & Wolfe.
|Lamington, 2nd Lord
|Full name was
Charles Wallace Alexander Napier Cochrane-Baillie. Oxford friend of
Pilgrims Society member Lord Curzon. Served under Curzon in India.
Served as assistant private secretary to the 3rd Marquess Salisbury
(Cecil; coordinator of the later Round Table), Prime Minister in 1885.
Member of Parliament for North St Pancras 1886-1890. Governor of
Queensland 1895-1901. Identified as a member of the Pilgrims Society in
1903. Governor of Bombay 1903-1907. Elected as the Grand Master of all
Scottish Freemasonry in India on July 24, 1904. Co-founder of the Persia
Society of London in 1911, a non-political body designed "to promote the
sympathy existing between the British and Persian nations". Lord
Lamington became the President of its Council of seven, which included
Sir Thomas Barclay. Initial president of the Iran Society, which was
founded in 1935. The Aga Khan of that time, a family which is still
closely associated with the Rockefellers, Rothschilds, Lazards, and
Buckleys of today, was one of the first to give a lecture to that
society in 1936. Attended the March 13, 1940 Royal central Asian Society
meeting at Caxton Hall where Sir Michael O'Dwyer was assassinated and
himself wounded. Received the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St
Michael and St George.
New York Tribune in 1893, secretary Bankers Trust Company 1903-1904,
vice-president Bankers Trust Company, partner J.P. Morgan & Co. 1911,
representative of the United States Treasury at the WWI Paris peace
talks in 1919, director of the First National Bank of New York, became
chairman of J.P. Morgan & Company when Jack Morgan died in 1943,
director U.S. Steel, A.T. & San Francisco Railway; International
Agricultural Corporation, chairman International Consortium for
Assistance to China, honorary chairman associated Harvard Clubs,
arranged a $100 million loan to Mussolini in 1926. Has been described as
one of the most influential persons of his time. According to Carroll
Quigley, he and his son were primary sponsors of the Institute of
Pacific Relations (IPR).
|Cousin of Pilgrims
Corliss and Thomas Lamont, director Lamont, Corliss & Company 1925-1951,
president of Dairy Industry Supply Association 1944-1946, director Dairy
Society International, chairman Beryllium Corporation 1955-1958,
director of Nestle, mayor of Jupiter Island, Florida, 1967-1977.
|Overseer of Harvard
University, joined J.P. Morgan & Co. in 1922, vice chairman 1955-1958,
director Phelps-Dodge Corporation (the world's number two leading
producer of copper and molybdenum and is the world's largest producer of
continuous-cast copper rod), director International Minerals &
Chemicals, director Texas Gulf Sulphur, director Atchison, Topeka and
Santa Fe Railway, trustee Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
Teaching, president Phillips Exeter Academy 1946-1956.
|Lamont, Corliss (*may
not have been a member, but certainly was as close as you can get)
|Son of Thomas W.
Lamont and younger brother of Thomas S. Lamont, leading
Socialist-Communist in the United States, contributing editor to a
publication called “Soviet Russia Today”, professor of philosophy at
Columbia University 1928-1932, during the time when Pilgrim president
Nicholas Murray Butler was also the president of Columbia university
(who loved totalitarian systems), chairman Congress of American-Soviet
Friendship, director American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), advisor to
the American Humanist Association 1939-1941, instructor at the New
School for Social Research 1940-1942 , member American Academy of Arts
and Sciences, wrote “Russia Day By Day.”(1933), “You Might Like
Socialism---A Way of Life For Modern Man.” (1939) and “I Want To Be Like
Stalin” (1947), indicted for contempt of Congress in 1956, but was
rescued by a United States Court of Appeals, member of the Foreign
Policy Association and the American Association for the United Nations.
He was accused by Senator Joseph McCarthy of being "un-American".
was the grandfather of John and Allen Dulles, founded the American
Journal of International Law in 1907 and remained an editor of it
until his death, Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson 1915-1920 ,
strong advocate of U.S. participation in World War I, nominal head of
the U.S. commission to the Paris Peace Conference, did not regard the
League of Nations as essential to the peace treaty and began to fall out
of favor with Wilson, legal counsel to the Chinese Government, trustee
of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Biddle of Nicholas Biddle in 1902, U.S. president of International
Railways of Central America in 1928.
|Lee, Ivy L.
|newspaperman in New
York City, lecturer London School of Economics 1911-1912, public
relations expert and publicist for the Pennsylvania Railroad and for
John D. Rockefeller Jr., working for Rockefeller he laid the foundation
for Communist propaganda and is even said to have inspired Hitler and
Stalin on this subject, made a 2-week trip to Russia on behalf of John
D. Rockefeller in May of 1927, member of the Royal Economic Society,
director Research Corporation 1925-1934.
|Lee, James E.
|Son of Ivy L. Lee,
member Royal Economic Society, chairman and CEO Gulf Oil Corporation,
director Chevron. Joy Manufacturing Co., Pittsburgh National Bank, PNC
Financial Corp., Gulf Canada Ltd., the American Petroleum Institute and
West Penn Hospital, member Council on Foreign Relations.
|Under Secretary of
the Treasury. Director and trustee Carnegie Corporation, present at the
1919 Versailles Peace Conference. Director Council on Foreign Relations
1927-1943. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1943-1944.
President Council on Foreign Relations 1944-1946. Chairman Council on
Foreign Relations 1946-1953. Senior partner J.P. Morgan & Company.
Chairman J.P. Morgan & Company 1948-1950. Co-founder of the
American-Australian Association in 1948. Good friend of John Maynard
Keynes, who he would receive at his Morgan office when Keynes visited
the United States. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1953-1960.
1891 - 1969
|The Lehmans are one
of America's most prominent German-Jewish dynasties. Their ancestor,
Abraham Lehmann (1785-1865), lived in the Bavarian village of Rimpar.
After their emigration to Montgomery, Alabama, in the middle of the
nineteenth century, his sons founded the banking firm of Lehman
Brothers, today one of the most prestigious on Wall Street. Educated at
Yale University. Robert Lehman was chairman of Lehman Brothers until
1969. He was the first one to invite non-family members to become
partners in the firm. Had a large art collection.
|Governor of the
United Nations Association. Director of the Foreign Policy Association.
Director of the France-America Society. Chairman Bache Group. Trustee of
the Institute for International Education. Co-founder of the The
American Austrian Foundation in 1984, together with Cyrus Vance, David
Rockefeller, and George Ball. Member Council on Foreign Relations.
Recipient of decorations from Portugal, France, Austria and West
|Louis, John J., Jr.
|He enrolled at
Northwestern for one year before entering World War II as a aviator.
After service he graduated from Williams College and then received an
MBA from Amos Tuck at Dartmouth. After several years in advertising John
became a venture capitalist. In 1946, John J. Louis became Chairman of
the Board of The KTAR Broadcasting Company. Father died in 1959.
Chairman of The KTAR Broadcasting Company by 1960. Long a contributor to
the republican party. Ambassador to Great Britain 1981-1983. Trustee of
Northwestern University from 1972 to 1995.
|Lucas, Charles Clement, Jr.
|Son of Charles
Clement Lucas, Sr., and Sallie Elizabeth Williams was born in Wilson,
North Carolina. He attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill where he received an A.B. in Chemistry and History, and the Doctor
of Medicine. He completed his medical training at Duke University where
he was Chief Resident of Family Practice. He was elected to membership
in the Order of the Old Well at the University of North Carolina. For
his medical leadership activities in North Carolina he received The
Order of the Long Leaf Pine, the highest award given by the State of
North Carolina. Dr. Lucas served in the United States Public Health
Service from 1970-1972 and was commissioned as Senior Assistant Surgeon.
Dr. Lucas moved to New York City in 1979 where he lived until 1988 when
he moved to Greenwich, Connecticut. He maintains a private practice of
internal medicine in Larchmont, New York, and is certified by the
American Board of Family Practice. r. Lucas is a member of the Pilgrims
of the United States; Northeast Harbor Swim and Tennis; Squadron A
Association of New York; Northeast Harbor Fleet; The Union Club of the
City of New York; Soldiers Sailors Marines Airmen Club; American
Philosophical Society; Youth Foundation of the City of New York; Christ
Episcopal Church, Greenwich; New York Academy of Sciences; North
Carolina Society of the City of New York; The Dinner Dancers of the City
of New York. He is also a member of the Holland Lodge #8, F &AM; Ancient
Chapter No.1, Royal Arch Masons; Morton Commandery No. 4, New York City,
Knights Templar; Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Valley of New York,
32nd degree. Leading figure in many blue blood/templar organizations.
Among them are the Society of Descendants of Knights of the Garter,
Order of the Crown in America, National Society Americans of Royal
Descent, Order of the Merovingian Dynasty (Founder Member; Secretary
General), Order of the Crown of Charlemagne in the United States,
Military Order of the Crusades, Order of Three Crusades 1096-1192, Order
of Descendants of Ancient Planters, General Society of Colonial Wars ,
etc., etc. Serving Brother of the Order of St. John (bestowed by Queen
Elizabeth II). Chirurgeon of the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple
|Luce, Henry Robinson
|His mother was
Elizabeth Root, from a family that had earlier intermarried with the
Spencers and Pomeroys. Born in Shantung Province, China, in Presbyterian
mission house. Attended Chefoo School, Chefoo [Yantai], China from
1908-1912. Attended St. Alban's School north of London, England
1912-1913. Attended Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn. 1913-1916. B.A.,
Yale University in 1920 where he was introduced into Skull & Bones.
Student at Oxford University in England 1920-1921. Reporter for the
Chicago Daily News and Baltimore Sun 1921-1922. Cofounded Time with
Briton Hadden (Skull & Bones 1920) in 1923 with the help of J.P. Morgan
partners Thomas Lamont and Dwight Morrow. Harvey Firestone, E. Roland
Harriman, and various members of the Harkness family were other funders
of his early media empire. Married to Lila Holz 1923-1935. Founded
Fortune in 1930. Editor-in-chief, Time Publications 1930-1938. First
“March of Time” radio program in 1931. First “March of Time” newsreel in
1935. Married Clare Boothe Luce, a Dame of Malta, in 1935. Founded Life
in 1936. Editorial director, Time, inc. 1938. Organizer of United China
Relief in 1940. Initiated the Commission on Freedom of the Press in
1944. Awarded the Order of Auspicious Star (China) in 1947. Founded
House and Home in 1952. Founded Sports Illustrated in 1954. Influential
member of the Republican Party. Member of the Atlantic Union. Luce was a
strong opponent of Fidel Castro and his revolutionary government in
Cuba. This included the funding of Alpha 66 (which was guided by the
CIA). In 1962 and 1963 Alpha 66 launched several raids on Cuba which
included attacks on port installations and foreign shipping. When
Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, Luce's Life Magazine
purchased the Zapruder Film for $150,000. Soon after the assassination
they also successfully negotiated with Marina Oswald the exclusive
rights to her story. This story never appeared in print, but in an
interview she gave to the Ladies Home Journal in September 1988 she
argued: "I believe he worked for the American government... He was
taught the Russian language when he was in the military. Do you think
that is usual, that an ordinary soldier is taught Russian? Also, he got
in and out of Russia quite easily, and he got me out quite easily."
Luce published individual frames of Zapruder's film but did not allow
the film to be screened in its entirety. It was shown to the public in
March 1975 which convinced many that the fatal head shot come from the
Grassy Knoll (because of Kennedy's violent backward and leftward
movement while the bullet is supposed to have come from the back).
Writers such as Noel Twyman, David Lifton, Jack White, John Costella and
David Mantik have claimed that the Zapruder Film has been tampered with.
Retired from Time/Life in 1964.
|Luce, Henry III
|Grandson of the
famous Henry Luce (who's wife was a Dame of Malta). The original Henry
Luce was a Skull & Bones member, a media giant (owned Time, Fortune &
Life Magazine together with House & Home and Sports Illustrated), and
quickly bought and held on to the JFK Zapruder film in 1963. Henry Luce
III worked his way up in his father's media empire and later inherited
it. Luce began at Time as a correspondent in Washington, D.C. Moving to
New York in 1953, he served as a Time contributing editor whose cover
stories included those on Joseph R. McCarthy and then Vice President
Richard M. Nixon. In 1956 he became head of the Time's New Building
Department which planned and supervised construction of the new Time &
Life Building in Rockefeller Center. Following completion of the
building in 1960, he held a number of posts at Time Inc., including
Circulation Director of Fortune, Architectural Forum and House and Home.
In 1964 he became a vice president of Time Inc., and later, director of
Research and Development. He became Time's London Bureau Chief in 1966,
publisher of Fortune in 1968 and publisher of Time in 1969. Before
joining the Time, Inc., Mr. Luce served on the staff of the Commission
on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government (the first
Hoover Commission) as assistant to Commissioner Joseph P. Kennedy
(Knight of Malta), followed by two years as a reporter for the Cleveland
Press. CEO & president Henry Luce Foundation 1958-1990. Chairman Henry
Luce Foundation 1990-2002. Trustee of Princeton Theological Seminary,
the Center of Theological Inquiry, The Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships,
The New York Historical Society, the Brooklyn Museum of Art, and A
Christian Ministry in National Parks. He is a director of the National
Committee on U.S.-China Relations and of the Foreign Policy Association,
as well as the founding member of the American Council for the United
Nations University. He is Chairman of the Graduate Theological Union's
President's Advisory Council, and he is a charter member of Yale
University's President's Council on International Activities. He is a
commissioner of the National Museum of American Art, and on the Advisory
Councils of the Fulbright Commission, The Newark Museum and the National
Academy Museum and School of Fine Art. He is an emeritus life trustee of
the College of Wooster. He is Chairman of American Security Systems,
Inc. and a director of the Fishers Island Development Company. He is the
former president of the New Museum of Contemporary Art (1977-1998). From
1960 to 1972 he was president of the board of trustees of St., Bernard's
School, Gladstone, New Jersey. He is the former chairman of the China
Institute in America (1975-1978) and was a trustee from 1988-1998. He is
a former trustee of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in
Asia (1958-1993), the American Federation of Arts, the Academy of
American Poets, the Pan American Development Foundation (1983-1994), the
American Friends of Canada (1990-1994), the Skowhegan School of Painting
& Sculpture (1973-88), the Yale-China Association (1979-88) and the
Association to Unite the Democracies (1982-88) and a former director of
Circle Repertory Company (1981-88) and of the U.S. Committee for UNICEF
(1990-1993). He is an elder of the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church
and president of the Pilgrims of the United States. He is a member of
The Brook and the University Club (former Council member).
colonel, North Carolina financier, broadcasting magnate, land baron,
Order of the Crown in America, Society of Americans of Royal Descent,
directed the design of the seal for his county (Guilford).
|Macomber, John Dewitt
|Married into the
Morgan family. CEO and chairman Celanese Corporation. CEO of JDM
Investment Group. Chairman and president of the Export-Import Bank of
the U.S. (EXIMBANK)1989-1992. Director of R.J. Reynolds Industries and
Chase Manhattan Bank. Member Atlantic Institute for International
Affairs, the Pilgrims Society, the Atlantic Council of the United
States, and the Council on Foreign Relations.
|Makins, Lord Roger Mellor
|Born in 1904. Became
the 1st Baron Sherfield. Fellow of All Souls, the chief headquarters of
the Round Table Group according to professor Carroll Quigley. Joined the
Foreign Office at the age of 24. Became part of the Milner Group
according to Quigley. Assistant adviser and adviser on League of Nations
affairs to the Foreign Office 1937-1939. Secretary to the British
delegation to the Evian Conference in 1938. After the Evian Conference,
Makins was made secretary to the Intergovernmental Committee on
Refugees. During World War II he was advisor to Harold Macmillan in
North Africa and met Eisenhower. United Kingdom representative on United
Nations Interim Commission for Food and Agriculture in 1945. Minister at
the British Embassy in Washington 1945-1947. Alternate delegate to the
fifth session of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation
Administration in 1946. Architect of the British Marshall Scholarships
programme. Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1947-1948.
Deputy Under Secretary 1948-1952. British ambassador to Washington
1952-1956. Joint Permanent Secretary of the Treasury in 1956. First
chairman of the Ditchley Foundation. Chairman of the United Kingdom
Atomic Energy Authority (at least in 1965, when he visited Karachi,
Pakistan). Chairman of the Imperial College of London 1962-1974.
Chancellor of the University of Reading. Chairman of the Select
Committee on Science and Technology of the House of Lords. Knight of the
Order of St Michael and St George. Knight of the Order of the Bath.
Member of the Pilgrims Society and identified as a governor of the
Atlantic Institute of International Affairs in 1987. Died in 1996.
His son, Christopher J. Makins (the second Lord
Sherfield), was born in Southampton, NY, educated at New College,
Oxford, where he earned first class honors in Modern History in 1963,
and was elected a Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford in 1963. He is
fluent in French and a U.S. and British dual national. Served for 11
years as a member of Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service, working in
London, Paris and Washington. Deputy director of the Trilateral
Commission 1975-1976. Deputy director at the Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace 1977-1979. Division manager and assistant vice
president at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC)
1979-1989. Makins worked in partnership with former U.S. Deputy Defense
Secretary Robert Ellsworth (Lazard; Bilderberg; CFR; Atlantic Institute)
to provide a regular newsletter on U.S. foreign-economic and defense
policy and domestic politics from 1981 to 1994. Director at the
Roosevelt Center for American Policy Studies 1984-1988. Vice president
and then executive vice president of the Aspen Institute from 1989 to
1997, where he was involved with the European and Asian partners. Senior
Adviser to the German Marshall Fund of the United States 1997-1999.
President of the Atlantic Council of the United States since September
|Special assistant to
the American ambassador in Petrograd (former capital of Russia)
1916-1917, president of the China Institute in America 1943-1947,
Rockefeller's China Medical Board beginning in 1947 and on, director
Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1959, director Council on Foreign
Relations 1959-1968, decorated the Order of Pure Gold by China.
the Vanderbilt run American Economic Association, U.S. Minister to
Belgium 1912-1914, big player in the formation of The League of Nations
and wrote a bunch of books about it (starting in 1917), founded the
American Society for the Judicial Settlement in 1920, trustee of Johns
correspondent for the Saturday Evening Post 1907-1936, interviewed many
important people, wrote some 30 books, including “The Rebirth of Russia”
and “The Business of War”, (both in 1917).
Institute, Kappa Alpha Order, Order of the Bath (Knight Grand Cross),
USSR Order of Suvarov, Marshall wrote the document that would become the
central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe, selected Dwight
Eisenhower as Supreme Commander in Europe, and designed Operation
Overlord, the invasion of Normandy. Throughout the remainder of World
War II, Marshall coordinated all Allied operations in Europe and the
Pacific. Unofficial ambassador (Truman representative) to China
1945-1947, Secretary of State 1947–1949, received the Distinguished
Achievement Award for his role as military leader in and after WWII
(1948). After WW II he was sent to China to negotiate a truce and build
a coalition government between the Nationalists and Communists fighting
the Chinese Civil War. His efforts failed and he was recalled in January
1947. Secretary of Defense in 1950, but retired from politics for good
in 1951 after Senator Joseph McCarthy implied he was a traitor and
denounced him for making decisions that "aided the Communist drive for
world domination". He became president of the American National Red
Cross in 1950 and received the Nobel Peace Prize 1953. Marshall Scholars
are common among Pilgrims.
|Martin, Luther III
|Chemical, oil and
gas tycoon, president Alumni Society of the University of Pennsylvania
Export-Import Bank of the U.S., assistant Treasury Secretary, director
World Bank, chairman Federal Reserve System 1951-1970 and reorganised
the NY Stock Exchange. Director U.S. Steel, Freeport Minerals Company,
Scandinavian Securities Corporation, Riggs National Bank, American
Express, Caterpillar Tractor, Dow Jones & Company, Eli Lilly & Company,
General Foods, and Royal Dutch Shell Petroleum. Trustee Yale University,
member Atlantic Council of the United States, member Council on Foreign
Relations. His father was a governor and president of the Federal
Reserve Bank of of St. Louis and was summoned by Woodrow Wilson to
establish the Federal Reserve Act of 1913.
|His mother was Helen
Phipps, director Bessemer Securities Corporation, president Regional
|Chairman of Marine
Midland Bank, member of the council of the American Numismatic Society
|Mayer, John Anton
Motors, H.J. Heinz Foods, Armco Steel, Edgewater Steel, Westinghouse,
Consolidated Coal Company, PPG Industries, Norfolk & Western Railway,
Duquesne Light Company, Lincoln National Life Insurance, Pittsburgh
Baseball Club and others. Owned First Boston Corporation, of which
Pilgrim Society member, Mellon agent Emil J. Pattberg Jr. was chairman.
|McCain, John Sidney, Jr.
|McCain was an
Admiral in the United States Navy. His father John S. McCain, Sr. was
also an admiral in the Navy, and his son John S. McCain III is a US
Senator representing Arizona. Born in Council Bluffs, Iowa, he graduated
from the United States Naval Academy in 1931. During World War II,
"Junior" – who preferred to be called "Jack" – commanded the submarines
USS Gunnel and Dentuda. Subsequently he held a number of posts, rising
to Commander-in-Chief of the United States Pacific Command before
retiring in 1972. He was involved in the investigations that followed
the USS Liberty incident. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
USS John S. McCain (DDG-56) was named for him and his father.
|McCloy, John Jay
Law School 1921. As a lawyer he gained an international reputation when
after a long investigation he fixed responsibility on the German
government for the Black Tom munitions explosion in Hoboken, N.J., in
1917. Assistant Secretary of War in World War II 1941-1945 (recruited by
Henry L. Stimson). Helped write the Lend-Lease bill. Opposed the
"Morgenthau Plan" to de-industrialize Germany. Served as chairman of the
State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee. Oversaw Germany's return to
statehood and released Fritz Thyssen, Hjalmar Schacht, Friedrich Flick,
and Alfred Krupp. Mccloy also released SS officer Klaus Barbie, the
person who dreamed up Hitler's Final Solution and was responsible for
the rape, torture, and murder of thousands of people. Barbie ended up in
Bolivia where he became responsible for setting up the local US-allied
death squads and the early drug exporting routes. He became president of
the World Bank 1947-1949 (without any experience in banking). U.S.
military governor and high commissioner for Germany 1949-1952. Chairman
Chase National Bank 1953-1960. Chairman Council on Foreign Relations
1953-1970. Member of the Pilgrims Society. Visitor of Bilderberg.
Governor of the Atlantic Institute for International Affairs. Chairman
Ford Foundation 1958-1965. President Kennedy's principal disarmament
adviser 1961-1963. Member of the Warren Commission 1963. Author of
The Challenge of American Foreign Policy (1953) and The
Atlantic Alliance (1969).
|McGarrah, Gates W.
National Bank until 1927, U.S. member of the General Council of the
German Reichsbank until 1927, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York
1927-1930, first president of the Bank for International Settlements
|Related to the
Aldrich family, director National City Bank, Carrier Corporation, Dun &
Bradstreet, Empire City Subway and American Telephone & Telegraph,
trustee Carnegie Institution of Washington 1950-1974.
|Mellon, Andrew W.
|Owned his father's
banking firm, father's banking firm, T. Mellon & Sons, at age 27, helped
organize Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh in
1889, built a great personal fortune from oil, steel, shipbuilding, and
construction. During the World War I years he participated in many
patriotic civilian activities such as the American Red Cross, the
National War Council of the YMCA, the Executive Committee of the
Pennsylvania State Council of National Defense, and the National
Research Council of Washington. He was U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
1921-1932, member Federal Reserve System 1921-1932, United States
ambassador to Great Britain 1932-1933, director of 51 corporations and
stockholder in more than 300 corporations, polluted the environment to
the extreme, underpayed his imported workers tremendously, kept them in
very unhealthy conditions and even had troublesome workers tortured and
killed if necessary. As of 1928 armed private police forces watched over
his mines. He was very close with the British royals. He was one of the
few who held his own against the Rockefellers and J.P. Morgan.
|Mellon, Paul W.
|His father was known
as a ruthless businessman who greatly suppressed his workers in all his
hundreds of companies and polluted the environment to the extreme. He
was the only one to hold his own against the Rockefellers and the
Morgans. Paul was a member of Yale Scroll & Key. He didn't spend much
time in business. Long-time neighbor of the powerful Averell Harriman
and worked together with his son-in-law. During WWII, Paul Mellon became
OSS station chief in London and liaison to British Intelligence. After
WWII, Martin A. Lee and Bruce Schlain note in Acid Dreams: "...
members of the Mellon family maintained close ties with the CIA. The
Mellon family foundations have been used repeatedly as conduits for
Agency funds. Furthermore, Richard Helms was a frequent weekend guest of
the Mellon patriarchs in Pittsburgh during his tenure as CIA director
[1966-1973]." Buckingham Palace told Executive Intelligence Review
investigator, Scott Thompson: "The Queen has known Mr. Mellon for
many years and visited his estate at Upperville, Virginia, probably for
the first time in the 1950s." Founded the Old Dominion Foundation
which merged to become the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Philanthropist,
art collector and horse breeder. Established the Yale Center for British
Art. He has been a member of the 1001 Club and the Pilgrims Society.
|As of 1938,
President General of the Society of the Cincinnati, which is very likely
the American counterpart of English Order of the Garter or the Scottish
Order of the Thistle.
|Wealthy New York
investment broker in the first half of the 20th century, director Chase
National Bank of New York, director Equitable Trust Company, owner
Southern Railway Co., trustee Georgia Warm Springs Foundation in 1934,
partner in the New York law firm Milbank, Tweed, Hope, Hadley & McCloy.
of New York.
|Milner, Lord Alfred
journalist for a short time. Private secretary to George Goschen
(chancellor of the exchequer) 1887-1890. Undersecretary of finance in
Egypt 1890-1892. Wrote a book which argued for more British influence in
Egypt 1892. Became a member of the Privy Council in 1901. Trustee of
Rhodes' final will. Became a viscount in 1902. High commissioner for
South Africa and governor-general of Cape Colony from 1897-1905.
Supervised the destruction of Dutch settlers what led to the Boer war
1899-1902. Secretary of War under David Lloyd George 1916-1918. Worked
together with the Warburgs, Schiffs, Rothschilds and other persons to
foment the Russian revolution. Colonial Secretary 1919-1921. Led a
commission to Egypt that recommended Egyptian independence in 1920.
Terence O'Brien's biography, 'Milner', p. 97, "Milner went to Paris
on some business with Alhponse de Rothschild... Business calls in the
City included a formal visit to Rothschilds... weekend with Lord
Rothschild at Tring, and visit with Edward Cecil, Lord Salisbury at
Hatfield... while spending a weekend with Lord Rothschild at Tring a
Press Lord gave him a sleepless night [no further explanation given]...
talks with Rothschild. Milner attended a Zionist dinner given by Lord
Rothschild, sitting next to Lawrence of Arabia, who interpreted for him
in a talk with King Feisal." On p. 364, O'Brien notes, "Milner
lost no time in recreating his links with the City. He went first to Rio
Tinto which reelected him to its Board and before long Rothschild asked
him to be its chairman." Chairman of Rio Tinto Zinc 1921-1925.
Became a Knight of the Garter in 1921. The Round Table Group was
unofficially named the Milner Group after Cecil Rhodes died.
|Moore, George Stevens
|Yale, joined Farmers
Loan and Trust Co. in 1927, which became First National City Bank of New
York, which became Citibank, retired as chairman from Citibank in 1967,
president New York Metropolitan Opera Association in 1967, author of
"The Banker's Life" (1987). In 1987 he was the chairman of Gibraltar
Trust Bank Ltd. and director at Credit Suisse White Weld, Union Pacific
Railroad, U.S. Steel, W.R. Grace and Mercantile Stores.
|Son of a Privy
Councilor. 11th Earl of Drogheda, descendant of the Earl of Drogheda,
who was Queen Victoria’s private secretary for a quarter of a century.
Married Paul Mellon’s stepdaughter Eliza, managing director Financial
Times 1946-1971, chairman Financial Times 1971-1974.
|Morgan, John Pierpont
|Pierpont and Morgan
were/are both wealthy elite Anglo-American families and have
intermarried (before and after J.P. Morgan) with the Spencers,
Grosvenors, Barings, Gascoignes, Harcourts, Adams, and others. Son of
the London-based Junius Spencer Morgan, who, by 1854, became a London
agent of George Peabody (Junius was also the favorite banker of Andrew
Carnegie in London). Peabody is said to have been an agent of the London
Rothschild family. In 1857 the Bank of England gave a loan to George
Peabody & Co. and saved it, while 9000 other companies went down in a
large financial crash. With this money Peabody bought up large amounts
of dirt cheap securities and sold them at a later stage with enormous
profits. In 1864, as Peabody retires, George Peabody & Company is
renamed to Junius S. Morgan Company and Junius supposedly becomes a
direct Rothschild agent. John P. was educated at the English high-school
in Boston, and studied for 2 years at the University of Goettingen in
mathematics. He returned to the United States in 1857, and entered the
banking-firm of Duncan, Sherman and Co. of New York. In 1860 he became
an agent and attorney in the United States for George Peabody and Co. of
London, a relation he has since held with that firm and its successor.
He became the junior partner of the banking-firm of Dabney, Morgan and
Co. in 1864, and that of Drexel, Morgan and Co. in 1871 (both under the
control of their London counterpart). This house is among the chief
negotiators of railroad bonds, and was active in the reorganization of
the West Shore railroad and its absorption by the New York Central
railroad. Morgan build a huge industrial empire, which could stabilize
and destabilize the entire market. He was the first person to issue
loans to the American Government, instead of the British, and by 1901 he
had bailed out the American government 3 times. No other American
businessman has ever come close to the influence of J.P. Morgan. A
description of the interests of J.P. Morgan in 1901: "Besides his
own private banking house here and its branches abroad, Mr. Morgan
largely controls a powerful national bank in New York City-the National
Bank of Commerce, of which he is the vice-president. It is known in Wall
Street as "Morgan's Bank." He is a dominating influence in other banks
and financial institutions, and a director never without much influence
in twenty-one railroad companies, great and small, including the New
York Central and Lake Shore systems. He is a director in the Western
Union Telegraph Company, the Pullman Palace Car Company, the Etna Fire
Insurance Company, the General Electric Company, the greatest electric
company in the world, and in other less important corporations. And
through his partners, who are directors in other railroad and steel
corporations, his influence reaches far and wide. He is a potent, and in
times of trouble the controlling, factor in several of what are known as
the "coal roads" of Pennsylvania-the Erie, the Lehigh Valley, the
Central of New Jersey, and the Reading, together with their tributary
coal fields. He is the predominating influence in the Southern Railway
and in three of its connections, the foremost railroad system of the
Southern States, with over eight thousand miles of track, a system which
he has created, and of which an associate and is president. He is also a
power in many other railroads, as witness his recent appointment of the
directors of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and his evident influence
through J. J. Hill in the Burlington and Great Northern management. And,
as I have already said, he is at present practically dictator of the
vast steel interests of the country, through the United States Steel
Corporation, and he controls at least one Atlantic steamship line."
Pilgrims Society member George Fisher Baker, chairman of Manhattan's
First National Bank and director of at least 50 other companies, was one
of Morgan's closest allies. He wanted Baker on the board of every
important company he financed. When Morgan died in 1913, he left a
fortune of $69.5 million fortune, which was far smaller than that of
Henry Frick, E. H. Harriman, Andrew Mellon and even smaller than those
of Thomas Fortune Ryan and Payne Whitney. And Morgan's money was as
nothing compared with that of the DuPonts, John D. Rockefeller, or at
one point, Andrew Carnegie. Though his name was known all over the
world, he never made a speech or attended a public meeting. He never
granted interviews to reporters, and he dodged photographers. When
Harvard, to whom he had been so generous, wanted to give him an honorary
degree, he declined the honor, knowing that receiving it would involve
an acceptance speech and dealing with the press. Publishers offered him
huge sums for his autobiography, but he turned them all down and refused
to authorize any book to be written about him in his lifetime. Even his
son-in-law, Herbert Satterlee, was unsuccessful in trying to persuade
him to be interviewed on the subjects of his life and business
philosophy for posthumous publication.
|American banker and
financier, the head of the Morgan investment banking house after the
death of his father. Graduated from Harvard University in 1889. Became a
member of his father's banking firm, J.P. Morgan and Company, in 1892,
working in the firm's London branch for eight years. After that he went
to New York. The Morgans had used their banks to gain control of a huge
empire of industries, railroads, and insurance companies. They financed
corporate mergers and in return gained major roles in the merged
companies. One of the most important companies they controlled was U.S.
Steel. J.P. Morgan was one of the main financiers of The American
Liberty League, the main institute behind the 1934 fascist plot against
FDR. His sons and grandsons were far less impressive bankers and by 1960
the Morgan presence in the family firms had ended completely. His sons
Junius and Henri were OSS executives working for Wild Bill Donovan.
interests, alumnus and trustee Columbia University, New York cold
storage tycoon, president National Society for the Prevention of
Blindness in 1926 (S&B, Pilgrim William H. Taft is the honorary
president), trustee Wells College for 26 years, chairman Wells College
and agriculture for two years at Cornell University. Neighbor and friend
of FDR. Appointed chairman New York State Agricultural Advisory
Commission in 1929. Appointed State Commissioner of Conservation in 1930
and directed a million-acre reforestation program. Appointed to the
Taconic State Park Commission. Appointed chairman of the Federal Farm
Board and Governor of the Farm Credit Administration in 1933. Advisor to
FDR. U.S. Secretary of the Treasury 1934-1945. In 1944, he proposed the
Morgenthau plan, under which post-war Germany would be stripped of its
industry and converted into an agricultural nation. At the Bretton Woods
conference in 1944, Morgenthau assumed a leading role in establishing
post-war economic policies and currency stabilization. In July 1945,
three months after the death of President Roosevelt, Morgenthau resigned
as Secretary, but remained in office until President Truman's return
from the "Big Three" conference in Berlin. From 1947 until 1950, he was
Chairman of the United Jewish Appeal, which raised $465 million during
that time, and from 1951 to 1954, he served as Chairman of the Board of
Governors of the American Financial and Development Corporation for
Israel, which handled a $500 million bond issue for the new nation.
|Member of Simpson,
Thatcher& Bartlett. Worked at J.P. Morgan & Company 1914-1927. Awarded
the Distinguished Service Medal by General Pershing in 1919. Ambassador
to Mexico 1927-1930. Delegate to the London Naval Conference 1930. U.S.
Senator 1930-1931. Regent of the Smithsonian Institution. Trustee of the
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Amherst College, Union
Theological Seminary, Russell Sage Foundation and the Commonwealth Fund,
the latter having been set up by the Harkness family of Pilgrims Society
and the Standard Oil fortune.
|Morton, Levi Parsons
indoctrinated, quite poor, entered the banking business during the Civil
War (1861-1865) and became a prominent New York City banker. His
company, through its London branch (Rothschild agent Junius S. Morgan
sent him clients), was the financial agent of the U.S. government from
1873 to 1884. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from New York
in 1879, driven the ceremonial first rivet into the Statue of Liberty
when construction of the monument began in France in 1881, minister to
France 1881-1885, Republican vice-president of the United States under
Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893, governor of New York 1895-1896.
|Morton, William H.
graduate 1932, helped out with Darthmouth Medical School's financial
trouble, Secretary of the Interior, president American Express Co.,
director of Crocker Bank (merged into London Midland Bank).
|Norman, Lord Montagu
|The only man in
history who had both of his grandfathers serve as Governors of the Bank
of England. His father was with Brown, Shipley Company, the London
Branch of Brown Brothers. Norman was named to the Court of the Bank of
England in 1907, had a nervous breakdown in 1912, and was treated by
Carl Jung in Switzerland. Governor Bank of England 1916-1944.
Participated in the secret meeting (or meetings) between him, Hjalmar
Schacht (Reichsbank) and Benjamin Strong (Federal Reserve) in July 1927.
Close friends to both of these men. Leading figure in establishing the
Swiss Bank for International Settlements in 1931, involved with
abandoning the gold standard in the United Kingdom in 1931. Wall Street
Journal, Feb 8, 1927: "Mr. M.Collet Norman, the Governor of the Bank
of England, is now head and shoulders above all other British bankers.
No other British banker has ever been a sindependent and supreme in the
world of British finance as Mr. Norman is today. He has just been
elected Governor for the eighth year in succession. Before the war, no
Governor was allowed to hold office for more than two years; but Mr.
Norman has broken all precedents. He runs his Bank and his Treasury as
well. He appears to have no associations except his employees. He gives
no interviews. He leaves the British financial world wholly in the thick
as to his plans and ideas."
Evening News 1894, founded the Daily Mail 1896, warned for the first
time that a future war with Germany was possible, editor New York World
in 1900, founded The Daily Mirror 1903, baronet in 1904 after turning
down an offer of knighthood, obtained the Sunday Observer 1905,
purchased The Times 1908, in 1909 he employed a journalist to visit
Germany and to write a series of articles on the dangers that the
Germans posed to Britain, constantly attacked the government and Lord
Kitchener (Freemasonry grand master), finally agreed to join the cabinet
and take charge of all propaganda directed at enemy countries, called
for Kaiser Wilhelm to be hanged and the imposition of severe financial
penalties on Germany, during WWI.
|Ochs, Adolph Simon
|Starting as a
newsboy in Knoxville, Tenn., he became a printer's apprentice,
compositor, and in 1878, publisher of the Chattanooga Times. In 1896, he
acquired the then failing New York Times and made it one of the greatest
newspapers in the world. To do that he had to borrow $100,000 from
Marcellus Hartley in 1896, and needed to borrow additional funds in
1905. Hartley married Geraldine Rockefeller in 1907, daughter of William
D. Rockefeller, who in his turn was the brother of John D. Rockefeller,
Sr. Ochs became the sole owner of Remington Arms. married He also
controlled the Philadelphia Times and the Philadelphia Public Ledger,
which he merged and in 1913 sold to Cyrus H. K. Curtis. From 1900 until
his death he was a member of the executive committee and a director of
the Associated Press.
|O’Conner, Sandra Day
|Grew up on her
family's 198,000 acre cattle ranch, graduated from Stanford Law School
1952, Arizona assistant attorney general 1965-1969, senator from Arizona
1969-1974, trial judge 1974-1979, Arizona Court of Appeals 1979-1981,
first woman Supreme Court Justice in 1981. Retired as Justice in 2005.
Her husband is a visitor of the Bohemian Grove and stayed in the
|Odlum, Floyd Bostwick
assistant librarian, husband of aviatrix Jackie Cochran, founder and
chairman Atlas Corporation 1923-1960, chairman Federal Resources
Corporation 1961-1969, owner and chairman RKO Radio Pictures 1937-1948,
chairman Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation 1947-1953, owner
Hidden Splendor (Uranium) Mining Company before 1955, director Office of
Production Management 1941-1942, special adviser to the chairman of the
War Production Board 1943-44, special adviser to the chairman of the
Office of Price Administration 1940-44, owner Convair, Bonwit Taylor &
Northeast Airlines, founder and chairman Arthritis and Rheumatism
Foundation, president Hertz Foundation, trustee Lovelace Foundation,
among the 10 richest men in the United States (and the world) in 1932
(billionaire). His Atlas Corporation purchased Paramount Pictures in
1933 at "basement" prices. Odlum was also chairman of RKO Studios,
another filmmaker. Atlas Corporation was once known as Atlas Utilities &
Investors Company. Odlum was also a heavy owner, through his Atlas
Corporation, of Greyhound Bus Lines; Northeast Airlines (nearly 90%);
Bonwit Teller (department stores); Convair Aviation; United Fruit
Company; and Madison Square Garden. In 1937 it was said that Atlas
Corporation was probably the biggest investment trust in the world.
|Olin, John Merrill
Cornell University with a B.S. in chemistry, chemical engineer for the
Western Cartridge Company (became Olin Industries, Inc.) since 1913,
became President of Olin Industries in 1944, upon the merger of the
company with Mathieson Chemical Corporation in 1954 he became the new
chairman, established the John M. Olin Foundation in 1952, inventor or
co-inventor of 24 United States patents in the field of arms and
ammunition manufacture and design and was responsible for numerous
developments in ballistics, breeder of saddle and race horses as well as
a trainer and breeder of champion Labrador retrievers, widely recognized
as one of the country's most active conservationists and led the effort
to save the Atlantic salmon. Mr. Olin was a Trustee Emeritus of Cornell
University and of Johns Hopkins University, a Life Trustee of Washington
University, St. Louis, and an Honorary Director of The American Museum
of Natural History. He was named the Charles F. Kettering Award
recipient for 1968 by the George Washington University PTC Research
Institute. He received the Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur of France
and the Grand Ufficiale-Ordine al Merito della Republica Italiana.
|O'Ryan, John F.
|Enlisted in the army
as a Private in 1897, became Major General in 1912, appointed by
President Wilson as Major General of the National Army in 1917, Knight
Commander, Order of St. Michael and St. George, Royal Victorian Order,
Legion of Honor, and a few other rewards.
|Page, Walter Hines
|Educated at Trinity
College (now Duke), Randolph-Macon College, and Johns Hopkins University
studying Greek classics, editor of the St. Joseph Gazette, the Forum and
Atlantic Monthly, partner in the publishing firm of Doubleday Page &
Company (publisher), wrote “The Rebuilding of Old Commonwealths” (1902),
founded and edited the "World's Work" up to 1913, ambassador to Great
Britain during World War I, urging an early United States intervention
which improved the ties between the US and England (although Wilson
|Page, Walter Hines II
|Grandson of Walter
Hines Page, director Kennecott Copper, director AT&T, director Merck &
Company, vice-president, president, vice-chairman & chairman at J.P.
Morgan & Company (retired in 1979), president, chairman & trustee Long
Island Biological Association, director or trustee of the Foreign Policy
Association, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory & New York Urban Coalition,
trustee Carnegie Institution of Washington (1971-1979), member Council
on Foreign Relations.
|Paley, William S.
Western Military Academy in 1918, studied at the University of Chicago
1918-1919, University of Pennsylvania B.S. in 1922, served as colonel of
the United States Army during WWII, deputy chief of the psychological
warfare division of SHAPE (NATO), deputy chief of information control
division of U.S. Group Control Council, Germany (USGCC), vice-president
Congress Cigar Company 1922-1928, every executive position possible at
CBS Inc.1928-1990, partner Whitcom Investment Company 1982-90, founder
and director Genetics Institute 1980-1990, Thinking Machines Corp.
1983-1990, co-chair International Herald Tribune 1983-1990, president
and director William S. Paley Foundation and the Greenpark Foundation,
Inc., life trustee Columbia University 1950-1990, chairman and trustee
North Shore University Hospital 1949-1973, life trustee Federation
Jewish Philanthropies of New York, director W. Averill Harriman
Institute for Advanced Study of Soviet Union at Columbia University,
member Commission for White House Conference on Education 1954-1956,
chairman President's Materials for Policy Commission, which produced
"Resources for Freedom" 1951-1952, director, chairman and honorary
member Resources for the Future 1952-1969, chairman New York City Task
Force on Urban Design, which prepared "The Threatened City" report in
1967, member Urban Design Council City New York 1968-1971, co-founder
and director Bedford-Stuyvesant D and S Corp. 1967-1972, member
Commission on Critical Choices for America 1973-1977, member Council on
Foreign Relations, member Academy of Political Sciences, member National
Institute for Social Sciences, member Royal Society of the Arts. Paley
seems to have been involved with the British Crown's Tavistock
|Parker, Sir Gilbert
born in Ontario. His novels and collections of tales usually deal either
with the history of Canada or with England and the empire. Among his
works are Pierre and His People (1892), The Seats of the Mighty (1896),
and The Promised Land (1928). He moved to England in 1889 and from 1900
to 1918 served in Parliament.
|Parry, Sir Emyr Jones
|Joined Foreign and
Commonwealth Office in 1973. Second later First Secretary (Political)
later First Secretary (Economic), Ottawa in 1974. Worked on EU affairs
in Foreign and Commonwealth Office and in the UK Representation to the
EU in Brussels 1979-1984. Deputy Chef du Cabinet, President of the
European Parliament 1987-1989. Head of European Community Department
External, Foreign and Commonwealth Office 1989-1993. Minister and Deputy
Head of Mission, Madrid 1993-1996. Deputy Political Director foremostly,
responsible also for Balkans and Aegean policy 1996-1997. Director
European Union responsible for policy, including co-ordination and
organisation of the 1998 UK Presidency of the EU 1997-1998. Political
Director of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office responsible for policy
advice to the Secretary of State 1998-2001. UK Permanent Representative
on the North Atlantic Council 2001-2003. Permanent Representative, UK
Mission to the UN, New York since 2003.
|Parsons, Sir Maurice
|Joined the Bank of
England in 1928, private secretary to Governor Montagu Norman at the
Bank of England 1939-1943, U.K. executive director IMF 1946-1947,
Director of Operations IMF 1947-1950, deputy chief cashier Bank of
England 1950-1955, assistant to the governors of the Bank of England
1955-1957, executive director Bank of England 1957-1966, deputy governor
Bank of England 1966-1970, knighted in 1966.
|Pattberg Emil J., Jr.
Boston Corporation (Has been rated as the world’s leading investment
|Married Ann Hyde
Choate of the Pilgrim Hyde & Choate families, WWII navy, joined J.P.
Morgan & Company in 1935, finally became chairman J.P. Morgan & Company
1971-1978, trustee Massachusetts Institute of Technology, life trustee
University of Chicago, director Morgan Bank of Canada, Atchison Topeka &
Santa Fe Railway, Schlumberger Limited (rival to Halliburton), Standard
Brands Bethlehem Steel, International Nickel Co., Atlantic Richfield Oil
Co., Nabisco Brands Inc., General Motors and Canada Life Assurance,
member Presidential Commission on Financial Structure and Regulation
1970-1972, member Council on Foreign Relations, involved with the
Federal Reserve Bank of New York, treasurer and trustee Sloan-Kettering
for Cancer Research around 1956 (together with Laurence Rockefeller,
George Whitney and other heavy-hitters), member Investment Committee of
the Committee on Scientific Policy around 1956 (together with Laurence
|Served in the army
during WWI, started with the Du Ponts in 1921, delegate to Democratic
National Convention from New York in 1928, joined National Broadcasting
in 1932, chaired RKO Corporation 1939-1943, ambassador to Yugoslavia
1944-1947, Guatemala 1948-1951, Switzerland 1951-1953, director New
Hampshire & Hudson Railroad, John C. Paige Incorporated Insurance
Brokers, Hilton Hotels International, Empire State Building Corporation,
General Dynamics, Burrus Mills, American Export Lines, Hidden Splendor
Mining Company, Mercast Corporation, and Wah-Chang Smelting & Refining
Company, director and first president of the China-America Council of
Commerce & Industry. Patterson chaired the Military Intelligence Reserve
Society in 1930 and received the Order of the Jade (China), in addition
to many other international awards. He also chaired the United Nations
Committee for the City of New York.
|Peabody, Charles A.
|Possibly of the same
family branch as the infamous George Peabody (1795-1869), who is said to
have been a Rothschild agent, was the founder of modern philanthropy,
was responsible for the rise of the Morgans, and was very highly
respected by the British (received a temporary burial in Westminster
Abbey and his body was shipped back to the US on the 'Monarch', the
newest and largest ship in Her Majesty's Navy). Partner Fisher Ames
Baker was counsel to the First National Bank and the uncle of its
President, George Fisher Baker. "It was said at the time Mr. Peabody
left law for insurance, that the change was, at least in part, due to
the influence of the elder Baker in the councils of the Mutual." From
1893, he was trustee of the estate of the first John Jacob Astor, and
was associated with William Waldorf Astor and represented him in this
country. At his death, he was on the boards of directors of City Bank
Farmers Trust Company, Mutual Life Insurance Company, Oregon Short Line
Railroad, Central of Georgia Railway, Illinois Central Railroad and
Union Pacific Railroad, and was a trustee of the Church Pension Fund and
member of the board of managers of Delaware & Hudson Company. Identified
as a member of the Pilgrims Society in 1903. President of the Mutual
Life Insurance Company from 1906 until retiring in 1927.
|Peabody, Richard A.
|Possibly of the same
family branch as the infamous George Peabody (1795-1869), who is said to
have been a Rothschild agent, was the founder of modern philanthropy,
was responsible for the rise of the Morgans, and was very highly
respected by the British (received a temporary burial in Westminster
Abbey and his body was shipped back to the US on the 'Monarch', the
newest and largest ship in Her Majesty's Navy). Richard attended the
first annual dinner of the New-York City Club of Yale College in 1886.
Was recruited into the English branch of the Pilgrims in 1903. Died
early in 1910 and his wife, Mary Chester Miller, survived him by 40
years. In 1921 Mrs. Richard A. Peabody, as she was usually addressed,
set up a French Shop in New York with Mrs. Robert Grosvenor. Richard
Peabody's grandson, Lieutenant Matthew Looram, Jr. (born 1921), married
the daugther of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild of Vienna, Bettina de
Rothschild, on September 18, 1943. Looram, Jr. served in the U.S. Army
during World War II, was U.S. Consul in Asmara 1959-1962, U.S.
Ambassador to Dahomey 1969-1971, and U.S. Ambassador to Somalia
|Peale, Norman Vincent
clergyman, pastor of Marble Collegiate Church for 52 years, Freemason
and member of the Midwood Lodge No. 1062 (NY), wrote one of the
best-selling books of the 1950s, "applied Christianity", authored 45
other books (mainly about positive thinking) that still sell today,
published the inspirational magazine 'Guideposts', controlled the
megamillion dollar Presbyterian Ministers Fund.
Episcopalian, founded the Pennsylvania Board of Health, president
Philadelphia zoo, co-founder and chairman Newcomen Society, member
English Speaking Union. Penrose Sr. and Penrose Jr. have presided over
the Newcomen Society for 65 years since it's founding in 1923.
|Penrose, Charles, Jr.
|Inheritor of a
cotton, engineering, mining and power production fortune, chairman
Newcomen Society (The logo is a lion with the wings of an eagle, again
indicating Britain and the US), member English-Speaking Union. Penrose
Sr. and Penrose Jr. have presided over the Newcomen Society for 65 years
since it's founding in 1923.
|Perry, James De Wolf
|In 1930, Reverend
Perry became head of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United
States, which made him the American counterpart to the Archbishop of
Canterbury (also a member). Appeared as vice-president on the 1942
|Born December 3,
1896 in London, England, he was educated at Christ’s College, London and
London University from which he received a B.Sc. degree. He entered the
employ of the Royal Insurance Company in London in 1914. After serving
as a Lieutenant in the British Army from 1915 to 1919, he resumed his
career with the Royal Insurance Company and in 1922 became a Fellow of
the Institute of Actuaries. He came to the United States in 1924 as
Assistant Actuary of the casualty companies of the Royal-Globe Insurance
Companies and later was elected Vice President and Actuary of those
companies. In 1949 he became Assistant United States Manager, Vice
President and Actuary of all of the com- panies of the Royal-Globe
Insurance Companies operating in the United States. Mr. Perryman’s
professional attainments were of the highest order. In addition to his
Fellowship in the Institute of Actuaries, he was a Fellow and past
President of the Casualty Actuarial Society and an Associate of the
Society of Actuaries. He was also a member of the American Statistical
Association, the Mathematical Association of America, and the American
Mathematical Society. At the time of his death he was Vice-Chairman of
the ASTIN Section of the International Congress of Actuaries. One of the
things which is least known is that Mr. Perryman was an avid student of
religion as well as mathematics. He was a member of the Church Club of
New York, the St. George’s Society and the Pilgrims of the United
States. He was formerly the efficient Treasurer and dedicated Church
Warden of the Church of Saint James the Less in Scarsdale, New York. His
ability and personality made him one of the most influential persons in
the actuarial development of fire and casualty insurance in the US from
the 1920's to the 1950's.
|Yale, not Skull &
Bones but many Phelps and Phelps-Stokes were, honorary councillor of the
Russian Information Bureau in the United States 1917-1922, owned Austin
Mining, Manhattan Silver Mine, Ione Gold Mining, Nevada Central
Railroad, Nevada Motor Lines, The Nevada Company and State Bank of
Nevada, president of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society 1907-1918,
member of the China Society of America, Royal India and Pakistan
Society, Oriental Institute of University of Chicago, American Oriental
Society, American Legion, Sons of the Revolution, Society of Colonial
Wars and others. Member of the New York Governor’s Committee in 1921 to
welcome to New York representatives of European countries to attend the
International Conference on Limitation of Armaments, a forerunner of the
S.A.L.T. talks. (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
|Phillips, Lord Nicholas Addison
|Baron Phillips of
Worth Matravers. Phillips was educated at Bryanston School; he enjoyed
his time at the school and from 1975 he became a Governor of the School;
he has been Chairman of the Governors since 1981. He undertook his
National Service with the Royal Navy and the Royal Naval Volunteer
Reserve where he was a commissioned officer; after the two years service
he went up to King's College, Cambridge where he read Law. In 1962 he
was called to the bar (Middle Temple) where he was the Harmsworth
Scholar. He went into practise as a barrister, specialising in maritime
law matters; in 1973 he was appointed as Junior Counsel to the Ministry
of Defence and to the Treasury in maritime and Admiralty matters; in
1978 he 'took silk' and became a Queen's Counsel. In 1982 Phillips was
appointed as a Recorder (junior Judge) and from 1987 was a full time
Judge on the Queen's Bench Division, with the customary Knighthood. He
took an interest in legal training, and was Chairman of the Council of
Legal Education from 1992 to 1997. He presided over several complex
fraud trials including those covering the Robert Maxwell pension fund
fraud and Barlow Clowes. In 1995 he became a Lord Justice of Appeal and
was appointed to the Privy Council. In early 1999 he was made a Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary and in 2000 succeeded Lord Woolf as Master of the
Rolls. Chairman of the BSE inquiry 1998-2000.
|Son of an immigrant
cobbler. Grew up with and befriended Andrew Carnegie. Finally
intermarried with the Carnegie family. Partner in Bidwell & Phipps
(agents for Dupont Powder Company) 1861. Second largest stockholder of
Carnegie Steel Company (financed by British investors; became U.S. Steel
after it was bought by J.P. Morgan). Director U.S. Steel Corporation.
Founded the Phipps Houses Group in 1905. Controlled Bessemer Securities
Corporation. Interests connected to Dillon Read & Company.
|Polk, Frank L.
|Yale Scroll & Key
1894, partner Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardner & Read Law firm, Secretary
of State, Counsellor of the Department of State, negotiator during and
surrounding WWI with high level British and American officials
(co-Pilgrims), present at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference, director
Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1943, vice-president Council on
Foreign Relations 1940-1943, director Northern Pacific Railway Co. since
1938, director Bowery Savings Bank and Mutual Life Ins. Co. since 1939,
director U.S. Trust Co. in 1939, member advisory committee of the
Institute of Human Relations, contributed over $140,000 at death to the
|Potter, Henry Codman
Protestant Episcopal bishop.
Pulitzer in 1959, of the Pulitzer newspaper publishing fortune, director
General Electric, trustee Foxcroft School, chairman of J.P. Morgan &
Company 1980-1990, president World Bank 1991-1995, member Council on
Foreign Relations. In the 1981 Who’s Who he admitted his membership in
The Pilgrims, but in the 1994 edition he went underground about it.
(According to Charles Savoie)
|Price, Charles H., II
||Born in 1931,
Charles Price attended Wentworth Military Academy and the University of
Missouri (1948-1953). He served with the United States Air Force from
1953-1955. After his discharge, he began a prominent business career
serving as chairman and president of American Bancorporation Inc.,
chairman and CEO of the American Bank and Trust Company of Kansas City,
chairman and president of Linwood Securities Company, and chairman and
CEO of Price Candy Company from 1969-1981. US Ambassador to Belgium
1981-1983. U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1983-1989. Upon his
return from London, in April 1989, Ambassador Price was appointed
Chairman of the Board of Ameribanc, Inc., and President and CEO in 1990.
With the merger of Ameribanc, Inc. and Mercantile Bancorporation, Inc.
in May 1992, he became Chairman of the Board of Mercantile Bank of
Kansas City and Mercantile Bank of Kansas, a position he held until his
retirement on April 1, 1996. Since leaving government service, he has
been appointed to be a Director of British Airways p.l.c. (1989-1996),
Hanson p.l.c. (1989-1995), US Industries, Inc. (1995-present), The New
York Times Company (1989-2002), Texaco Inc. (1989-2001), Sprint
(1989-1995), and 360o Communications, Inc. (1995-1997). His civic Boards
in Kansas City include membership on the Board of Trustees of the
Midwest Research Institute, formerly serving as the Board Chairman. He
is an Honorary Director of St. Luke’s Hospital.
|Putney III, William
|Grandson of an
influential banker, Vanderbilt associated law firm, director Genesee &
Wyoming Railroad, director Yamaichi Securities (Japanese).
|Pyne, Percy Rivington
|Inherited a fortune,
interests in National City Bank, Delaware & Hudson Railroad, Empire
Trust, Farmers Loan & Trust, Princeton Bank & Trust, Commercial Trust,
Delaware Lackawanna & Western Coal, New Amsterdam Gas, Morris & Essex
Railroad, Syracuse & Binghampton Railroad, Lackawanna Steel, United New
Jersey Railroad, East River Gas Company, Oswego & Syracuse Railroad and
many others, trustee Princeton University.
|Pyne, Eben Wright
National City Bank of New York (Citigroup), director of Long Island
Lighting, U.S. Life Insurance, City Investing Company and Home Insurance
Company, director W.R. Grace & Company 1960-1995.
|Rabin, Charles H.
|Randolph, Francis F.
financier. Treasurer Russell Trust Association.
|Ray, William F.
|Related to the
Sturgis and Whitney families. Advisor to the Australia and New Zealand
Banking Group. Partner Brown Brothers Harriman & Company. Chairman
American-Australian Association 1984-1986. President American-Australian
Association 1986-1988. Patron American-Australian Association.
vice-president of Finance and Administration for the Rambusch Decorating
Company of New York. He is a member of the Military Order of Foreign
Wars, the New England Society, the St. George Society, the Amateur
Comedy Club and the Regency Whist Club. Introduced into the Sovereign
Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem, Priory of St. Michael & St.
George (of New York) in the spring of 1997.
|Reading, Lord Rufus
Called to the bar in 1887, he achieved great success in his profession.
He entered Parliament as a Liberal in 1904, became attorney general in
1910, and in 1912 was given a seat in the cabinet. Involved in charges
of buying stock in the American Marconi Corp. While the government was
contracting with the British branch of the firm, he was, however,
exonerated and in 1913 was created lord chief justice. During World War
I he served the government in financial operations, becoming (1915)
president of an Anglo-French loan commission to the United States, where
he subsequently served as special envoy (1917) and special ambassador
(1918–19). In 1921 he was made viceroy of India at a time when the
temper of the people, partly under the influence of Mohandas Gandhi and
partly as a result of the massacre at Amritsar (1919), was roused
against British rule. Faced with the passive resistance of the Gandhi
adherents, Isaacs authorized the imprisonment of Gandhi and felt
compelled to allow the hated salt tax. He returned to England in 1926
and was created a marquess (having already been created in succession
baron, viscount, and earl), but he was much criticized for his
administrative acts in India. He was (1931) foreign secretary in Ramsay
MacDonald's National government.
|Reed, Philip Dunham
Engineering and law degrees, admitted to the New York State Bar
Association 1925, patent counselor Van Heusen Company, deputy director
Materials Division of the War Production Board 1942, working with other
Pilgrims from General Electric. Reed was re-assigned to assist (Pilgrim)
Averell Harriman as the Deputy Chief of the U.S. Mission for Economic
Affairs in London in 1943, becoming chief of that mission with the rank
of minister in October 1943, serving until January 1945. After leaving
the U. S. Mission for Economic Affairs, Reed served as legal consultant
to the U.S. delegation to the 1945 United Nations Conference on
International Organization in San Francisco; this led to Reed's long
affiliation with the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). He was a
member of the ICC from 1945-1975; he served as president from 1949 to
1951. Reed headed the U.S. Mission on Anglo-American Council of
Productivity, a Marshall Plan agency, established in 1948. Reed was vice
chairman of the Business Advisory Council of the Department of Commerce
(became the Business Council in 1961) from 1951 to 1952. He was also
active in the Committee for Economic Development where he served as a
trustee and a member of the Research & Policy Committee from 1946 to
1975. Reed acted as an Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships trustee from 1953
to 1975, serving as Vice Chairman from 1955 to 1975, and Chairman of the
Finance Committee from 1956 to 1958. Reed also served as a Trustee of
the Samuel H. Kress Foundation from 1960 to 1965, and as a Trustee of
the Winston Churchill Foundation of the United States from 1970 to 1975.
President and chief executive officer General Electric Company 1940-1942
& 1945-1959, chairman International General Electric 1945-1952, chairman
Finance Committee and General Electric Pension Trust 1952-1959, member
Committee on the University and World Affairs 1960, director Federal
Reserve Bank of New York 1959-1960, chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New
York 1960-1965, chairman Executive Committee of the International
Executive Service Corps 1966-1974, director Council on Foreign Relations
1946-1969. Director of American Express, Bankers Trust Company,
Bigelow-Sanford Inc., Cowles Communication, Kraftco Corporation, Otis
Elevator, Metropolitan Life Insurance, Scott Paper, Tiffany & Co., U. S.
Financial Inc., Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Ford
Foundation, visitor Bohemian Grove 1966-1988, stood in contact with the
American Ditchley foundation 1957-1986.
|Rehnquist, William H.
|Served in World War
II from 1943 to 1946, working as a weather observer in North Africa. MA
in political sciences at Stanford University in 1950. Active in the
Republican Party and served as a legal advisor to Barry Goldwater's 1964
presidential campaign. Associate Justice at the US Supreme Court
1972-1986. 16th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court 1986-2005, where
he followed up Pilgrim Warren E. Burger. Automatically appointed
chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution during his appointment as
and diplomat, managing editor New York Tribune in 1868. After Greeley's
death, Reid gained financial as well as editorial control of the paper
and continued it as a leading journal of the nation. While publishing
the Tribune, he was minister to France 1889-1892, was the Republican
candidate for vice president in 1892, and was ambassador to Great
Britain from 1905-1912. Reid wrote many books on war and foreign
affairs. Reid was special Ambassador of the U.S. to Queen Victoria’s
Jubilee, 1897, and again to the Coronation of King Edward VII in 1902.
|Reid, Ogden Mills
|Publisher of the
Republican and the New York Tribune, purchased the New York Herald and
made it into the New York Herald Tribune, co-founder of the
American-Australian Association in 1948 by a 1946 Inaugural Meeting at
the University Club in New York.
|Reid, Ogden Rogers
|Yale Book and Snake,
owner New York Herald Tribune, chairman New York Herald Tribune
1953-1959, U.S. ambassador to Israel 1959-1961, House of
Representatives1962-1975, advisor to JFK, member Council on Foreign
|Renwick of Clifton, Lord Robin
Cambridge University and the University of Paris. Advisor to Lord
Carrington during the negotiations which ended the war in Rhodesia in
1980 and political advisor to Lord Soames during the ceasefire and
elections leading to the independence of Zimbabwe (new name of
Rhodesia). Awarded a knighthood in 1988. British Ambassador to South
Africa 1987-1991. Played a leading role in the diplomacy which led to
the abolition of apartheid. British Ambassador to Washington 1991-1995.
Appointed to the House of Lords by Prime Minister Blair in 1997 and
became Labour spokesman on Foreign Affairs. He is Vice Chairman
Investment Banking of JP Morgan, Europe Chairman of Fluor Ltd., director
of BHP Billiton, Harmony Gold, SABMiller plc, and Compagnie Financiere
Richemont AG. Director of British Airways 1996-2005. Former deputy
chairman of the merchant bank, Robert Fleming. Trustee of The Economist
and the Helen Suzman Foundation. Patron of GAP Activity Projects.
Director of BritishAmerican Business Inc. of New York and London (BABi).
Governor of the Ditchley Foundation. Knight Commander of the Order of St
Michael and St George.
|Reynolds, Richard S.,
|After a successful,
but brief career in investment banking, Richard Jr. joined his father's
company in 1938. Under his leadership, Reynolds Corporation expanded
tremendously, buying more government plants and establishing facilities
across the globe in such countries as Jamaica, the Philippines and
Venezuela. In 1948, assets were $114 million and reached a level of over
$1 billion by 1963. Richard Jr. also was a chairman of Robertshaw
Controls Company, which is/was very big in manufacturing car thermostats
and other car parts, and a director of Central National of Richmond
|Seems to have been a
very prominent person at the turn of the last century and attended
parties with the Astors, Vanderbilts, Morgans and Rockefellers. William
Rhinelander, a relative, left an estate valued at $50 million in 1907.
That's all I have.
|Rhodes, Cecil John
||Possibly a co-founder
South-Africa for medical reasons. While Rhodes worked in the cotton
fields, his brother worked in Kimberly in a diamond mine. After some
time, Herbert offered partnership to Rhodes in his mining company down
in Kimberly. Rhodes accepted without regret. Rhodes used the money that
he made from the diamond mine to pay for his education at the University
of Oxford in England. Before Rhodes received his degree, he was elected
to the Parliament of Cape Colony, in South Africa, where he had done
some of his studying and research. Rhodes spent a long term serving on
the parliament in Cape Colony, and was immediately elected to the prime
minister of Cape Colony. In 1891, Rhodes and four colleagues founded the
"De Beers Consolidated Limited Mining Company" in Kimberly, with capital
of two hundred thousand dollars (provided by the Rothschild family). He
monopolized the entire diamond industry, amassing a fortune for himself.
In that same year, De Beers Mining Company became the largest mining
company in the world. He also was the founder of the Round Table in
1891, which eventually led to societies as The Pilgrims. In a later
stage of his life he became privy councilor and pretty much ruled over
southern Africa. After his death, he donated his whole fortune to the
creation of a secret society network, which was ment to "absorb the
wealth of the world" and create a worldwide English speaking empire
under British rule. It is believed by some that his donation led to the
establishment of the Pilgrims Society.
|Richard, Sir Ivor
|He was called to the
Bar in 1955 and practised as a Barrister in London. He had been an
active member of the Labour Party, member of the English Speaking Union,
and the Fabian Society. Richard was elected to parliament in 1964 and
served briefly as an assistant to Dennis Healey (attended first
Bilderberg conference) as Secretary of State for Defence. He was
appointed as Minister for the Army in 1969 and was pro-Europe, a view
not very popular with labour. Healey served as UK Permanent
Representative to the United Nations from 1975 to 1979. He became a
figure of controversy after the then US Ambassador, Daniel Patrick
Moynihan, criticised the UN for passing a resolution stating that
zionism was a form of racism, and Richard denounced him for behaving
"like the Wyatt Earp of international politics"; shortly thereafter
Moynihan was removed from office by Henry Kissinger. In 1980 he was
chosen by the Labour Party to take one of the posts on the European
Commission, where he took responsibility for Employment, Social Policy,
Education and Training. Richard returned to Wales in 1985 and was
appointed Chairman of World Trade Centre Wales Ltd., trying to persuade
international business to invest in the country of his birth. In 1990,
his name was included in a list of Labour Party 'Working Peers' and he
became an opposition spokesman in the House of Lords. His Barrister's
style led to his appointment as Leader of the Labour Peers from 1992,
which brought with it appointment to the Privy Council. When Labour won
the 1997 election, Richard became Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the
House of Lords. With Labour policy favouring a reform of the House
starting with removal of the Hereditary Peers, Richard began work on the
new composition of the House, but was shocked when he was suddenly
removed at the first reshuffle in July 1998 to be replaced by Baroness
Jay of Paddington. His thoughts on the reform of the House were
published in Unfinished Business in 1999 and Richard became a critical
friend of the Government. The Coalition Government in the National
Assembly for Wales invited Richard to Chair a Commission on the future
powers of the Assembly from 2002. The report was published on March 31,
2004 and recommended that the Assembly have full primary legislative
powers in devolved areas from 2011, a recommendation that was
controversial with Wales' Labour MPs.
|Richardson, Frank W.
|Radio station chain
|Richardson, Elliot L.
Harvard College in 1941. U.S. Army 1942-1945 (Purple Heart and
participated in D-Day). Graduated from the Harvard Law School in 1947.
Law clerk to Justice Learned Hand of the U.S. Court of Appeals and then
to Justice Felix Frankfurter of the U.S. Supreme Court. Associate and
partner in the Boston law firm Ropes and Gray. Assistant to Senator
Leverett Saltonstall of Massachusetts 1953-1954. Assistant secretary in
the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 1957-1959. U.S.
attorney for Massachusetts 1959-1961. Special assistant to the U.S.
attorney general 1961. Lieutenant governor 1965-1967. Attorney General
of Massachusetts 1967-1969. Under secretary of state 1969-1970.
Secretary of health, education, and welfare 1970-1973. Nixon's Secretary
of Defense for 4 months in 1973 (Nixon ordered Richardson to fire the
Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox; Richardson refused this
order and resigned). U.S. Attorney General 1973-1974. Director Council
on Foreign Relations 1974-1975. Ambassador to Great Britain 1975-1977.
Secretary of commerce 1975-1977. Ambassador at large 1977-1980. Special
representative for the Law of the Sea Conference 1977-1980. Partner with
the law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy. Spoke and wrote
widely on national security and other issues. Legal counsel for Inslaw,
the company formed to develop the PROMIS (PROsecution Management
Information Systems) software in the early 1980's (Its president, Bill
Hamilton, was a former NSA programmer). The Elliot L. Richardson Prize
for Excellence in Public Service was established in early 2000 "to
recognize extraordinary, sustained accomplishment and integrity in
government service and to encourage achievement by future public leaders
at the level Richardson demonstrated in service to his country." They
have a tendency to give Pilgrims an award; Sandra Day O'Conner, Colin
Powell, George Shultz (former Secretary of State), etc. Member of the
Bohemian Grove and a Freemason.
|Richardson, Lord Gordon
|Lord Richardson of
Duntisbourne; educated at Cambridge University, graduated with law
degrees in 1937 & 1938; called to the Bar in 1946; Member of the Bar
Council 1951-1955; with Industrial & Commercial Finance Corporation
1955-1957; director of J. Henry Schroder & Co Ltd. 1957-1960,
vice-chairman 1960-1962, and chairman 1962- 1972; Chairman of the
Industrial Development Advisory Board 1972-1973; Director of the Bank of
England 1967-1973; presided over the G-10 meetings in the seventies and
eighties; governor of the Bank of England 1973-1983; made a member of
the Privy Council in 1976; member of the Order of the Garter since 1983;
long time member of the Morgan Stanley Advisory Board since 1984.
director of the Bank for International Settlements 1973-1985;
vice-chairman of the Bank for International Settlements 1985-1988 &
1991-1993; chairman of the Group of Thirty 1985-1991; honorary chairman
of the Group of Thirty since 1991; chairman of Morgan Stanley
International Incorporated 1986-1995; chairman of the International
Advisory Board Chemical Bank, New York, 1986-1996; vice-chairman of the
International Advisory Council of Chase Manhattan Bank 1996-1998;
director of Rolls Royce; governor of the Ditchley Foundations; member of
the Order of the British Empire; patron of the British Malaysian
Society. In the 70s and 80s, he maintained a residence on Sutton Place
in New York City, although he normally resided in London. In 2004, Lord
Richardson was called in to testify against claims that the Bank of
England had "shut their eyes and turned away" from BCCI's fraudulent
activities. The original investigation was headed by Pilgrims Society
and Order of the Garter member Lord Bingham of Cornhill.
|West Point graduate
in 1917, supervised free elections in Nicaragua 1927, made assistant
division commander and then commander of the 82d Infantry Division
during WWII, with the 82d Airborne Division, Ridgway jumped with his men
in the invasions of Sicily and France at the end of WWII, appointed
commander of the Eighth Army in Korea during the Chinese invasion of
North Korea 1950, replaced Douglas MacArthur as commander of the United
Nations forces in Korea and of the Allied occupation forces in Japan
1951, succeeded Dwight D. Eisenhower as supreme commander of the Allied
Powers in Europe 1952-1953, a Pilgrim diner on 14 October 1952 was held
in his honor, Army chief of staff 1953-1955, protested vigorously but
unsuccessfully against the Eisenhower administration's overall military
policy, which emphasized air and atomic power at the expense of the army
and navy, retired as a General in 1955, chairman Mellon Institute
1955-1960 (The institute merged with the Carnegie Institute in 1967).
|Rifkind, Sir Malcolm
||Lectured at Univ. of
Rhodesia, 1967-1968. First entered Parliament in the 1974. Appointed
Junior Minister at the Scottish Office in the 1979 Thatcher Government
and became Minister of State at the Foreign Office in 1983. Became a
Secretary of State for Scotland and Privy Councillor in 1986. On 21
December 1988, Rifkind was the first British government official in
Lockerbie after the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, as Scottish secretary.
After touring the wreckage, he gave the first indication that the plane
had exploded. In 1990 he was moved by John Major to Transport, and
became Defence Secretary in 1992. In the final years of the Major
administration he was the Secretary of State for Foreign and
Commonwealth Affairs. He received a knighthood in John Major’s
resignation honours. Out of government from 1997-2005. Rifkind was hired
by Australia-based BHP in 1997, as a 'door-opener' to the Middle East.
Vocal critic of the 2003 Iraq War. Implicated in the Oil-for-Food
scandal when Iraqi documents surfaced after the invasion. Non-executive
chairman of ArmorGroup International since April 2004, a London-based
mercenary company. Elected again in 2005 and was appointed Shadow Work
and Pensions Secretary. He has been spoken of as a contender to replace
Michael Howard as Conservative leader. Director at Aberdeen Asset
Management. Non-executive director at Ramco Energy and British Assets
Investment Trust. Consultant to BHP Billiton, PricewaterhouseCoopers,
and Petrofac (another energy company). Governor of the Ditchley
|Became the 1st Earl
Roberts of Kandahar. Joined the Bengal artillery in 1851, fought against
the Indian Mutiny 1857–1858, where he earned the Victoria Cross. By 1875
he was quartermaster general of the Indian army and a strong advocate of
the “forward” policy of controlling the Himalayan passes to forestall
Russian encroachments; this became the general defensive policy of the
British in India. He became a popular British hero for the relief of
Kandahar in the second Afghan War 1878–1880. Roberts was made commander
in chief of the Madras army in 1880 and of the entire Indian forces in
1885. In 1893 he returned to England and wrote his reminiscences,
Forty-one Years in India 1897. He became field marshal in 1895. In 1899,
when the English were meeting reverses at the hands of the Boers in the
South African War, Roberts was appointed commander in chief and fought
them. Aided by his chief of staff, Horatio Kitchener (Freemasonry grand
master) Roberts reorganized the transport system, achieving a mobility
that had been lacking. By late 1900 the war seemed near a successful
conclusion, and Roberts was brought home, awarded an earldom, and
appointed commander in chief of the British army. His office was
abolished in 1904, and thereafter he devoted himself to the advocacy of
compulsory military service for home defense. Roberts was a Knight of
|The Right Honourable
Lord Robertson of Port Ellen has been the 10th Secretary General of NATO
and Chairman of the North Atlantic Council since October 1999. He was
Defence Secretary of the United Kingdom from 1997-1999 and Member of
Parliament for Hamilton and Hamilton South from 1978-1999. George Islay
MacNeill Robertson was born in 1946 in Port Ellen, Isle of Islay,
Scotland, and educated at Dunoon Grammar School and the University of
Dundee. He graduated MA (Honours) in Economics in 1968. He was a full
time official of the General, Municipal and Boilermakers' Union (GMB)
responsible for the Scottish Whisky industry from 1968-1978. He was
first elected to the House of Commons in 1978, and reelected five times.
He was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of
State for Social Services in 1979. After the 1979 General Election, he
was appointed an Opposition Spokesman, first on Scottish Affairs, then
on Defence, and on Foreign Affairs from 1982 to 1993. He became Chief
Spokesman on Europe in 1983. He served as the principal Opposition
Spokesman on Scotland in the Shadow Cabinet from 1993-1997. After the
1997 General Election, Prime Minister Blair appointed him Defence
Secretary of the United Kingdom, a position he held until his departure
in October 1999. In August 1999 he was selected to be the tenth
Secretary General of NATO in succession to Dr Javier Solana. On 24
August he received a life peerage and took the title Lord Robertson of
Port Ellen. He is a former Chairman of the Scottish Labour Party, was
Vice-chairman of the Westminster Foundation for Democracy, served as
Vice-Chairman of the British Council for nine years. He was, for seven
years, on the Council of the Royal Institute of International Affairs
(Chatham House) where he now serves as co-president. He is a Governor of
the Ditchley Foundation and a Trustee of the 21st Century Trust. Named
joint Parliamentarian of the Year in 1993 for his role during the
Maastricht Treaty ratification. He was appointed a member of Her
Majesty's Privy Council in May 1997. Has visited Bilderberg in 1998 and
2001. In 2003, Lord Robertson was accused of using his influence as a
Freemason to arrange a gun licence for Thomas Hamilton, who would later
use it to shoot 16 children in the Dunblane Massacre before killing
himself. In turn, Hamilton was accused of running a paedophile ring for
British politicians. Robertson and Hamilton were also accused of being
Freemasons. In any case, the judge who slapped a 100 year secrecy order
on a police inquiry into the Dunblane massacre later turned out to be a
|Robinson, Leland Rex
Relief Commission 1920, wrote 'Investment Trust Organization and
Management' in 1926, vice chairman Economists National Committee on
Monetary Policy, member Commission To Study The Organization Of Peace,
member Enemy Alien Hearing Board 1943-1945, chairman and vice president
Iran Foundation, together with Thomas W. Lamont, John Foster Dulles and
Edward R. Murrow (did the most successful attack on Joseph McCarthy via
CBS) he was a trustee of the Institute of International Education,
received the Royal Order of Homayun from the Shah of Iran, decorated the
Order of the Brilliant Star by China.
|First loan from
National City Bank of Cleveland (Stillman, Morgan), Established Standard
Oil Company in 1870, trustee of the China Medical Board, etc.
|Son of William D.
Rockefeller, who was the brother of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. Yale Skull
& Bones 1901. Married Isabel Stillman. Director of National City Bank.
W.A. Harriman & Co., American International Corporation (AIG), New York
Edison, Anaconda Copper Mines, Georgian Manganese Company, Guaranty
Trust, Chile Copper Company, Atlantic Fruit Company, Bethlehem Steel,
W.A. Harriman & Company, United States Realty & Improvement Company,
Western Union Telegraph, Consolidated Gas, United Metals Selling
Corporation, Remington Arms Company, North American Reassurance Company,
Seaboard Finance & Investment, Cuba Railroad and dozens of other
companies. Became a member of the Japan Society in 1926, lost a lot of
money in the stockmarket crash of 1929, had to come before an
investigating committee to answer charges of stock manipulation
(exonerated) in 1932. In 1936, his son Avery Rockefeller II, after
having been associated behind the scenes with J. Henry Schroder Banking
Corporation, becomes vice-president and partner in the newly formed
Schroder, Rockefeller & Company, Inc. Baron Bruno von Schroder in London
and Baron Kurt von Schroder in Germany (Nazi insider; ITT; J. H. Stein &
Company; BIS) are his partners. Lawyers of Schroder, Rockefeller &
Company, Inc. was John Foster Dulles' Sullivan & Cromwell.
|Yale Scroll & Key.
Won a gold medal in rowing at the Paris Olympics of 1924. Married Nancy
Carnegie in 1925 (grand-niece of Andrew Carnegie). Worked at Brown
Brothers. Joined the National City Bank in 1930, which was owned by
grandfathers William Rockefeller and James Stillman (Sr.). His uncle,
Percy Avery Rockefeller (Skull & Bones), married another daughter of
James Stillman (Sr.). Served in Airborne Command during WWII. President
First National City Bank 1952-1959. Chairman First National City Bank
1959-1967 (became Citibank, Citicorp, Citigroup).
Psi Upsilon Fraternity. Director Rockefeller Center 1931-1958.
Coordinator Office of Inter-American Affairs 1940-1944, which his family
had co-founded by John Hay Whitney and others. Present at the United
Nations founding in San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945, where
he played a prominent role. His father donated the land the United
Nations headquarters was built on. Assistant Secretary of State for
Latin America 1944-1945. Truman dismissed Nelson from the State
Department, apparently at the insistence of new Secretary of State Dean
Acheson (Pilgrims Society) who resented Nelson's successful effort to
have Axis-sympathetic Argentina included in the United Nations. Chairman
of the Inter-American Development Commission 1940-1947. Formed the
International Basic Economy Corporation in 1947, which invested heavily
in supermarkets in Latin America. Created the American International
Association for Economic and Social Development (AIA), which was a
non-profit organisation supposedly established to promote reforms in the
fields of agriculture and health in Latin America. The Rockefellers also
had stock in the United Fruit Company. Chairman International
Development Advisory Board 1950-1951. Chairman President's Advisory
Committee on Government Organization 1952-1958. Special Assistant for
Cold War Planning to Eisenhower December 1954-December 1955. Member of
the Operations Coordinating Board in 1955 during which time he was
briefed by Allen Dulles on all the CIA's covert operations. Nelson, even
in his Senate bio, is named as a chairman of the secret Forty Committee,
a group of high government officials who were charged with overseeing
the CIA's clandestine operations. No date has been given. Governor of
New York 1959–1973. Vice-president of the United States under Gerald
Ford 1974–1977. Chairman National Commission on Critical Choices for
America. Member Council on Foreign Relations. Died in 1979 when he was
with his mistress, Megan Marshak. He was cremated within 18 hours after
his death. There is no known "tell all" of the events by Marshak, and
she appears to have dropped out of public view since Rockefeller's
|Born in 1915 and
youngest son of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Descendant of the German-Jewish
Roggenfelder family which came to the United States in 1722. Attended
school in New York City and graduated with a bachelor's degree in
English history and literature from Harvard University in 1936. This was
followed with a Ph.D. (1940) in economics from the University of Chicago
and a study at both Harvard and the London School of Economics. Married
Margaret "Peggy" McGrath in September 1940 and they raised six children,
including son David Rockefeller Jr. Along with his brothers - John D.
III, Nelson, Laurance, and Winthrop, David Rockefeller established the
Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) in 1940. Became a trustee of The
Rockefeller Institute (later transformed into a university) for Medical
Research in 1940. Trustee Rockefeller University 1940-1995. Secretary to
New York City Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia 1940-1941. Assistant regional
director of the United States Office of Defense, Health and Welfare
Service 1941-1942. Enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1942. Military
Intelligence officer in North Africa and Southern France 1942-1945.
Assistant Military Attaché in Paris in the last 7 months of the war.
Joined Chase National/Manhattan Bank in 1946 as an assistant manager
under Winthrop W. Aldrich (Rockefeller intermarried) in the Foreign
Department. Assistant manager in the Foreign Department, Chase National
Bank 1947-1948. Played a major role in the development of the
Morningside Heights neighborhood on the Upper West Side of Manhattan as
president (1947-1957) and then chairman (1957-1965) of Morningside
Heights, Inc. Second vice president Chase National Bank 1948-1949.
Director of the Museum of Modern Art 1948-1958. Vice president Chase
National Bank 1949-1952. Vice-president Council on Foreign Relations
1950-1970. Chairman of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
1950-1975. In 1953, at this position, he recruited Detlev W. Bronk as
president of the Rockefeller Institute and head of its medical research
program. Bronk, a biophysicist, appeared on the initial membership list
of the MJ-12 study group. Senior vice president of Chase National Bank
with responsibility for supervising the economic research department and
customer relations in the metropolitan New York area, including all the
New York City branches 1952-1955. Attended the first Bilderberg meeting
in 1954 and was one of its founders. When Chase National and the Bank of
the Manhattan Company merged in 1955, David Rockefeller was appointed an
executive vice president in charge of the bank development department.
In 1957, he became vice chairman of the Board of Directors with
responsibility for the administrative and planning functions of the bank
as a whole. Briefly chairman of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1958.
Again in 1962-1972, and again in 1987-1993. Life trustee of the
University of Chicago (which his grandfather helped to establish) and an
honorary trustee of International House (New York), established by his
father. In 1958 David Rockefeller helped establish the Downtown-Lower
Manhattan Association (D-LMA), serving as its chairman 1958-1975.
Primary founder of the Dartmouth Conferences in 1960, which was
initiated at Dartmouth College in an effort to prevent U.S.-Soviet
nuclear conflict. Only influential private citizens with no government
positions were supposed to meet here. President Chase Manhattan
1961-1969. In 1962, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began
plans to build the World Trade Center, which was pushed hard for by
David and Nelson Rockefeller. Founding member of the Commission on White
House Fellows, 1964. David had a two and a half hour meeting in Moscow
with Nikita Khrushchev in the summer of 1964. He reported to president
Johnson that Khrushchev would like to do more trade with the United
States and David recommended that more credit should be extended to the
Russians. Met Khrushchev's successor, Leonid Brezhnev, soon afterwards.
Also met Chou En-lai in the 1960s, to discuss economic cooperation.
Other leaders David met with are Deng Xiaoping, Nasser, Saddam Hussein,
Fidel Castro, the Shah of Iran, etc. David is on very good terms with
Nelson Mandela and they regularly meet each other. It's interesting to
note that Mandela is one of George W. Bush's fiercest critiques.
Instrumental in the formation of the International Executive Service
Corps and chairman 1964-1968. Founder Americas Society in 1965 (then
called Council of the Americas). Helped found the Rockefeller Family
Fund in 1967. Helped form The Business Committee for the Arts in 1967.
Chairman and CEO of the board of Chase Manhattan 1969-1981. Chairman
Council on Foreign Relations 1970-1985. In May 1973 Chase Manhattan Bank
opened it Moscow office at 1 Karl Marx Square, Moscow. Chairman of the
Overseas Development Council of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council,
Inc., which was founded in 1973. Founder of the Trilateral Commission in
1973. Chairman Trilateral Commission 1977-1991. Founded the New York
City Partnership in 1979 and was chairman 1979-1988. Chairman Chase
Manhattan Bank Advisory Committee 1981-1999. Trustee Carnegie Endowment
International Peace since 1981. President of the Harvard College Board
of Overseers; life trustee of the University of Chicago; one of the most
important members of the Bilderberg committee; visitor of the Bohemian
Grove Stowaway camp; member American-Australian Association; chairman
Americas Society 1981-1992; chairman Rockefeller Group 1981-1995. Helped
to establish the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at
Harvard University in 1994. Chairman of Rockefeller Center Properties
1996-2001; became a director of the Shinsei Bank in 2000; chairman
Rockefeller University; chairman of the Museum of Modern Art; member
International Council of J.P. Morgan Chase; wrote 'Unused Resources and
Economic Waste' (1940), 'Creative Management in Banking' (1964), and
'Memoirs' (2002); major shareholder of Atlantic Richfield Petroleum and
International Petroleum Corporation (also a napalm manufacturer). David
is the last of the "Fortunate Five" brothers. Winthrop died in 1972
after having been devastated by a chemotherapy procedure; John D. III
died in a 1978 car crash; Nelson died in 1979 in bed with his mistress.
Laurance died in 2004 of natural causes. David and Laurance were members
of the Peace Parks foundation. David has attended meetings of Le Cercle
and is a member of the Pilgrims Society.
|Roe, Charles Francis
|In the campaign of
1876, 2nd Lt. Charles Roe commanded Company F, 2nd Cavalry. On June
26th, near the Little Bighorn River, he saw on the far hills what
appeared to be a large group of dead buffalo -- in fact, the distant
figures were the slain horses and men of Custer's command.
|Roosa, Robert Vincent
Senior official of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1946-1960,
finally reaching the position of vice president in the bank's research
While he was on the staff of the Federal Reserve Bank of N.Y., Roosa
trained a group known as the 'Roosa Bloc' (or Rosa 'Brain Trust'), his
chief protege being Paul Volcker. Undersecretary of the Treasury
1961-1964. Became a Partner in Brown Brothers Harriman & Company in
1965. Authored 'Monetary Reform For The World Economy' (1965). Gave a
speech in Munich to the Atlantic Institute of International Affairs on
November 11, 1974. Member Atlantic Council of the United States. Advisor
to the International Finance Corporation (World Bank affiliate).
Director American Express, Cities Communications, Owens-Corning
Fiberglass, Prudential Insurance, and Texaco. Chairman of the New York
Stock Exchange Advisory Committee on the International Capital Market.
Chairman of the Brookings Institution 1975-1986. Trustee of the National
Bureau for Economic Research. President of the American Finance
Association. Member of the American Economic Association and the Royal
Economic Society of London. Governor of the United Nations Association.
Vice chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation. Founding member and
secretary of the Trilateral Commission. Director Council on Foreign
Relations 1966-1981. Frequent Bilderberg attendee. Member of the
|Son of Franklin
Delano Roosevelt. Educated at Groton and Harvard, John worked at
Filene's Department Store in Boston until World War II broke out in
1941. He served in the navy until 1946 and thereafter pursued a business
career on the West Coast. In 1952, he became a Republican so he could
support Dwight Eisenhower's bid for the presidency. John's defection
from the Democratic party and his subsequent leadership of Citizens for
Eisenhower caused family friction. John became an officer and director
of Standard Uranium, owned by Pilgrim Floyd Odlum. In 1967, John joined
Bache & Company (owned by Pilgrim Jules S. Bache). He retired as a
vice-president in 1980. His philanthropic activities included serving as
a fund raiser with the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis,
which FDR had founded, membership on the executive committee of the
Greater New York Council of the Boy Scouts of America and service as a
trustee of the State University of New York.
|Second cousin twice
removed of Henry Luce (Pilgrim and Skull & Bones), and descended from
the Spencer family. After graduation from Hamilton College in 1864, Root
taught for one year at the Rome Academy in 1865. Graduated from the Law
School of New York University in 1867. Admitted to the bar in the same
year and commenced practice in New York City. Served private clients
including Jay Gould (later Pilgrims member), Chester A. Arthur, Charles
Anderson Dana, William C. Whitney, Thomas Fortune Ryan, and Edward Henry
Harriman (later Pilgrims member). As a Republican reformer, he was a
junior member of a distinguished defense team representing Boss Tweed in
1873, a powerful mafia boss in New York who controlled almost every
single United States Democratic Party nomination for the city and the
state, had robbed New York city of anywhere between $30 and $200
million, and was an associate of Jay Gould. The equivalent of a
millionaire by the age of thirty. Root married Clara Frances Wales, who
was the daughter of Salem Wales, the managing editor of Scientific
American, in 1878. U.S. District Attorney for Southern District NYC
1883-1885. Hired Henry Lewis Stimson out of law school in 1891, who was
a member of S&B and became a member of the Pilgrims. Delegate to the
State constitutional convention in 1894. In 1898 McKinley calls him on
the new-fangled telephone and says, "I want you to be Secretary of
War". This was just after the US had defeated Spain. Root says,
"I can't do that. I'm a lawyer. I don't know anything about war. I don't
know anything about the Army. I have no experience with government. I
have never been to Washington." McKinley said, "I don't care
about any of that. You're a smart lawyer and you will be the first
person charged in the history of the United States with running
colonies, and I want somebody with good common sense, a pragmatic
problem solver, a lawyer like you." He remained Secretary of War
until 1904. During this time he was responsible for enlarging West Point
and establishing the U.S. Army War College as well as the General Staff.
Identified by U.S. Diplomat and CFR-endorsed Warren Zimmermann as one of
the "forefathers of American Imperialism", together with naval
strategist Alfred T. Mahan, senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Secretary of
State John Hay, and president Theodore Roosevelt. Secretary of State
under Theodore Roosevelt 1905-1909. Senator 1909-1915. First president
of the Carnegie Foundation 1910-1925 and a primary founder of Carnegie
Europe. Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912. At the outbreak of World
War I, Root opposed President Woodrow Wilson's policy of neutrality.
President of the American Bar Association 1915-1916. In June 1917,
during WWI, he was sent to Russia by President Wilson to arrange
American co-operation with the new revolutionary government. Pilgrims
Society member Samuel R. Bertron went with him. He summed up his
attitude to the Provisional Government very trenchantly: "No fight, no
loans." The official CFR website states: "But it was a more discreet
club of New York financiers and international lawyers organized in June
1918 that most attracted the attention of the Americans from the Peace
Conference. Headed by Elihu Root, the secretary of state under Theodore
Roosevelt and a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, this select group called
itself the Council on Foreign Relations. It began with 108 members,
Shepardson recorded, “high-ranking officers of banking, manufacturing,
trading and finance companies, together with many lawyers.” Its purpose
was to convene dinner meetings, to make contact with distinguished
foreign visitors under conditions congenial to future commerce... Elihu
Root headed the original Council on Foreign Relations and was
instrumental in the founding of its successor." Prepared the final
will of Andrew Carnegie on March 31, 1919. Elihu Root, Nicholas Murray
Butler, and Stephen P. Duggan Sr. (CFR director) founded the Institute
for International Education in 1919. Present at the 1919 Versailles
Peace Conference. After World War I, Root supported the League of
Nations and served on the commission of jurists, which created the
Permanent Court of International Justice. In 1922, President Warren G.
Harding appointed him as a delegate to the International Conference on
the Limitation of Armaments. He was among the founders of the American
Law Institute in 1923. Member of the Metropolitan Club, the NY Social
Register, the Century Association, and the Pilgrims of the United
|In the 1920s he
operated a jewelry store in Creston Iowa but was not very successful,
public opinion analyst and early developer of modern opinion polls,
director Ford Foundation's Fund for the Republic 1952-1961, treasurer
Atlantic Union Committee in 1960, gave speeches on globalism, director
|Son of Lionel de
Rothschild and brother of Leopold David de Rothschild (born 1927). Sir
Evelyn and Jacob de Rothschild are his younger cousins. Served as an
officer in the British Army in France, North Africa, and Italy
1939-1946. In late 1944 he rose to the rank of Major and commanded a
Jewish Palestinian Unit (made up of mainly refugees of the Nazis) into
Italy. The unit prominently showed the Magen David. Partner of N.M.
Rothschild & Sons 1946-1960. Published the book 'Window on the World' in
1949. Friend of the Japanese Tsunao Okumura. Okumura was the president
of Nomura Securities between 1948 and 1959 and was seen as the king of
Japanese stockbroking in the 1950s. Senior Partner of N.M. Rothschild &
Sons 1960-1970. Vice-chairman of the British Newfoundland Corp.
1963-1969. Vice-chairman of Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp. 1966-1969.
One of the Godfathers of Prince Bernhard's extramarital daughters,
Alexia Grinda. Bernhard met the mother, the 18-year old Helene Grinda
(of the noble Roussel family), in 1966, at a swimming pool of the
Rothschild family. Identified as a member of the Pilgrims Society in
1969. Member of the Asia Committee of the Bank of New England
Corporation 1970-1971. Chairman of the Bank of New England Corporation
in 1971. Governor of the Technical University of Nova Scotia. Trustee of
the Queen’s Nursing Institute. Received the Order of the Sacred
Treasure, 1st Class (Japan), in 1973. Chairman of N.M. Rothschild & Son
1970-1975. Nurtured the gardens at Exbury. Attended the 1st World
Wilderness Conference in 1977 and trustee of the International
Wilderness Foundation, which sponsors these conferences. At the 4th
Wilderness Conference in 1987, where Edmund was a key speaker about
climate change, Maurice Strong introduced him as the "source" of this
whole "Conservation Banking" movement. David Rockefeller was also
present at that conference and advised George Hunt, a business advisor
who recorded the event, not to distribute any rebukes of what was said
or "he would regret it". President of the Association of Jewish
Ex-Servicemen and Women (AJEX). Presiding Officer representing AJEX at
the annual Cenotaph Service of Remembrance. The Rothschild family has
been intimately associated with the New West End Synagogue in London.
Played himself in the 1998 movie 'In Our Own Hands', about the
all-Jewish fighting force in World War II. Member of the President's
Council of the Mountain Institute in 1999. One of many donors to the
Children’s Blood Foundation, which was inaugurated in 2001. He has been
made a Commander of the British Empire.
|Graduated from the
University of North Carolina, 1914; was admitted to the North Carolina
bar, 1916; attended Harvard University Law School and received his
degree, 1917; married Margaret Best, 1917; served in France as a second
lieutenant in the 317th Army Field Artillery, 1918–1919; was
commissioned a captain in the North Carolina National Guard and
organized a Field Artillery battery, 1921; resumed the practice of law
in Raleigh and Goldsboro, North Carolina; served in the state senate,
1927; was president of the North Carolina Bar Association, 1929–1930;
was a presidential elector, 1940; was commissioned a colonel, 1942, and
appointed chief of the legal section, fiscal division, Headquarters,
Services of Supply (later Army Service Forces); received presidential
appointment to defend before the Supreme Court the German saboteurs who
entered the United States clandestinely; was promoted to brigadier
general and appointed deputy fiscal director of Army Service Forces; was
special assistant to the Secretary of War, April–November 1945; served
as Under Secretary of War, 9 November 1945–18 July 1947; served as the
last Secretary of War, 19 July–17 September 1947; supervised the
separation of the Department of the Air Force from the Department of the
Army; became first Secretary of the Army when National Defense Act of
1947 took effect, 17 September 1947–27 April 1949; was the last Army
secretary to hold the cabinet status, which was henceforth assigned to
the Secretary of Defense; returned to the practice of law in New York
City; was a delegate at large to the Democratic National Convention,
|Rusk, David Dean
Entered the Department of State in 1942. Assistant secretary of state
for Far Eastern Affairs 1950-1952. Played a major role in the U.S.
decision to take military action in the Korean War. President
Rockefeller Foundation 1952-1961. Supported economic aid to
underdeveloped nations, low tariffs to encourage world trade, and the
1963 nuclear test ban treaty with the Soviet Union. Secretary of State
under John F. Kennedy & Lyndon B. Johnson 1961–1969. Claimed the 1967
USS Liberty incident was a deliberate attack on the ship, rather than an
accident.Co-founded the Club of Rome in 1968. A firm believer in the use
of military force to prevent Communist expansion. Defended the Vietnam
War. Following his retirement from public service, he started teaching
international law at the University of Georgia 1970-1984. Member of the
Knights of Malta.
|Russell, M. Lindsay
|Attorney who is said
to have been a liaison front man for the Vanderbilts. Moved in elite
circles (present at many of the same meetings as the Morgans) and named
as a co-founder of the Pilgrims of the United States in 1903. Founded
the Japan Society in 1907. President of the Japan Society from 1910 to
|Sanderson, Sir Percy
Consul-General in the early part of the 20th century.
|Sanger, William Cary
of War, 1901-1903 and was related to the Dodge family (copper mining)
and the Clevelands of Presidential fame; President Grover Cleveland was
in the 1903 list. Sanger was a governor of the New York State Society of
Colonial Wars; and governor general of the Order of Founders and
Patriots of America.
|Born in Russia,
studied electrical engineering at Pratt Institute, worked at Marconi
Wireless Company 1906-1919, became chief radio inspector and assistant
chief engineer, when Marconi was absorbed by Radio Corporation of
America (RCA) in 1919-1921, vice president and general manager
1922-1929, president RCA 1930-1947, chairman RCA 1947-1970. Oversaw
RCA's manufacture of color television sets and NBC's color broadcasts
(corporate headquarters at Rockefeller Center). Received 27 honorary
degrees, including doctoral degrees from Columbia University and New
York University. The Sarnoff Corporation is the successor organization
to the David Sarnoff Research Center and the RCA Laboratories in
Princeton, New Jersey. Freemason.
|He married Louise
Pierpont Morgan, daughter of J.P. Morgan, in 1900. Professionally, he
was a successful lawyer, specializing in corporate and commercial law,
and a senior law partner at Satterlee, Canfield and Stone. He was also a
writer, contributing to newspapers and magazines as well as authoring
several books, including a biography of his father-in-law, entitled J.
Pierpont Morgan: An intimate Portrait, 1837-1912. Mr. Satterlee also
wrote words for several songs, including "Autumn Leaves" and "Above the
Shimmering Sea". For nearly four years after purchasing Sotterley, Mr.
Satterlee did little by way of restoring the property. Instead he
embarked upon a major research process. J.P. Morgan himself sent the
men; architects, artists, landscape gardeners, foresters, farmers, road
builders and wharf builders to research, overhaul, and eventually
restore the plantation. Satterlee was an avid yachtsman. Herb Satterlee
III is CEO and president of GIS development and spent 19 years with The
Boeing Company, holding senior management positions on programs such as
Teledesic, UK/ROF AWACS (international defense) and the B-1 Bomber
Simulator (United States defense). (atm not 100% sure it's a grandson)
|Schiff, Jacob Henry
|American banker and
philanthropist, born in Frankfurt, Germany and lived together with the
Rothschild family in the "Green Shield" house. He emigrated to the
United States in 1865 and became a partner in Kuhn Loeb & Co. in New
York City. His partners are Paul Warburg (later Pilgrim) and Otto Kahn
(later Pilgrim). In 1875 he married the daughter of Solomon Loeb (Nina),
who headed the firm. At the age of 38 he was head of the banking house
of Kuhn, Loeb and Company. In 1880, Schiff supposedly said: "I
cannot for a moment concede that one can be at the same time a true
American and an honest adherent of the Zionist movement." Schiff
became associated with E. H. Harriman (will intermarry with the
Rothschild family) in notable contests with the house of Morgan for
control of Western railroads. His numerous philanthropies included the
endowment of the Jewish Theological Seminary, the Montefiore Home, both
in New York, and a museum at Harvard. Schiff participated in the 1910
Jekyll Island meeting, where a plan was put together to establish the
Federal Reserve; a company later to be dominated by the same Pilgrims.
Jacob Schiff has been instrumental in financing Trotsky and the
Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. He and Paul Warburg have sponsored Trotsky
with millions of dollars. It seems they also took care of the safe
passage of Trotsky and 275 revolutionaries from New York to Europe.
|Schiff, Mortimer L.
|Son of Jacob H.
Schiff, scouting fanatic, art collector, director Kuhn, Loeb & Co.,
which is said to have bankrolled Stalin's first "five year plan".
|Schiff, John M.
|In 1934, he married
(Pilgrim) George F. Baker Jr.'s daughter, who sat on the board of The
Birth Control Federation of America, together with Carola Warburg
Rothschild and Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt. In 1942 it was renamed to
Planned Parenthood Foundation of America; it's board was filled with
Pilgrims members or the wives of Pilgrims members (Vanderbilt, du Pont,
Lamont, etc). John M. Schiff was senior partner and later chairman of
Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb Company, member Council on Foreign Relations,
confirmed his father's Bolshevik financing.
|Schiff, David T.
|Yale, director Crown
Life Insurance of Toronto and Lehman Brothers, managing partner Kuhn,
Loeb & Co., chairman Wildlife Conservation Society (you'll find names
like Phipps, Astor, Rockefeller, Pyne, Baker III, Cullman, Hearst,
multiple Schiffs and multiple Goulds on the board. Many of these members
can probably be found on the membership list of the 1001 Club). Andrew
Schiff, a son of Jacob Schiff, is married to Karenna Gore, a daughter of
former U.S. Vice President Al Gore. The father of Al Gore was an
associate of Communist agent Armand Heimer (Hammer), whose father was
the founder of the American Communist Party. As you can read above,
David Schiff's forefather financed the Bolshevik revolution of 1917.
|Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr.
just as his father. Office of War Information 1942-1943. OSS officer
1943-1945. Professor of history at Harvard 1946-1964. Attended a 1963
Pilgrims dinner. Albert Schweitzer Professor of Humanities at City
University of New York 1966-1994. Board member of the Century Institute
since 1999. Among the founders of Americans for Democratic Action. Wrote
speeches for Adlai Stevenson's two Presidential campaigns. He was a good
friend of Gianni Agnelli and they corresponded a lot with each other.
|Schwab, Charles M.
|President of the
Carnegie Steel Company and, after J.P. Morgan had taken it over,
president of United States Steel Corporation. After personality
conflicts at U.S. Steel, he left to take over and remake another steel
company, Bethlehem Steel Co., which he incorporated in 1904. In 1908,
Bethlehem Steel began producing the beam that revolutionized building
construction and made possible the age of the skyscraper. It also made
Bethlehem Steel the second-largest steel company in the world. Schwab
was a notorious gambler, union buster and businessman of dubious ethics.
During World War I, Schwab supplied the British with just about anything
they could pay for. To circumvent U.S. neutrality laws, Schwab shipped
goods to Canada; they were sent across the Atlantic from there. He sold
65,000 tons of American rails to the Russian government for use on the
Trans-Siberian Railroad. Schwab clinched the deal by bribing the
mistress of the Grand Duke Alexis Aleksandrovich with a $200,000
necklace. A gambler with flair, Schwab's trips to Monte Carlo made him
an international celebrity. The stock market crash of 1929 wiped out
Schwab financially. He died bankrupt on Sept. 19, 1939. But World War
II, which began a few weeks before his death, made his holdings worth
millions -- a fitting end to the man Thomas Edison once called the
is the founder and president of the Washington International Studies
Council (WISC), which originally began as a Washington academic
internship program in 1983 and first sent students to Oxford in 1985. He
studied at Columbia, the University of Chicago and at Oxford (Exeter and
Christ Church). His graduate supervisor at Oxford in political
philosophy was Professor Sir Isaiah Berlin, Fellow (and President) of
the British Academy, Order of Merit, Fellow of All Souls College. He
later taught at St. Andrews University in Scotland and Yale University
(where he has been an Associate Fellow of Davenport College, Yale since
1974). He has lectured at the Kennedy School of Politics in Harvard and
also was a Visiting Research Fellow in International Relations in MC,
Oxford University for a three year term. He taught an Oxford seminar in
diplomacy jointly with Professor Lord Beloff, FBA, Fellow of All Souls
College. He is the author or co-author of 19 books about foreign policy
from a conservative viewpoint. He also has some administrative
experience in government, having served as a senior aide in foreign
affairs in the US House of Representatives, as deputy to the Under
Secretary of State for Security Assistance, as a senior policy aide in
the White House and in the Senior Executive Service in the US
Information Agency and the Pentagon (Director of Long-Range Policy
Planning). He was also Assistant Director for National Security Policy
in a Presidential Transition Office. He was Director of Studies in the
largest think-tank in Washington, The Heritage Foundation, and was
founding editor of its social science quarterly, Policy Review. He is a
member of the Cosmos Club and the Metropolitan Club in Washington and of
the Beefsteak Club, The Reform Club and of the United Oxford and
Cambridge University Club in London. He is also a member of The
Pilgrims, the Anglo-American Society.
|Scott, Harold B.
Secretary of Commerce, who lead a mission to Poland, Romania,
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria in the sixties, to increase
peaceful trade. Chairman U.S.-U.S.S.R. Trade & Economic Council
1973-1978, chairman Overseas Private Investment Corporation, associated
with the Pfizer pharmaceutical fortune, member Council on Foreign
Scribner's Sons book publishing company 1952-1984, which had been
founded by his great-grandfather, personal editor of Ernest Hemingway's
works, president American Book Publishers Council, trustee Princeton
|Scully, Leonard T.
|Earned both an MBA
and a law degree from NYU. During World War II, Scully, who had enlisted
in the Army prior to America's entry into the war, was assigned by
General Omar Bradley to Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery's staff. In
this capacity, he participated in the planning of Operation Overlord,
the Allied invasion of Normandy. As a member of Bradley's G-5 staff,
Scully also served in five campaigns in France, Belgium and Germany. His
military honors include the Legion of Merit, a Bronze Star, and the
Croix de Guerre. After returning home in1945, Scully became a member of
the Army Reserve, serving as acting commander of his unit until retiring
in 1965. Scully, who had begun working at the United States Trust Co. of
New York in 1934, rejoined the firm after the war, eventually becoming
senior vice president. After his retirement in 1975, Scully became
president and CEO of Excelsior Income Shares, a subsidiary of the United
States Trust Co. Active in many charitable causes, Scully was a former
director and assistant treasurer of the Madison Square Boys' Club and
its affiliate, the Bronx Boys' Club. He served as president of the
Peabody Home at the time of its merger with St. Luke's Home to become
Morningside House, and he continued as president of the combined
institution for many years. He was a director of the Eye Bank for Sight
Restoration and the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies, a former
secretary of the Eugene Higgins Scientific Trust, a trustee of the
Westmoreland Davis Memorial Foundation, and governor of the
Knickerbocker Club; he was also a member of the Order of St. John of
Jerusalem and the Pilgrims of the United States. In addition, Scully
served on committees of the New York City Bar Association, the American
Bar Association, the New York State Bankers' Association, and the
American Law Institute. A dedicated alumnus, Scully served as treasurer
of the New York Columbia Club and was honored with the Alumni Medal from
the Alumni Federation in 1961.
|Seaborg, Glenn T.
||Appeared in the 1969
list of The Pilgrims. Co-discoverer of some 7 nuclear energy isotopes.
Co-discoverer or discoverer of 19 elements, including plutonium. Head of
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for two years, 1972-1973.
Director of the globalist World Future Society and the Federal Radiation
|Segal, Martin E.
|Born in Vitebsk,
Russia in 1916. Founder in 1939 of the Segal Company, pPresident from
1939to 1967, chairman from 1967 to 1991, and consultant since 1991.
Segal was a Partner, Wertheim & Co. (New York) from 1967 to 1982,
president from 1972 to 1975, and subsequently Chairman from 1975 to 1982
of Wertheim Asset Management Services. Columnist for Associated Press.
Chairman of the Public Service Awards Committee, Fund for the City of
New York, in 1978 and 1979. In 1979, Mr. Segal was co-chairman of the
mission to lay the basis for cultural exchanges between the United
States and China via the Center for United States-China Arts Exchange;
visited China with the U.S. delegation, as co-chairman, for this purpose
(March 8-23, 1979). Mr. Segal served on the Advisory Council of the
Center for United States-China Arts Exchange from 1982-1988. He was
General Chairman of “Night of 100 Stars II” (first AIDS benefit – The
Actors’ Fund of America– held on February 17, 1985). Organizing
Co-Chairman of the International Conference on the Future of
ArtsEducation – November 11-13, 1999 Fellow of the Fellow of the Royal
Society of London. Received many many awards and was very active in a
host of New York clubs and not-for-profit institutions.
|Seitz, Raymond G.H.
|Born in Hololulu ,
Hawaii. Graduated from Yale in history. After two years spent teaching
in Dallas, Texas, he joined the Foreign Service in 1966. His first post
was in Montreal, Canada as Consular Officer; in 1968 he was assigned to
Nairobi, Kenya as Political Officer, serving concurrently as Vice-Consul
in the Seychelles Islands. After two years as Principal Officer in
Bukavu, Zaire, Ambassador Seitz returned to the State Department in 1972
and was appointed Director of the Secretariat Staff under Secretary of
State Henry Kissinger. He subsequently served as Special Assistant to
the Director General of the Foreign Service. In 1975 he was assigned for
the first time to the U.S Embassy in London as First Secretary, and in
1978, he received the Director General's Award for Reporting. Returning
to Washington in 1979 as Deputy Executive Secretary to the Department of
State, Ambassador Seitz served in the office of Secretaries Vance,
Muskie and Haig. In October 1981 he became Deputy Assistant Secretary
for Public Affairs. Appointed Executive Assistant to Secretary of State
George Shultz from 1981-1984. On completion of his term as Assistant
Secretary of State, the Federal Republic of Germany conferred on
Ambassador Seitz the Knight Commander's Cross. Minister at the US
Embassy in London from 1984-1989, and Assistant Secretary of State for
Europe, based in Washington, from 1989-1991. U.S. Ambassador to Britain
1991-1994. He is a trustee of the National Gallery, the Royal Academy of
Arts and the World Monuments Fund. He is a member of the Advisory
Council of the Institute for International Studies at Stanford
University and a governor of the Ditchley Foundation. Senior managing
director and vice-chairman of Lehman Brothers International in London.
Director of Cable & Wireless, Hongkong Telecom, The Chubb Corporation,
General Electric Company plc, Cable and Wireless plc, Hollinger
International, The Telegraph Group plc, British Airways, and Rio Tinto
plc. Received the Churchill Medal of Honour from the English-Speaking
Union. He has written numerous book reviews for the Daily Telegraph, The
Times, The Sunday Telegraph, and The Literary Review and broadcast
several series of essays for the BBC. In 1999 Seitz became the first
American citizen to receive Freedom of the City of London. He was
elected as an Honorary Freeman of the Merchant Taylor's Company in 2001.
Member of the Trilateral Commission.
|Raised for seven
years in Washington, DC, after which his family moved to Paris for five
years and Tokyo for another five before settling in New York City in
1971. He graduated from the Lycee Francais de New York in 1973 and
received a BA in History from Trinity College, in Hartford, CT. He was a
banker in New York for 11 years, working with European clients.
Subsequently, he moved away from financial services and went to the
non-profit sector. Consultant to the Hereditary Society Community of the
United States of America. Since 1994 he has been Executive Director &
Almoner of St. George's Society of New York, one of that city's oldest,
continuously operating membership organizations, founded in 1770. In
addition to organizing regular events for its members, the Society
operates a significant charitable program of financial assistance to
needy persons living in the New York area who are from the United
Kingdom of the British Commonwealth. Additionally Mr. Shannon is
President of the College of Arms Foundation, Inc., which was established
by the College of Arms in 1984. Mr. Shannon serves as Assistant
Secretary of the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies in New York.
He is a member of The Pilgrims of the United States; the New York
Genealogical and Biographical Society where he serves as Chairman of the
Committee on Heraldry; and Saint Thomas Church in New York (where he
co-chaired the Every Member Canvass for two years). Mr. Shannon is also
a member of The Heraldry Society and the Society of Heraldic Arts, two
UK-based organizations that focus on all forms of English heraldry.
Former Member of the Council of the New York State General Society of
Colonial Wars. Vice President of the St. Nicholas Society of the City of
New York. Executive director of the St. George's Society of New York.
Officer in the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Knight of the Order of
Saints Maurice and Lazarus.
|Trustee New York
University, ambassador to Turkey 1932-1933, wrote the books ''Have We A
Far Eastern Policy?''(1920) & ''Prime Ministers and Presidents'' (1922),
decorated by Italy, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Sweden, Austria,
Hungary, Holland, and Czechoslovakia.
|Shultz, George P.
|Born December 13,
1920, in New York City, the son or Birl E. and Margaret Pratt Shultz.
Charles Pratt (1830-1891), Margaret's grandfather, became a partner of
John D. Rockefeller after merging his oil company with Standard Oil in
1874. His son, Shultz's grandfather, Charles Millard Pratt (1858-1933),
was treasurer of Standard Oil and his widow bequeathed their New York
mansion, the Charles Pratt House, to the Council on Foreign Relations in
1945, which serves as its headquarters ever since. Birl Earl Shultz
(1883-1955), George's father, was a personnel director with the American
International Corporation and founded the New York Stock Exchange
Institute (November 10, 1955, NY Times, obituary). B.A. degree in
economics from Princeton University in 1942. Attended Cap & Gown events,
according to Kay Griggs, just as Allen Dulles, Donald Rumsfeld, William
Colby, Frank Carlucci, James Baker, and George Griggs (August 3, 2005,
Rense). U.S. Marine Corps 1942-1945, attaining the rank of Captain.
Faculty member at MIT 1946-1947. At MIT, according to several accounts,
Shultz teamed up with the German social engineer Kurt Lewin, who was
setting up a psychological research institute there (died in 1947).
Lewin emigrated from Germany to the US in 1932 and is said to have been
a leading member of the Tavistock Institute (at the very least he served
as a source of inspiration to many of their psychiatrists). Taught in
both the MIT Department of Economics and the MIT Sloan School of
Management 1948-1957. Earned a Ph.D. from MIT in industrial economics in
1949. Chairman of MIT's Industrial Relations Division 1954-1957. Leave
of absence in 1955 to serve on President Dwight Eisenhower's Council of
Economic Advisers as a senior staff economist. Joined the University of
Chicago Graduate School of Business as professor of industrial relations
in 1957 and served as dean of the school from 1962 to 1968. Involved in
Nixon's election campaign of 1968. Nixon's Secretary of Labor 1969-1970.
One of the main organizers of the US-USSR Trade and Economic Council in
1972. Nixon's Secretary of the Treasury 1972-1974. It was during this
period that Schultz, along with Paul Volcker and Arthur Burns, supported
the decision of the Nixon administration to end the gold standard and
the Bretton Woods system. Shultz also regularly played golf with Stephen
Bechtel Jr. at Burning Tree. President and director of the Bechtel Group
1974-1982, a privately-held huge construction company strongly linked to
the intelligence agencies. Also acted as president of the Bechtel
Foundation. Ran Ronald Reagan's election campaign in 1980, together with
Bechtel vice-president Caspar Weinburger. Chairman of the President's
Economic Policy Advisory Board from 1981-1982. Reagan's Secretary of
State 1982-1989. Hosted his good friend Helmut Schmidt at the Bohemian
Grove in 1982 and has stayed at Camp Mandalay. Member of the Council on
Foreign Relations and Atlantic Council of the United States. Member
National Security Planning Group. On Oct. 25, 1984, speaking at the Park
Avenue Synagogue in New York, Shultz delivered remarks calling for the
U.S. to adopt a preemptive first-strike policy, such was implemented 20
years later by the Bush-Cheney administration. According to John
Perkins, former chief economist and "economic hitman", Shultz functioned
as the heir to Robert Strange McNamara (1001 Club) as one of the top
figures in the new imperial pyramid of power, which employed the
structure of economic hitmen to bleed and crush nations. Examples are
the Philippines' Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, and such as the various
attacks on Panama, culminating in the 1989 invasion. Then-Secretary of
State Shultz had spoken one day earlier, Sept. 30, threatening the
nations present that they had better stay in line, and pay their debts
to the IMF. As Secretary of State, he automatically became a honorary
member of the Pilgrims Society and gave at least one speech to this club
in 1985. In August 1988, while travelling from the airport to La Paz,
Bolivia, Shultz's motorcade was bombed, supposedly by drug dealers.
There was only material damage. In 1989 he rejoined Bechtel as a
director and senior counselor (he still is anno 2005). Director at
Gilead Sciences since 1996. Director Fremont Group, Inc. (owned by the
Bechtel corporation) and the Charles Schwab Corporation. Chairman of
Accenture's Energy Advisory Board. Former member of the Advisory Council
of Forstmann Little & Co. (Henry Kissinger, Colin Powell, and Donald
Rumsfeld have been other members). Has visited the Trilateral Commission
in the 1990s. Teamed up with George Soros in 1998 to promote a series of
referenda to legalize narcotics. According to author James Mann, who
wrote the Rise of the Vulcans book about Bush's inner Cabinet, Shultz
initiated a discussion with George W. in the Spring of 1998, whereby the
future President sat down in Shultz's living room on the Stanford
University campus, in order to see if he would be the right man for the
presidency. At that meeting were Martin Anderson, the former advisor to
both Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan; Abraham Sofaer, a former Shultz
aide; John Cogan and John Taylor, two economics professors; and
Stanford's provost, and Shultz protege, Condoleezza Rice. After the
scholars associated with the Hoover Institution indicated that they
thought Bush would make a good Presidential choice, Bush invited Shultz,
Rice, and Anderson down to Austin, Texas for a follow-up meeting in the
Summer. Out of that meeting, which was joined by Dick Cheney and Paul
Wolfowitz, came the public decision for Bush to run for President. Soon
Richard Perle and Dov Zakheim were holding Monday morning conference
calls with Bush. Bush W. became president in 2000, selecting the above
individuals as his primary staff members. Initial member of the
Committee for the Liberation of Iraq in 2002, a year before that country
was invaded. Co-chairman of the economic taskforce for California
gubernatorial candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2003. Co-chairman of
the Commonwealth Club Centennial meeting in 2003, sponsored by Goldman
Sachs and Carnegie Corporation. Anno 2005, Shultz is chairman of J.P.
Morgan Chase's International Advisory Council, co-chairman of the
Committee on Present Danger (together with James Woolsey), and an
advisor to the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (together with
Alexander Haig, Lawrence S. Eagleburger, Richard Perle, James Woolsey,
and, until recently, Paul Wolfowitz). Honorary director of the Institute
for International Economics (headed by Peter G. Peterson. Other
directors are Paul Volcker, Maurice R. Greenberg, and David
Rockefeller). Member of the Hoover Institution and the American
Enterprise Institute New Atlantic Initiative. Shultz's most senior
advisor and confidant is Charles Hill, a former diplomat to Israel, the
Far East, and to the secretary-general of the UN, who now holds
positions at Yale and Stanford. Shultz has been a long time associate of
|Mentioned as a
chairman of The Pilgrims in a meeting of the European-Atlantic Group
(E-AG) in 1985. Involved with the Council of Independent Colleges.
Member of the Council of Management of the British Institute of
International Comparative Law (BIICL). Pilgrim and Order of the Garter
member Lord Bingham of Cornhill is chairman of this council.
|Simmons, J. Edward
|President Board of
Education in the 19th century, president New York Stock Exchange in the
19th century, president Fourth National Bank, president PPR Co.,
president Water Supply of the City of New York until 1908, president
Chamber of Commerce since 1908, attended a February 1908 Pilgrims
dinner. As president of the Fourth National Bank he gave a (Pilgrims?)
dinner on December 12, 1900, which was attended by J.P. Morgan (Pilgrim)
and Charles M. Schwab (Pilgrim). It was at this dinner that Morgan
decided to buy Carnegie Steel, of which Schwab was president, and to
bring it together with his own steel interests into United States Steel
|Simon, William Edward
|Deputy Secretary of
the Treasury 1973-1974. Chairman President's Oil Policy Committee
February to December 1973 (oil crisis started in October). Administrator
Federal Energy Office since December 1973 and was charged with the
responsibility of minimizing the effects of the energy crisis and
preventing future crises (decided the oil prices and the distribution).
Together with Pilgrim Henry Kissinger he was the most important speaker
of the 1974 International Energy Conference. chairman Economic Policy
Board since 1974. Chief spokesman of the Ford Administration on economic
issues since 1974. Treasury Secretary 1974-1981. Chairman East-West
Foreign Trade Board since 1975. Director of Citigroup, Kissinger
Associates (since the mid 80s), Halliburton, Power Corporation of
Canada, United Technologies, Xerox, INA Corporation, Dart Industries,
Heritage Foundation, Hoover Institution, and John D. MacArthur
Foundation. William E. Simon served as treasurer of the U.S. Olympic
Committee from 1977 to 1981. Identified as a COMEX governor in January
1980. President of the U.S. Olympic Committee 1981-1985, which included
the 1984 Games in Sarajevo and Los Angeles. He chaired the U.S. Olympic
Foundation 1985-1997, created with the profits of the Los Angeles games,
and was inducted into the U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame in 1991. Simon was a
member of the Knights of Malta, a Pilgrims Society member, and a member
of the Council on Foreign Relations.
|Sinclair, John J.
|Descendant of a
crucial Knights Templar family: the Barons of Rosslyn, the Earls of
Orkney, and the Earls of Caithness. Sir William St. Clair (1404-1482),
the 3rd Earl of Orkney and the 1st Earl of Caithness, eventually built
Rosslyn Chapel. John J. Sinclair lived in New York's high society.
|Sinclair, William MacDonald
|Descendant of a
crucial Knights Templar family: the Barons of Rosslyn, the Earls of
Orkney, and the Earls of Caithness. William St. Clair (1404-1482), the
3rd Earl of Orkney and the 1st Earl of Caithness, eventually built
Rosslyn Chapel. William M. Sinclair was archdeacon of London from 1889
to somewhere in the early 20th century.
||Born in Canada,
american parents. After serving with the Atlantic and Pacific fleets, he
was (1897-1900) naval attaché in Paris and St. Petersburg. While in
Europe he sent numerous reports to the Navy Dept. urging the adoption of
new ship designs and gunnery, and in 1902 he wrote to President Theodore
Roosevelt criticizing the inefficiency of the navy. His letters had some
effect and he was ordered to Washington, serving (1902-1909) with the
Bureau of Navigation and (1907–9) as naval aide to the President. After
leading (1913-1915) the Atlantic torpedo flotilla he was appointed
(1917) rear admiral and president of the Naval War College. In World War
I he commanded (1917-1918) U.S. operations in European waters. He again
became president of the Naval War College in 1919 and served there until
1922, when he retired. He was made full admiral by act of Congress in
1930. He wrote, with Burton J. Hendrick, "The Victory at Sea" (1920).
|Yale Skull & Bones
1905, vice-president Presbyterian Hospital.
|Smith, Olcott Damon
|Yale and Harvard law
school, partner Day Berry & Howard law firm in 1936, employee Office of
General Counsel of the U.S. Navy during WWII, joined Aetna Life &
Casualty Co. vice chairman in 1962, chairman Aetna Life & Casualty Co.
1963-1972, , member legal team during the construction of the Millstone
Nuclear Power Complex in Hartford, director and chairman of the Greater
Hartford Process Inc. (foundation).
|Sparks, Sir Ashley
|Director and chief
of Cunard White Star Line, his daughter married Pilgrim son Harry P.
Davison. Sir Ashley went to meet with King George V in 1932 to ask him
is he could name one of the cruise ship of his company "Victoria", after
a former Queen of England. (although it became the Queen Mary) This is
the same company who had built the Mauretania and the Lusitania with the
financial backing of the British government.
|Speyer, James Joseph
|Eldest son of German
banker Gustav Speyer, joined his father's banking house Speyer & Co. and
was employed in London and Paris, senior member New York branch of
Speyer & Co. in 1900, which became Lazard Speyer-Ellissen a few years
later, director Bank of Manhattan Trust Company, trustee Guaranty
Trust/Central Trust (in 1908), associated with the Warburgs, Schiffs,
Whitneys, etc, elected a trustee of the Museum of the City of New York
The Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York. Was named as a
Pilgrims Society member in a 2003 British Memorial Garden event.
|Invented the tone
control for radio while serving in the Navy, founder (in 1926) president
chairman and treasurer Sprague Electric Company, oversaw construction of
the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lexington (laid down by Morgan's Bethlehem
Steel Co. in 1941), chairman Industry Advisory Committee on Electronic
Components and Parts 1944-1945, consultant on continental defense to the
National Security Council 1954-1958, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
1955-1960, chairman MITRE Corporation 1969-1972, trustee Northeastern
University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Life Member
Emeritus of the MIT, member Hudson Institute, member Council on Foreign
Relations, member Newcomen Society.
|Agent of King George
V. Spring-Rice attended Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, and served in
the War Office and Foreign Office, and as Earl Granville's private
secretary. He became the British Chargé d’Affaires in Tehran in 1900,
and British Commissioner of Public Debt in Cairo in 1901. He went on to
serve in St. Petersburg, Russia (1903), Persia (1906), Sweden (1908),
and as ambassador to the United States (1912-1918).
|Son of a Scottish
immigrant, studied at the University of California, joined the Federal
Reserve banking system, president Federal Reserve Bank of New York
1941-1956, director Wells Fargo Bank, director Kaiser Aluminum &
|Julius Stahel was a
Hungarian immigrant who was a journalist in New York City for the
German-speaking community before the Civil War. He had previously served
in the Austrian army, and at the outbreak of the Civil War he helped to
organize the "1st German Rifles." Stahel eventually became a major
general in the Union army and received the Congressional Medal of Honor.
|Stanley, Edward George Villiers
|Also known as the
17th Earl of Derby. The 16th Earl of Derby (1841-1908) married to Lady
Constance Villiers, daughter of George William Villiers, 4th Earl of
Clarendon. For generations the family had a strong presence within the
conservative party. Educated at Wellington. Joined the Grenadier Guards
as a lieutenant and served in that regiment between 1885 and 1895.
Secretary of State for War 1916-1918. Secretary of State for War
1922-1924. Honorary president of the Rugby Football League, and donated
a cup for the French authorities to use for a knock-out competition.
This is now known as the Lord Derby Cup. Chairman of the Pilgrims of
Great Britain 1929-1945. President of the Pilgrims of Great Britain
1945-1948. Close friend of King George V.
|Stetson, Eugene W.
that he was a Pilgrim, but it's very hard to image he was not a member.
His son was a confirmed member.) Born in a prominent New York area
banking family, went to Mercer University for two years, clerk American
National Bank in Macon 1901, helped organize the Citizens National Bank
in 1908 and became its president, member of a group which bought
Coca-Cola Company from the Asa Candler family in 1919, director Beekman
Street Hospital of Manhattan in 1925 (board filled with Masons and
Pilgrims), director Guarantee Trust 1928-1941 (together with Prescott
Bush), vice-president Guarantee Trust 1941-1944, chairman Guaranty Trust
1944-1947, financial advisor to Guaranty Trust after that, together with
Henry Clay Alexander of J.P. Morgan he arranged the merger of the
Guaranty Trust Company of New York with J.P. Morgan & Co. 1958, advisor
to New York City Cancer Committee (with a Lazard Frères president and
William Donovan of the OSS) in 1946, president of the Council for Heart
Diseases in 1946, asked by Averell Harriman to become a director of
Illinois Central Railroad in 1932 and later became it's chairman, his
son (Jr.) became a member of Skull & Bones in 1934, joined Brown
Brothers Harriman (with Prescott Bush) an Skull & Bones.
|Stetson, Eugene W.,
|Yale Skull & Bones
1934, joined the family's firm Stetson & Company, assistant manager
Brown Brothers Harriman of New York (together with Prescott Bush),
director Chemical Bank, organized the H. Smith Richardson Foundation
(said to have financed a part of the MK-Ultra project).
|Stewart, James C.
|James Stewart &
Company, which was involved in many large construction project including
the Savoy Hotel in London (1889), where the Pilgrims would often meet.
Also built the Mormon’s capital building in Salt Lake City.
|Stillman, Chauncey D.
|Georgia resident who
build an estate on his 1200 acres of land, loved nature, from a very
wealthy family, treasurer Catholic Art Association, founder (1939) and
long time chairman of the Homeland Foundation (for preserving nature and
preserving individual rights)
|Stimson, Henry Lewis
|Yale Skull & Bones
1888; joined a law firm headed by Elihu Root in 1891; U.S. Attorney for
the Southern District of New York 1906; Secretary of War 1911-1913;
joined the military during WWI and fought as an artillery officer in
France; governor-general of the Philippines 1927-1929; opposed the
independence of many nations because they were not able to govern
themselves; Secretary of State under Herbert Hoover 1929-1933; In 1932,
after reading an article in the Illustrated London News, he ordered the
U.S. Ambassador in Turkey to make a request for an inquiry into the
original sources used for the Piri Reis map. The Turkish government
complied, but no earlier sources were found; chairman U.S. delegation to
the London Naval Conference 1930-1931; chairman U.S. delegation to the
Geneva Disarmament Conference 1932; Secretary of War under FDR
Donald Alexander Smith
|Made a fortune, many
times over, from investments in land, railways, and banking. He joined
the Hudson's Bay Company in 1838, attained the rank of chief factor in
1862, was the company's land commissioner in Manitoba 1870-1874, one of
the principal financiers of the Canadian Pacific Railway, major
shareholder in Northern Pacific Railroad (together with Pilgrim James J.
Hill), major investor in the Bank of Montreal, represented Selkirk,
Manitoba in the House of Commons 1871-1880, knighted in 1886, MP for
Montreal West 1887-1896, raised to the peerage as Baron Strathcona and
Mount Royal in 1897, co-founder of the London Pilgrims 1902, British
High Commissioner in Canada. He is possibly best known for equipping and
maintaining the celebrated cavalry unit known as Lord Stathcona's Horse
during the Boer War (1899-1902). He also promoted educational causes. He
was a generous patron of McGill University in Montreal, he founded the
Royal Victoria College for women, and was rector and chancellor of the
University of Aberdeen. Strathcona's philanthropy, educational interests
and imperial enthusiasms converged in 1909 when he established the
Strathcona Trust, an endowment intended to promote military drill and
physical training in the public schools of Canada. The physical
education curriculum in many provinces, including British Columbia,
originated with programmes funded by the Strathcona Trust.
|Duchess of York.
Very close with the Royal family and her late husband was the Queen
Mother's nephew. She is patron or Hon President of the Local Branches of
the Multiple Sclerosis Society, Cancer Relief, Age Concern, Nursing
Benevolent Fund, the Day Care Committee for the Elderly, she is patron
in Scotland of Sense (for deaf blind people), the Brittle Bone Society,
the Child Psychotherapy Trust, and Child Link Scotland and is the Chair
of the Scottish Disability Foundation Appeals Committee. Patron Queen
Mother Research Centre. She plays a large part in promoting Scottish
interests. Deputy Lord Lieutenant of Angus in 1989. Honorary Regent for
Great Britain on the Kenmore Trust which runs George Washington's
Sister's home in Virgina, and was honoured by a flag being flown over
the US Capital on July 28th 1997.
|Strauss, Elliott Bowman
||Graduated from the
Naval Academy in 1923. Served on different destroyers until 1934. He
returned to Newport for a tour of duty at the Naval Training Station
after which, from November 1935 until September 1937, he was Assistant
U.S. Naval Attache at the American Embassy, London, England. While there
he was a Delegate to the Third Assembly, International Union of Geodesy
and Geophysics, at Edinburgh, in 1936, and on May 12, 1937, was awarded
the British Coronation Medal at the coronation of King George VI of
England. Upon his return to the United States in the Fall of 1937, he
was designated Aide and Flag Lieutenant on the Staff of Rear Admiral
Alfred W. Johnson, USN, Commander Training Detachment, U.S. Fleet, and
was attached to the flagship, USS New York. Served on another couple of
destroyers. He returned to London, England as U.S. Naval Observer just
prior to the outbreak of World War II in December 1941, and served on
the staff of Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, Chief of Combined
Operations, during the early war period, taking part in the Allied raid
on Dieppe, August 19, 1942. In November 1943, he reported to Commander
U.S. Naval Forces, Europe, and was assigned duty with Task Force One
Hundred Twenty two, later serving on the Staff of the Allied Naval
Commander in Chief, Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsey, until August 1944.
Captain Strauss returned to the United States for duty in the Office of
the Chief of Naval Operations in 1945. From January to December 1948 he
was a student at the Imperial Defense College in London. On August 11,
1952, he was ordered to the Office of the Deputy for Defense Affairs,
Office of Special Representative in Europe for Mutual Security
Administration, Paris, France. On September 28, 1953, after his
retirement in July of that year, he was ordered detached from that
assignment, but to continue duty in Paris as Staff Assistant Secretary
of Defense for International Security Affairs, Office of Foreign
Economic Defense Affairs, with his duty station in the U.S. Mission to
NATO and European Regional Organization, Paris. From August 1956 until
March 1957, Rear Admiral Strauss was Director of Engineering at Bucknell
University, Lewisburg, PA. On April 6, 1957, Rear Admiral Strauss was
named Chief of the new American Foreign Aide Mission to Tunisia. There
he directed a $5.5 million program providing commodities and technical
assistance for the rest of the fiscal year ending June 30, a program
which in 1958 had risen to more than $20 million, and by the time of his
detachment in August 1960, had put more than $100 million into the
Tunisian economy. In 1960, he served as personal representative of the
Secretary of State as a member of a three-man team to evaluate the
effectiveness of the Mutual Aid program to Pakistan, this assignment
extended from September 1960 to January 1961. In January 1961, Rear
Admiral Strauss initiated, as Director, the A.I.D. mission to the
Malagasy Republic and served there until February 1963. He retired from
A.I.D. in May 1963. In July 1965, Rear Admiral Strauss became a public
member of the Foreign Service Inspection Corps. He was a member of the
team inspecting Embassy, Tel Aviv and Consulate General Jerusalem,
July--September 1965. Rear Admiral Strauss is a member of the Pilgrims
of the United States, the Chevy Chase Club and Army and Navy Club of
Washington, DC; the New York Yacht Club; and the Buck's Club, and the
International Sportman's Club, both of London, England.
|Strong, Benjamin, Jr.
|Embarked on a
financial career in 1891 with Cuyler, Morgan & Co. Assistant secretary
Atlantic Trust Co. Secretary Bankers Trust Co. of N.Y. 1904-1909. Vice
president Bankers Trust Co. of N.Y. 1909-1914. President Bankers Trust
Co. of N.Y. since 1914. First president/governor NY Federal Reserve Bank
1914-1928 and was a close friend/ business associate of co-Pilgrim and
Bank of England governor Montagu Norman. He met in secret with Montagu
Norman and Hjalmar Schacht (president Reichsbank; friend Max Warburg) in
|Stuart, Sir Collin
|Made a Knight
Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1918 when co-Pilgrim
Lord Northcliffe was made a Viscount. In February, 1918, the (English)
Prime Minister made Northcliffe director of Propaganda in Enemy
Countries with Campbell Stuart as his deputy. Managing director of the
Times (of Lord Northcliffe) 1919-1923. He later relinquished this
position with the Times to become an ordinary director and in 1923
became the representative of the Canadian Government on the Pacific
Cable Board. Linking Canada, Australia and New Zealand, this cable had
been laid in 1902 across the Pacific Ocean and passing only through
British territory was jointly owned by the respective governments. He
did well in the job but was not happy at the increasing competition of
wireless and cable and he recommended to the Government that the
question should be considered by an Imperial Conference. As a result an
Imperial Wireless and Cable Conference was set up in London in January,
1928, with Campbell Stuart appointed to represent the Canadian
Government. One of the resulting recommendations was to form an Imperial
Communications Advisory Committee, to oversee in certain respects the
new private corporation that was to come into being, the Cable and
Wireless Company, of which Campbell Stuart became Chairman. The role of
Campbell Stuart, when asked to set up a propaganda organisation,
immediately prior to World War Two, is related in the Department Electra
House text and when he resigned from that position he resumed duties
with the Imperial Communications Advisory Committee, which was renamed
the Commonwealth Communications Council and met in London in April,
1944, with Campbell Stuart as Chairman. As one of the considerations,
when Cable and Wireless was nationalised, in 1945, feeling his
usefulness was now at an end Campbell Stuart then resigned. Amongst many
other appointments he remained an active director of the Times until
|Studd, Sir Kynaston
confidant of the Duke of Westminster (Grosvenor family), Order of the
British Empire, president The Polytechnic, Lord Mayor of London
1928-1929 (Which is something different than the normal mayor of
London), provincial grand master in Freemasonry 1934-1944.
|Member of Davis,
Polk & Wardwell, his daughter Dorothy Joan married co-Pilgrim Charles
Scribner Jr., director Jekyll Island (Georgia) Club where the Federal
Reserve conspiracy took place, governor Union club (an important New
York City club), director Morningside Heights Incorporated, United
States Trust Company of New York, Berwind-White Coal Mining, Illinois
Central Railroad, Harriman, Ripley & Company, Missouri Pacific Lines and
|Sutherland, Peter Denis
University College Dublin. Attorney General of Ireland in the government
of Garret FitzGerald. Member of the first Delors (EU) Commission.
Chairman Goldman Sachs. Director Asea Brown Boveri. Director of the
Royal Bank of Scotland Group. Chairman BP Amoco. Director-general GATT
and founding head WTO 1993-1995. Chair Trilateral Commission. Member
Council on Foreign Relations. Member European Round Table. Member of the
Chief Executive's Council of International Advisors of the Government of
the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), which was
established in 1997. Member Liberalization of Trade in Services (LOTIS)
committee, an outgrowth of the British Invisibles that controls the WTO.
Permanent Bilderberg attendee and a member of its Steering Committee.
Director Centre for European Reform. Director European Institute. Member
of the Foundation Board DAVOS. Appointed Goodwill Ambassador for the
United Nations Industrial Development Organization in 2005. Honorary
President of the European Movement Ireland. Received the Rockefeller
International Leadership Award. Member of the Pilgrims of Great
businessman, and public official, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He
joined Western Electric Co (1895) and became vice-president (1913) in
charge of domestic sales and international operations, reorganizing
Western Electric's foreign interests. A parallel concern of his was
social justice, and in 1897–9 he lived and worked at Hull House in
Chicago, marrying a social worker who also worked there. In 1919 he
joined General Electric as the first president of its subsidiary
International General Electric, where he promoted international
corporate support for European reconstruction following World War 1. As
president of General Electric (1922), with Owen D Young chairing the
board, he recognized a corporation's responsibility to its employees,
customers, and the industry. His ‘new capitalism’ vision, called the
Swope Plan (1931), became the basis for the National Industrial Recovery
Act of 1933, and he helped implement the New Deal. He headed community
chest campaigns, founded the National Health and Welfare Retirement
Association, and, retiring in 1939, chaired the New York City Housing
Authority. His causes included co-operative housing, health insurance,
and Zionism. In 1951 he chaired the Institute of Pacific Relations.
|Enlisted as a
private in the United States Army at seventeen years of age and was
discharged as a second lieutenant; graduated from Yale University in
1923; reporter on a Baltimore newspaper; moved to Rochester, N.Y., and
worked as an iron moulder and lathe operator 1923-1926, studying
mechanical and electrical engineering at night and by correspondence;
executive with several radio and steel companies 1926-1937; moved to St.
Louis, Mo., and became president of the Emerson Electric Manufacturing
Co. 1938-1945. In 1945-1946 he was Surplus Property Administrator in
Washington, D.C., disposing of unused war materials. From 1947 through
1950 Symington was Secretary of the Air Force. In 1950 he became
chairman of the National Security Resources Board, which was suggestive
of more recent Presidential Executive Orders authorizing the seizure of
commodities in wartime. He was a Senator from Missouri from 1952 to
1976. Symington was a personal friend of Pilgrim Floyd Odlum.
|Taft, William Howard
his lineage to Charlemagne. Son of the co-founder of the Yale Skull &
Bones Society. Himself Skull & Bones 1878. Cincinnati Law School 1880.
Member Ohio Superior Court 1890-1892. Solicitor-general of the United
States 1892-1900. Governor of the Philippines 1901-1904. Secretary of
War 1904-1908. President of the United States 1909-1913. Chief Justice
of the United States Supreme Court 1921-1930. Automatically appointed
chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution during his appointment as
Chief Justice. Invited to the Bohemian Grove.
|Taft, Henry Waters
|Son of the
co-founder of the Yale Skull & Bones Society. Brother of William H.
Taft. Yale Skull & Bones 1880. Supposedly a famed New York lawyer. Six
year president of the Japan Society in the 1920s. Awarded the Japanese
Order of the Rising Sun.
|Taylor, Sir John
|Knight of the
British Empire. Member of the management of the American Officers Club.
|Taylor, General Maxwell D.
|Graduated from West
Point in 1922. In World War II he served in Europe with the 82d Airborne
Division and as commander of the 101st Airborne Division. After serving
as superintendent of West Point (1945–1949) and U.S. commander in Berlin
(1949–1951), he commanded UN forces in Korea. From 1955 to 1959 he was
army chief of staff, and he argued for an army capable of fighting a
limited war. When the Eisenhower administration continued to emphasize
U.S. nuclear capability, he resigned; he outlined his views in An
Uncertain Trumpet (1959). In 1961, President Kennedy appointed Taylor to
the post of military representative to the President, and in 1962 he
became chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. He served until 1964, when
President Johnson named him ambassador to South Vietnam. While in that
post (1964–1965) he urged continued limited U.S. participation in the
Vietnam War. Chairman President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory board
|Taylor, Myron Charles
|Admitted to the bar
in 1895, spent much of his early career in the textile business,
operating mills in New England and elsewhere until 1923, at the behest
of J.P. Morgan he became a director of United States Steel Corporation,
chairman finance committee United States Steel Corporation 1927-1934,
chairman United States Steel Corporation 1932-1938, personal
representative of the U.S. President to Pope Pius XII 1939-1950,
personal representative of the President on Special Missions 1950-1952,
member Knights of Malta, member Knight Order of Pius, member Knight
Grand Cross of Saints Mauritius and Lazarus. Taylor gave funds to the
Episcopal Diocese of New York, director Council on Foreign Relations
1943-1959. In 1939 he became the U.S. envoy to Pope Pius XII, a post he
would maintain until 1950.
|Thatcher served as
Education Secretary in the government of Edward Heath from 1970 to 1974,
and successfully challenged Heath for the Conservative leadership in
1975. She became Britain Prime-Minister through Brian Crozier's secret
Shield committee, which laid out her election campaign. Se was elected 3
times and was Prime-Minister from 1979 to 1990. Her policy was strongly
anti-communist and pro-privatization. Thatcher maintained the "special
relationship" with the United States, and formed a close bond with
Ronald Reagan. Thatcher also dispatched a Royal Navy task force to
retake the Falkland Islands from Argentina in the Falklands War. The
profound changes Thatcher set in motion as Prime Minister altered much
of the economic and cultural landscape of Britain. She curtailed the
power of the trade unions, cut back the role of the state in business,
dramatically expanded home ownership, and in so doing created a more
entrepreneurial culture. Awarded the Order of Merit in 1990. In 1992 she
was created Baroness Thatcher; since then her direct political work has
been within the House of Lords and as head of the Thatcher Foundation.
In 1995 she became a Knight of the Order of the Garter. In July 1992,
she was hired by tobacco giant Philip Morris Companies, now the Altria
Group, as a "geopolitical consultant" for US$250,000 per year and an
annual contribution of US$250,000 to her Foundation. In practice, she
helped them break into markets in central Europe, the former Soviet
Union, China, and Vietnam, as well as fight against a proposed EC ban on
tobacco advertising. Her son Mark has been dogged by a series of
controversies. In January 2005 he was fined three million rand
(approximately $500,000) and received a four-year suspended jail
sentence in South Africa after several months of house arrest, for
abetting a coup attempt in Equatorial Guinea.
|Thayer, Walter Nelson
|Whitney agent and
director of Bankers Trust Company of New York. Director of National
Dairy Products Corporation. Member of the Lend-Lease Administration in
1941-1942. Assistant to Averell Harriman 1941-1945.
|Thomson, Lord Roy
|1st Baron Thomson of
Fleet. Chairman of the Thomson Organization. Owned 56 American
newspapers and also the London Times. Director of Reuters. Freemason.
Spoke to the Empire Club of Canada on January 6, 1972, while David
Rockefeller was sitting in the Audience.
|Thomson, Kenneth Roy
|2nd Baron Thomson of
Fleet, Canada’s wealthiest man, added the prestigious Globe and Mail in
Toronto to The Times and Sunday Times in Britain and The Jerusalem Post
in Israel. Under Kenneth Thomson, who owns a 73-per-cent stake in the
company, Thomson Corporation sold its North Sea oil holdings and sold
The Times to Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation and the Jerusalem Post to
Conrad Black's Hollinger Inc.
|Banker, his daughter
was Henrietta Joan Tiarks, who married Henry Robin Ian Russell, the 14th
Duke of Bedford and the Marquess of Tavistock. Both were into horse
breeding and racing.
Columbia Law School in 1935, after he graduated he joined the law firm
of Hughes, Schurman and Dwight of New York, vice president of Bendix
Corp., trustee-appointed president of Howard Hughes' Trans World
Airlines 1960, later sued by Howard Hughes who charged Tillinghast and
others of conspiring against him in an effort to wrestle Trans World
Airlines from him. Didn't work out that well for Hughes. Tillinghast
became chairman of TWA and remained that until 1976, became vice
chairman of White, Weld and Co. in 1976, chancellor Brown University
1968-1979, vice-president Merrill Lynch, director Seaboard Surety
Company, director Merck & Company.
|Tower, John Goodwin
|Tower left school in
the summer of 1943 to serve in the Pacific Theater during World War II
on an amphibious gunboat. He returned to Texas after the war in 1946,
discharged as a seaman first class, and completed his undergraduate
courses at Southwestern University, graduating in 1948 with a B.A. in
political science. Tower became the youngest person in the senate in
1961. He was only 36 at the time, and there were 71 candidates in the
race, but former Democrat Tower prevailed in the runoff, becoming Texas'
first Republican senator since Reconstruction. Considered an
ultraconservative, during his 23 years in the Senate, Tower became an
authority in matters concerning national defense and the military. As
defense spending rose to $211 billion a year, Tower brought prized
defense contracts to Texas. In 1981, he became chairman of the Armed
Services Committee. In 1984, Tower decided not to seek re-election. He
worked instead as a highly-paid defense consultant. In 1985, President
Reagan named Tower to the post of strategic arms negotiator with the
Soviet Union. The following year, he appointed Tower to chair a
bipartisan committee to investigate the Iran-contra scandal. George Bush
nominated Tower for Secretary of Defense in 1989, but critics claimed he
had too many ties to defense contractors. He also had some trouble with
excessive drinking and womanizing. Senator Tower was killed in the crash
of Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 2311 in Georgia in 1991. His
daughter Marian also died in the crash. Some hold that Tower's plane
crash and John Heinz' (a friend of his) the day before are connected to
their Iran-Contra investigation. The Times, February 10, 1982:
"The Pilgrims, who promote Anglo-American understanding, have
Senator John Tower, chairman of the United States Senate Armed Services
Committee, coming to lunch at the Savoy on February 23. Tower, a tough
Republican, who won Lyndon Johnson’s seat two decades ago, is a powerful
figure, in some senses outranking the well-publicized Secretary of
State, Alexander Haig. On the other hand Haig was a general. Tower, the
only enlisted reservist in Congress, is still officially a chief petty
|Townsend, Lynn Alfred
born in Flint, Michigan, USA. A University of Michigan MBA, he worked
for accounting firms before joining Chrysler Corp as comptroller (1957).
He rapidly moved into Chrysler's international operations, becoming
president and chief executive officer (1961-1966), and chairman and
chief executive officer (1967-1975).
|Trevor, John B.
investment firm Trevor & Colgate of New York, which was established in
1852. Both Trevor and Colgate were rich men at the time.
|Introduced the game
of golf to Stockbridge (N.Y. state), together with Joseph H. Choate Jr.
(son of a Pilgrim and Rockefeller attorney), lawyer, member New York
State Assembly in 1918, member New York Bar 1918-1919.
|Tuttle, Robert Holmes
||A California native,
Mr. Tuttle graduated from Stanford University and earned his M.B.A. at
the University of Southern California. Assistant to President Reagan
1982-1985. President and director of Presidential Personnel, The White
House, 1985-1989. Director of Arizona Bank, 1989-1999. Director at City
National Corporation. Managing Partner, Tuttle-Click Automotive Group
since 1989. Served on the Board of Directors of the Woodrow Wilson
International Center for Scholars for four years. Tuttle has served on
the boards of several prominent civic organizations, including the
Ronald Reagan Presidential Library Foundation, the University of
Southern California Annenberg School of Communication, and the Los
Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art where he was Chairman from 2001 to
2004. Opened the Defense Systems & Equipment International 2005 and gave
a speech. US Ambassador to Great Britain since 2005. Governor of the
(pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens) was an American writer,
journalist and humorist, who won a worldwide audience for his stories of
the youthful adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. Clemens was
born on November 30, 1835 in Florida, Missouri, of a Virginian family.
He was brought up in Hannibal, Missouri. After his father's death in
1847, he was apprenticed to a printer and wrote for his brother's
newspaper. He later worked as a licensed Mississippi river-boat pilot.
The Civil War put an end to the steamboat traffic and Clemens moved to
Virginia City, where he edited the Territorial Enterprise. On February
3, 1863, 'Mark Twain' was born when Clemens signed a humorous travel
account with that pseudonym. In 1864 Twain left for California, and
worked in San Francisco as a reporter. He visited Hawaii as a
correspondent for The Sacramento Union, publishing letters on his trip
and giving lectures. He set out on a world tour, traveling in France and
Italy. His experiences were recorded in 1869 in The Innocents Abroad,
which gained him wide popularity, and poked fun at both American and
European prejudices and manners. The success as a writer gave Twain
enough financial security to marry Olivia Langdon in 1870. They moved
next year to Hartford. Twain continued to lecture in the United States
and England. Between 1876 and 1884 he published several masterpieces,
Tom Sawyer (1881) and The Prince And The Pauper (1881). Life On The
Mississippi appeared in 1883 andHuckleberry Finn in 1884. In the 1890s
Twain lost most of his earnings in financial speculations and in the
failure of his own publishing firm. To recover from the bankruptcy, he
started a world lecture tour, during which one of his daughters died.
Twain toured New Zealand, Australia, India, and South Africa. He wrote
such books as The Tragedy Of Pudd'head Wilson (1884), Personal
Recollections Of Joan Of Arc (1885), A Connecticut Yankee in King
Arthur's Court (1889) and the travel book Following The Equator (1897).
During his long writing career, Twain also produced a considerable
number of essays. The death of his wife and his second daughter darkened
the author's later years, which is seen in his posthumously published
autobiography (1924). Mark Twain was present at a February 1908 Pilgrim
dinner in New York, as reported by the New York Times. (The newspaper
wrote a huge amount of articles about him)
Club (in London).
|Vance, Cyrus Roberts
|Because of his
father's early death, Vance spent a decent amount of time with his uncle
John W. Davis, a co-founder of the CFR, a Morgan and Rockefeller
associate, a past ambassador to England, and an earlier member of the
Pilgrims Society. Yale Scroll & Key 1939 (studied law). Yale LL.B. 1942.
Married Grace Sloane (Pilgrims daughter). World War II naval gunnery
officer 1942-1946. In 1947, Vance worked as an assistant to the
president of the Mead Corporation and passed the New York State Bar.
Joined the law firm Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett as an associate and
partner and served as Presiding Partner for many years. Entered
government as associate counsel to the Senate Armed Forces Preparedness
Investigation Subcommittee, serving alongside LBJ in 1957. In 1958,
Vance was appointed consulting counsel to the Senate Committee on Space
and Aeronautics and helped to draft the National Space Act of 1958,
which led to the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA). Secretary of the Army 1961-1963. Deputy Secretary
of Defense 1964-1967. U.S. negotiator to the Paris Peace Conference on
the Vietnam War 1968-1969. Returned to Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett in
1969. Director Council on Foreign Relations 1968-1973. Trustee of the
Rockefeller Foundation since at least 1969 and went on to become
vice-chairman. Member of the Commission to Investigate Alleged Police
Corruption in New York City 1970-1972. In the early 1970s, he served as
chairman of the United Nations Association, USA Policy Studies
Committee. Vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1973-1976.
Attended the first meeting of the Trilateral Commission in 1973 and
visited the commission until at least 1978. President of the Association
of the Bar of the City of New York 1974-1976. Has visited Bilderberg.
Co-founded Public Agenda in 1975, which did a lot of research on the
Soviet Union. Chairman Rockefeller Foundation 1975-1977. Secretary of
State 1977-1980. Clashed frequently with hawkish National Security
Advisor (and CFR director) Zbigniew Brzezinski over the approach towards
Russia. Vance opposed the 1980 attempt to rescue the American hostages
in Iran and resigned after the mission failed. Returned again to
Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett in 1980. Again director Council on Foreign
Relations 1981-1985. Chairman American Ditchley Foundation 1981-1994
(director before that). Started participating in the Williamsburg
Conferences in 1981. Co-founder of the The American Austrian Foundation
in 1984, together with Pilgrims Society members George Ball, John E.
Leslie, and David Rockefeller. Again vice-chairman Council on Foreign
Relations 1985-1987. Chairman Japan Society 1985-1993. Attended meetings
of the Asia Society. Co-founder of the America-China Society in 1987,
together with Henry Kissinger and Robert McFarlane. Chairman Federal
Reserve Bank of New York 1988-1990. Co-founded the Financial Services
Volunteer Corps in 1990, together with John C. Whitehead, a former
co-chairman of Goldman Sachs. Head of the United Nations' efforts to
negotiate an end to the violence following the dissolution of Yugoslavia
1990-1992. Out of these negotiations came the Vance-Owen Plan, which was
seen by many as a way to let the Serbian conquests escalate. Co-chairman
Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict in 1994. Trustee The
Mayo Foundation. Director IBM, the New York Times Co., General Dynamics,
and Lehman's One William Street Fund. Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett has
long served as general counsel for Lehman Brothers, Manufacturers
Hanover Trust Co. and Coca Cola Co. Honorary Knight Commander of the
Civil Division of the Order of the British Empire. Received the Legion
d'Honneur of the French Republic, the Grand Cordon of the Order of the
Rising Sun from the Government of Japan, and numerous other awards.
Eugenics Society. U.S. Department of the Treasury 1897-1901. Studied
extensively the European public and private financing systems during
1901. President National City Bank 1909-1919 (first bank to go along
with the Federal Reserve - James Stillman of the Pilgrims family was
chairman at that time). Attended the Jekyll Island meeting in 1910.
Founder American International Corporation (AIC) in 1915. Trustee
Carnegie Corporation of New York. Director Riggs National Corporation.
Director Union Pacific Railroad.
|Vaughan II, G. Tully
|Tully was born in
Denver, Colorado and grew up as an `Army Brat` as his father, Brigadier
General W.W. Vaughan, was a career U.S. Army physician. Tully graduated
from Kent School, Kent, CT in 1950 and later acquired his B.S. degree in
Political Science from the University of Athens, Greece in 1953. In his
senior year at Kent School he was in the number five position in the
undefeated Kent School eight-man crew, which sailed on the Queen Mary to
England where, in the summer of 1950 they competed for and won the
Thames Challenge Cup at the Henley Royal Regatta, Henley-on-Thames,
England. Mr. Vaughan served with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
in Greece for three years under the Marshall Plan (JUSMAG) from 1951 to
1953 where, in addition to his regular duties, he became fluent in
Greek. Tully was also the head rowing coach for the Hellenic Rowing
Club, which was the private rowing club of his Majesty King Paul of the
Hellenes. Mr. Vaughan served in the U.S. Army as a commissioned officer
from Officer's Candidate School at Fort Benning, GA. He was a Ranger,
awarded the Combat Infantry Badge and Combat Jump Wings and was in the
third provisional Special Forces unit before they became an official
combat special detachment and acquired the Green Beret. After his
retirement, Mr. Vaughan became Head Crew Coach for Villanova University
in which position he served for many years bringing the crew program
from a failing effort of 22 male and female rowers to a successful
maximum capacity of over 100 rowers. At the same time, he was a
nationally licensed referee for many regattas across the country, as
well as executive secretary for the national governing body of
rowing-the NAAO. Tully spent the last twenty years promulgating `the
freedom of man under the rule of Law` through his activities as Marshall
of the Baronial Order of Magna Charta, a world-wide organization of
descendants of the twenty-five sureties who were chosen by their peer
barons at Runnemede in 1215 to ensure that King John honored the Magna
Charta. In his capacity, he also had a seat on the thirteen-member board
of trustees of the Magna Charta Trust of England, which is chaired by
the Master of the Rolls of England. Mr. Vaughan was a member of various
ethnic, patriotic, sporting and genealogical organizations such as
Leander Boat Club, Henley, England, Americans of Royal Descent, and
Order of the Crown of Charlemagne, Sons of St. George, St. Andrews
Society, Sons of the Revolution, Pilgrims of the United States, the
Union League of Philadelphia, the Nassau Club and the Penn Club.
|Vokey, Richard Snow
|Vice chairman of
Hill, Samuel & Company, member of the council of the Ditchley
|Volcker, Paul A.
|Volcker was born on
September 1927 in Cape May, New Jersey. He earned a bachelor of arts
degree, summa cum laude, from Princeton in 1949, and a master of arts
degree in political economy and government from the Harvard University
Graduate School of Public Administration in 1951. Research assistant in
the research department of the New York Fed during the summers of 1949
and 1950. Pilgrims Society member and later Rockefeller Foundation
vice-chair Robert Vincent Roosa was his mentor there, and Paul Volcker
became part of his 'Brain trust', or 'Roosa bloc' in the following
years. Volcker would also become a member of the Pilgrims Society. From
1951 to 1952, he was Rotary Foundation Fellow at the London School of
Economics (Rotary International and the Lions Clubs are still seen today
by some as the most important recruiting centers for the Masonic
movement). He returned to the New York Fed as an economist in the
research department in 1952, and special assistant in the securities
department from 1955 to 1957. Financial economist at Chase Manhattan
Bank 1957-1961. Director of the Office of Financial Analysis at the
Treasury 1962-1963. Deputy Undersecretary for Monetary Affairs at the
Treasury 1963-1965. Rejoined Chase Manhattan as vice president and
director of forward planning 1965-1968. Undersecretary of the Treasury
for Monetary Affairs 1969-1974. Senior fellow at the Woodrow Wilson
School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University for
the 1974-1975 academic year. Director Council on Foreign Relations
1975-1979 & 1988. President Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1975-1979.
On July 26, 1979 the New York Times stated: "David Rockefeller, the
chairman of Chase, and Mr. Roosa were strong influences in the Mr.
Carter decision to name Mr. Volcker for the Reserve Board chairmanship."
Chairman Federal Reserve System 1979-1987. Identified by BND officer
Hans Langemann as a person who attended the December 1, 1979 meeting of
Le Cercle in the Madison Hotel in Washington. Others that attended the
meeting were the German Karl-Heinz Narjes (Bundestag; soon went to the
ECC), William Colby (the recently retired CIA director at the time), Ed
Feulner (president of the Heritage Foundation), Julian Amery (later
chairman of Le Cercle; Privy Councillor; father was one of the closest
Rothschild allies in building up Israel), and Jean Violet (French
intelligence officer; Habsburg employee; Le Cercle co-founder and
chairman; Fascist militant before WWII). Volcker became a member of the
advisory board of Power Corporation in 1988 and is a friend to Canadian
Paul G. Desmarais, Sr., a Privy Councillor and controlling shareholder
of Power Corporation since 1968 (Desmarais and the Belgian Albert Frère
jointly own about half of the major industries in France and Belgium,
including Suez, Société Générale, Total, Imerys, and Groupe Bruxelles
Lambert). Director of Prudential Insurance 1988-2000. Chairman of
Wolfensohn & Co. in New York 1988-1996. North American chairman of the
Trilateral Commission 1991-2001. Chairman of the newly created J.
Rothschild, Wolfensohn & Company from March 1992 to 1995, Wolfensohn &
Co.'s London-based joint venture. Visited Bilderberg in 1997. Attended
meetings of the Ditchley Foundation and has chaired some of them.
Advisor to the Japan Society and the International House. Member of the
advisory board of Hollinger, together with Henry Kissinger, Richard
Perle, and Zbigniew Brzezinski. Director of UAL Corporation, Bankers
Trust New York Corporation, and Nestle, S.A. Director United States/Hong
Kong Economic Cooperation Committee. Public member of the Board of
Governors of the American Stock Exchange American Stock Exchange.
Honorary trustee of the Aspen Institute. American Council on Germany,
and the American Assembly. Co-chairman of the advisory board of
Leadership Forum International and a principal of the Council for
Excellence in Government. Member Circle of Presidents RAND Corporation,
which means he has donated at least tens of thousands of dollars if not
millions. Trustee International Accounting Standards Committee. Honorary
chairman Financial Services Volunteer Corps, a firm founded by Cyrus
Vance and John C. Whitehead in 1990. Honorary chairman Committee to
Encourage Corporate Philanthropy. Chairman Independent Inquiry Committee
into the Oil-For-Food program, which also employed Rockefeller’s
granddaughter, attorney Miranda Duncan. Chairman board of trustees Group
of Thirty (2005). Paul Volcker is a visitor of the Bohemian Grove camp
Mandalay. Director of the United Nations Association of the United
States of America 2000-2004. Director of the Fund for Independence in
Journalism. Wrote the foreword of George Soros' 2003 book 'The Alchemy
of Finance'. Director of the Institute for International Economics,
Washington, headed by Peter G. Peterson. Other directors of the
institute are Maurice R. Greenberg and David Rockefeller. Trustee of the
American Assembly anno 2005, together with Admiral Bobby Ray Inman
(former NSA head; director SAIC; Bohemian Grove; CFR; Trilateral
Commission), David Gergen (Bohemian Grove; CFR; Trilateral Commission),
and Frank A. Weil (governor Atlantic Institute; CFR). The American
Assembly is sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation.
admitted to the bar in 1881, became president of the Salamanca Trust Co.
(later First Tier Bank & Trust) in 1891 and remained active until his
death at the company, congressman 1899-1913 and worked together with the
heavily corrupt Nelson Aldrich in establishing the Federal Reserve, vice
chairman National Monetary Commission 1909-1912, chairman Committee on
Banking and Currency in 1913 when the FED finally was established.
co-Pilgrim Edward Butterfield Vreeland, chairman Welfare Department of
the National Civic Federation. Wrote some books and papers in the first
half of the 20th century.
|Wade-Gery, Sir Robert
Diplomatic Service in 1951 and served in Bonn, Tel Aviv, Saigon, Madrid
and Moscow, as well as in London. Deputy secretary of the Cabinet from
1979 to 1982. High commissioner to India 1982-1987. Chairman of the
board of governors of the School of Oriental and African Studies,
University of London, since 1990. Honorary treasurer of the
International Institute for Strategic Studies. Chairman of the
Anglo-Spanish Society. Director of BZW Barclay since 1987, Barclays
former investment arm. Vice-chairman of BZW Barclay 1994-1999. Member of
the The International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Knight
Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.
|Walker, Sir David
|From 1982 to 1988 he
was the executive director of the Bank of England and remained as a
non-executive director at the Bank until early 1993. From 1988 to 1992
he was chairman of the Securities and Investments Board, the British
authority that regulates the securities markets; deputy chairman of
Lloyds Bank PLC; chairman and CEO of Morgan Stanley and Dean Witter
Europe; chairman of the London Investment Banking Association; director
of Reuters Holdings PLC, member of the Advisory Board of Xfi
|Warburg, Paul Moritz
|Son of Moritz
Warburg. Daugther of Charlotte Esther Oppenheim. Brother of Max (resided
in Germany until the last moment) and Felix (came with Paul to the
United States). Partner of the German-Jewish Warburg banking house M.M.
Warburg and Co. in 1895. Came to the U.S. in 1902. Became a Partner of
Jacob Schiff and Otto Kahn in Kuhn Loeb & Company and teamed up with
Senator Aldrich to set up the Federal Reserve Bank (all these people
were Pilgrims). Went to the Jekyll Island meeting 1910. Naturalized
citizen in 1911. Member Federal Reserve Board of Governors 1914-1916.
Vice chairman Federal Reserve Board of Governors 1916-1918 (resigned
after investigation revealed that his brother was at the head of
Germany's secret service and after it had been proven that he was
affiliated with the Communist Party). Order of the British Empire.
Founding director of the Council on Foreign Relations 1921-1932.
|Warburg, Sir Siegmund
||Son of George
Warburg. Grandson of Sigmund Warburg, who ran the German M.M. Warburg &
Co. with his brother Moritz, father of Max (supported Lenin; advisor
Kaiser; IG Farben; friend Hjalmar Schacht), Paul (partner Kuhn, Loeb;
married Nina Loeb; established FED), and Felix Warburg (partner Kun
Loeb; married Frieda Schiff), Fritz, and Aby. Siegmund arrived in
Britain in 1934, realising there could be little hope for a happy union
between the Nazi regime and the German Jewish banking community.
According to The Independent of November 13, 2002, Siegmund "was a
Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany and trained at Rothschild." Sir
Siegmund founded SG Warburg merchant bank with Henry Grunfeld in 1946.
The bank became Britain's top investment bank in just under 50 years
before it was swallowed up by the Swiss Bank Corporation in 1995. He was
a partner of Kuhn, Loeb and his firm SG Warburg and Co. represented
Kuhn, Loeb in London. Sir Siegmund was most famous for having initiated
the first hostile takeover bid, when he masterminded the acquisition of
the British Aluminium Company in 1958. He is also credited with the
invention of the Eurobond market. Siegmund went to live in Switserland.
In the 1950's, he hired a man named Christopher Burney, a British spy
captured in France during the war who had been imprisoned in Buchenwald
for over a year. After the war, Burney wrote a book about his
experiences called 'The Dungeon Democracy' that outraged the Jewish
community. Although Burney condemned German barbarism, he didn't glorify
the Jewish inmates either and showed how badly they had behaved under
inhuman conditions. Siegmund knew thousands of people, yet the inner man
remained veiled. As Lord Roll noted, "This created a certain aura of
mystery round him and led to his becoming a near-legend in his
lifetime." Photos never graced S. G. Warburg reports or brochures,
which were printed on plain paper. No firm was more reticent. When he
granted an interview to the Sunday Telegraph in 1970, it was such a
novelty that the paper trumpeted. "Sir Siegmund Warburg speaks."
He has seemingly never been photographed with his almost 40-year
business partner Henry Grunfeld. Siegmund opposed Likud in 1977. His
physician Dr. Carl Heinz Goldman said; "Siegmund was a deeply
unhappy and lonely man. He was often plagued by suspicion and contempt
of other human beings. He was a hard critic of his colleagues and didn't
get on with anybody. He had a fear of office intrigues and came to me to
unload his worries. He was completely egocentric and fundamentally
conceited. He thought most other people were fools." He was a
militant anti-smoker who habitually used tantrums to intimidate people.
He was knighted in 1966.
|Son of the legendary
Sir Sigmund Warburg and a
non-executive director of the Oceans tug boat subsidiary.
|Ward, George Gray
General Manager of Commercial Cable Company in the early 20th century.
It was laying down the first international phone lines.
|Ward, Harry E.
|Chairman of Irving
Trust Company, director American Enka Corporation, F.W. Woolworth
Company, Union Dime Savings Bank and J. Walter Thompson Company
(advertising), trustee National Industrial Conference Board, trustee
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Ward was an advisor to the American
Institute of Banking, 1936-1939.
Seemingly another Harry Ward: Methodist
clergyman, founder and chairman of the ACLU 1920-1940, chairman American
League for Peace and Democracy 1934-1940, openly communist. (1873-1966)
|Ward, Nicholas Donnell
Ward, the son of Frances Xavier and Sarah D. Ward, was born in New York
City. Mr. Ward was graduated from Trinity School, and earned his A.B. at
Columbia Universtiy in New York City. He then completed his graduate
work at Georgetown University Law Center, earning an LL.B. Consultant to
the Hereditary Society Community of the United States of America.
Registrar General of the Order of the Crown in America and the National
Society Americans of Royal Descent. Former member of the Board of
Managers of the Saint Nicholas Society of the City of New York. Former
President General of the General Society of the War of 1812. Former
president of the Aztec Club of 1847. Former Governor General of the
Hereditary Order of the Descendants of Colonial Governors. Former
Treasurer General of the Order of the Crown of Charlemagne in the United
States of America. Former Keeper of the Exchequer of the Military Order
Of the Crusades. Former Governor of the District of Columbia of the
General Society of Mayflower Descendants. Former Treasurer General Order
of Americans of Armorial Ancestry. Member or leading figure in a bunch
of other societies. Officer Companion of the Order of Saint John of
Jerusalem. Former Chancellor of the Grand Priory of the United States of
the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem. Knight of the
Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. Chevalier
of the Ordo Sancti Constantini Magni. Mr. Ward is currently a member of
a number of professional organizations, including the Lawyers Club and
The Councillors. He is the former President of the The Barristers and is
a former State Chair of the American College of Trust and Estate
Counsel. Socially, Mr. Ward holds membership in the Chevy Chase Club
(Chairman of the Art Committee); the Metropolitan Club of Washington,
D.C. (Member of the Library Committee); Cosmos Club (former Secretary);
Union Club of New York; and Newport Reading Room. In addition, he is a
former President of the City Tavern Club. Mr. Ward also holds membership
in the Pilgrims of the United States, Saturday Night Dinner Dances, and
serves as Secretary-Treasurer of The Georgetown Assembly.
|Warren, Louis Bancel
Chrysler. Trustee Homeland Foundation. Director English Speaking Union.
President American Ditchley Foundation.
|Watson, Lord Alan
||Alan Watson is
Chairman of Burson Marsteller Europe and Chairman of CTN (Corporate
Television Networks). He advises many major UK and international
companies on their communication strategies and has recently become
Non-Executive Chairman to the wine importer Raisin Social. He is
Chairman of the Coca-Cola European Advisory Board. His business career
began with four years as CEO of the advertising agency, Charles Barker
City. In broadcasting Alan became a BBC General Trainee after Cambridge,
and later a regular presenter with “The Money Programme” on BBC2 and
“Panorama” on BBC1. He also reported on LWTV, Radio 4 and the BBC World
Service and has written and presented award winning documentaries over
many years. He is a Fellow and former Chairman of the Royal Television
Society. From 1976 to 1980 he was responsible for Media at the European
Commission. He is International Chairman of the English Speaking Union
and Chairman of the Council of Commonwealth Societies and a member of
the Executive Committee of the Pilgrims. He has just been appointed
Co-Chair of the Jamestown 1607 – 2007 British Committee. Additionally he
is a member of the Prince of Wales Business Leader’s Forum.
Internationally he has served on the Executive Board of UNICEF (UK) and
as a member of European Parliament’s High Level Group on Romania. In
2004 he was awarded the Commander’s Grand Cross of the Romanian Order of
Merit. Alan holds a range of visiting and honorary posts at Universities
in Britain and abroad. For six years he was Chairman of Governors at
Westminster College, Oxford. He is a Visiting Fellow at Oriel College
Oxford, an Honorary Fellow at Jesus College Cambridge and Chairman of
the Cambridge University Chemistry Advisory Board. He is also an
Honorary Professor at Birmingham University and a Trustee of the
American International University in London. He chairs the Cambridge
800th Anniversary Interim Committee. Abroad, he has received an Honorary
Doctorate from St Lawrence University USA, a Visiting Professorship at
Leuven, Honorary Professorships from St Petersburg University and Korea
University and is a Trustee of the Great Britain Study Centre at
Berlin’s Humboldt University. His publications include “Europe at Risk”,
“The Germans: who are they now?” and “Thatcher and Kohl: Old Rivalries
Revisited”. A former President of the Liberal Party, he was appointed
CBE in 1985 and created a Life Peer in 1999 sitting in the House of
Lords as a Liberal Democrat where he is a Front Bench Spokesman for
Foreign & Commonwealth Affairs. In 1995 he received the German Order of
Merit for his “significant and enduring contribution” to understanding
between Germany and Britain. In 2001 he was promoted to the Grand Cross
of the Order. He is British Chairman of the Königswinter Anglo-German
Conference and President of the British German Association. He is a
Patron of the Richmond Society and of the Richmond Museum, Chairman of
the Father Thames Trust and Chairman of the Arcadia Advisory Board and
Patron of The Richmond in Europe Association. Lord Watson is married and
has two sons. He was educated at Diocesan College Preparatory School
Cape Town, Kingswood School Bath and Jesus College Cambridge. He lives
in Richmond and Somerset. He spoke at the OECD Forum 2005.
|Watson, Thomas J. Jr.
|Eldest son of Thomas
J. Watson, the founder of IBM, known to have struggled throughout his
life with depression, earned a business degree from Brown University in
1937, and worked a few years as an IBM salesman. In May of 1956 Watson
Jr. was named CEO of the company. Only six weeks later his father died.
Thomas Jr. took the single biggest risk in IBM's history when he decided
to make all of its previous computer software (and hardware, for that
matter) obsolete, by developing a uniform range of new IBM mainframe
computers. The new machines were compatible within the range—i.e., they
could run the same software and use the same peripherals—but
incompatible with the former mainframes. The new series, called the
System/360, almost completely bankrupted the entire company; its highly
successful launch in 1964 was called by Fortune magazine "IBM's $5
Billion Gamble". That same year, because of this success, Dwight D.
Eisenhower at the New York World's Fair awarded Thomas J. Watson Jr. the
Medal of Freedom, the highest award a U.S. President can bestow on a
civilian. Watson was CEO of IBM from 1956 to 1971 and became a US
ambassador to the Soviet Union 1979-1981. He also was a trustee of the
China Institute and was called by Fortune Magazine “the most successful
capitalist who ever lived” (1976) He was a member of the Bohemian Grove
camp Mandalay, the 1001 Club and the Council on Foreign Relations.
|Watson, Arthur K.
|Younger brother of
Thomas Watson, Jr., president IBM World Trade Corp., vice-president Far
East-America Council of Commerce & Industry, chairman International
Chamber of Commerce 1967-1969, became ambassador to France in 1970.
|Webster, Bethuel M.
Association of the BAR of New York 1952-1954, Partner of Webster
Sheffield Fleischmann Hitchcock & Chrystie, senior partner Webster
Sheffield law firm, trustee Ford Foundation and chairman Finance
Committee of the Ford Foundation at least during the sixties (working
with all kinds of heavyweights), appointed by president Johnson in 1965
to resolve a crisis between British Honduras and Guatemala, member
Lawyers Committee on Supreme Court Nominations in 1968, had a talk with
Columbia University about the Carnegie Corporation, chairman Drug Abuse
Council in 1980, member Council on Foreign Relations.
|Weston, Sir John
officer 1962-1998. United Kingdom Ambassador to NATO 1992-1995.
Ambassador to the United Nations, sitting on the Security Council,
1995-1998. Non-executive director of BT Group plc from 1998 to 2002.
Director of Rolls-Royce since 1998. Governor of the Ditchley Foundation.
Non-executive director of Hakluyt & Co Ltd., a private intelligence
group set up and managed by former or present MI6 agents. Member of the
the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. Honorary
President of the Community Foundation Network (UK). Chairman of
Governors of Sherborne School, and Honorary Fellow of Worcester College
Oxford. Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George.
|West Point 1859.
Rose during the American civil war from a (Confederate/Southern) first
lieutenant to a lieutenant general. Congressman from Alabama 1881-1899.
From 1886 through 1900 General Wheeler was a Smithsonian Institution
regent. Donned the blue as a major general of volunteers in the war with
Spain in 1891. Involved in military actions in Cuba in 1898 and the
Philippines from 1899 to 1900. Became a United States Brigadier General
in 1900. Co-founded the British Pilgrims in 1902 by approaching and
invited guests for their first Pilgrims dinner. Worked closely with Sir
Harry Brittain in doing this. New York Times on July 18, 1918: "The
idea originated with an American. The name "Pilgrim" was suggested by
Mr. Burke Roche, M.P. The plan of organization was submitted in June,
1902, to Lord Roberts through General Joseph Wheeler..."
|Secretary at the
embassy in Petrograd (st. Petersburg) 1909-1911. Ambassador to London
|Attended a London
Pilgrims dinner on March 2, 1903. Diplomat who served several presidents
in a variety of positions. Known as the first professional American
diplomat. Ambassador to Italy and France, representative at Algeciras
Conference of 1906. This was a secret conference to negotiate a dispute
amongst Germany, England, and France over the division of Morocco.
|White, James G.
|Founder and chairman
of J.G. White Engineering Corporation, involved with the
American-Russian Industrial Syndicate Inc. (money came from the
Guggenheim Brothers) to help the Bolshevik's economy in 1919. In 1930
the company was sent to Ethiopia by the US government to conduct a
survey on a possible future project, involved with building an
aeronautical research and development center at Langley at the brink of
WWII, involved with business in China together with the Morgan Company
around 1946. Little info available for such a large international firm,
but one it's board members was co-Pilgrim Thomas W. Lamont.
|Whitman, Charles S.
Republican Governor of New York 1915-1918, president American Bar
|Son of Thomas
Debevoise (associate of Winthrop Aldrich) and Anne Whitney of the
Whitney branch of the Standard Oil fortune, Yale 1921, trustee of
Rockefeller University since 1954, trustee of the William Nelson
Cromwell Foundation, trustee of Sullivan & Cromwell, director of the
Bank of New York, Saint Joe Minerals, Westvaco Corporation, director of
the International Commission on Jurists and was a delegate to many
annual meetings over the entire world, chairman of the Enemy Alien
Hearing Board in New York City 1942-1945, member Council on Foreign
|Whitney, John Hay
Secretary of State John Hay. Son of Payne Whitney (1876-1927) (Skull &
Bones 1898). He himself Scroll & Key. Partner in Selznick International
Pictures (1935) with David O. Seznick (brought Hitchcock to the US).
Owned Whitney Communications, J.H. Whitney & Company, and Whitcom
Investment Company. International polo star. Broadway and Hollywood
financier. With the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Whitney joined
Nelson Rockefeller and others in forming what eventually became the U.S.
Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. Served as an
intelligence officer during World War II and ended up in a POW camp for
18 days (escaped). Established the John Hay Whitney Foundation in 1946.
Became a leading thoroughbred horse breeder and collector of art. Was
chairman of the Museum of Modern Art in the 1950s (trustee since 1931),
which was established and managed by the Rockefeller family. Became a
force in Republican politics in the post-war years. Elected to Yale
Corporation in 1955 and gave $30 million to Yale over next 25 years.
Trustee of the Carnegie foundation. Member of the New York Banking Board
in the 1960’s. Chairman of Freeport Sulphur Company. Director Great
Northern Paper Company. Ambassador to Great Britain 1957-1961 after
donating $47,000 to Ike. Had a Medical Library named after him. Acquired
control of the New York Herald Tribune in 1958 and served as its
publisher from 1961 to 1967. When the Pilgrims and English Speaking
Union organized a dinner in November 1965 in New York, John was one of a
handful who got to dance with Princess Margaret (Nelson Rockefeller was
another one), the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II. Chairman of the
English-Speaking Union (1961). While Ambassador to Britain, Whitney set
up a press service in London called Forum World Features, which
published propaganda furnished directly by the CIA and the British
intelligence services. In 1967 an expose in the NY Times revealed that
the John Hay Whitney Trust for Charitable Purposes had been used a
conduit for CIA funds. Prominent member of what Ike called "the
military-industrial complex." Estimated personal worth: $200-$300
million. Total benefactions: $50 million. Inherited $20 million trust
from his Father and was left $20+ million in his mother's will. Captain
Vincent Astor was his Brother-in-law. Received the Order of the British
Empire. Major heir to the Standard Oil fortune. Member Council on
General under William Howard Taft 1909-1913. Head Selective Service for
New York district 1917-1918. Co-founder of the large law firm Cadwalader,
Wickersham & Taft. Trustee University of Pennsylvania 1920-1926.
President American Law Institute 1923. Chairman National Commission on
Law Observance and Law Enforcement 1929. Chairman executive committee of
the France-America Society. Director Council on Foreign Relations
1921-1933 and its president 1933-1936. Pilgrims Society member. In 1923,
together with a Supreme Court justice, he founded the League of Nations
Non-partisan Association (LNA). In 1943 this group would change its name
into the American Association for the United Nations (AAUN). The AAUN
was dominated by Pilgrims and Rockefeller interests and became known as
the United Nations Association.
|Wiggin, Albert Henry
|At age seventeen, he
went to work for a Boston bank and in 1892 he married Jessie Duncan
Hayden with whom he had two daughters. By his early thirties, Wiggin was
already a vice-president at National Park Bank in New York City. He
gained recognition as one of the up-and-coming in the Wall Street
banking community for his role in organizing Bankers Trust. Vice
president Chase National Bank 1904-1911. President Chase National Bank
1911-1917. Chairman Chase National Bank 1917- 1932. In 1923, Wiggin
opened a Chase National Bank representative office in London, England
which began lending directly to governments and businesses throughout
Europe. Beginning in September of 1929, Wiggin had begun selling short
shares in Chase National Bank. His short selling, done secretly through
several companies owned by himself and family members, helped drive down
his own bank's stock price and he made a multi-million dollar profit. On
October 24, 1929, the great depression began. At that time, Wiggin was
lauded as a hero for his actions trying to stop the stock market from
crashing (until it came out in 1932 he had been selling these shares).
In 1930, Chase National Bank acquired the Equitable Trust Company, whose
major stockholders were the Rockefellers. Winthrop W. Aldrich,
Rockefeller's brother-in-law and the son of Nelson W. Aldrich, became
president (1930-1932) and later succeeded Wiggin as chairman of the
board in December 1932. In 1933, the former president of the Davison
Chemical Company, C. Wilbur Miller, filed suit against James C. Bruce
(Pilgrims; Robert the Bruce descendant; Chase until 1931), Albert H.
Wiggin (Pilgrims) of the Chase National Bank, and others, alleging that
they conspired to wreck his company because he refused to merge it with
Rio Tinto Ltd. of England (New York Times, Jun. 28, 1933.), a company
associated with the Rothschilds. Wiggin has been involved with companies
as American International Corporation; American Express Company;
American Locomotive Company; American Railway Express Company; American
Sugar Refining Company; American Surety Company; American Woolen
Company; Armour & Company; Astor Safe Deposit Company;
Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Company; Chase-Harris Forbes Corporation;
Chase National Bank; Chase Securities Corporation; Coca-Cola Company;
Duquesne Light Company; Discount Corporation of New York; Fidelity
Phoenix Fire Insurance Company; General Shareholding Corporation; Great
Falls Power Company; Greenwich Guaranty Safe Deposit Company; Greenwich
Savings Bank; Greenwich Trust Company; Hudson & Manhattan Railroad
Company; Inspiration Consolidated Copper Company; Interborough Rapid
Transit Company; International Agricultural Corporation; International
Motor Company; International Paper Company; Lawyers Title & Guaranty
Company; Lawyers Trust Company; Mack Trucks Incorporated; Mercantile
Safe Deposit Company; Metropolitan Life Insurance Company; Montana Power
Company; Montreal Locomotive Works Limited; Newmont Mining Corporation;
New York Clearing House Building Company; New York, New Hampshire &
Hudson Railroad Company; New York Rapid Transit Company; New England
Steamship Company; Otis Elevator Company; Pacific Coast Company;
Philadelphia Company; Pittsburgh Utilities Corporation; Rail Joint
Company; Selected Industries Incorporated; Stone & Webster Incorporated;
Western Union Telegraph Company; Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing
Company; Underwood-Elliott Fisher Company; and Williamsburg Power Plant
president Burlington system in 1929, president New York Central
|Wilson, Carroll Louis
|Graduated in 1932.
Appointed first assistant to MIT president Karl Taylor Compton and
vice-president Vannevar Bush in 1932. After Vannevar Bush left MIT in
1939 to become president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington D.C.,
Carroll Wilson followed him within a year (Vannevar remained at that
post until 1955). Wilson became the first General Manager of the Atomic
Energy Commission in early 1947. Vice president and director of National
Research Corporation. President of Climax Uranium Company. Vice
president and general manager of Metals and Controls Corporation.
Identified as a member of the Cosmos Club in the 1950s. Became a
professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in 1959. Director
Council on Foreign Relations 1964-1978. Co-founder of the Club of Rome
in 1968. Worked on the Club of Rome 1972 "limits to growth" report. The
report triggered a storm of controversy by challenging the universal
assumption that economic growth was the optimum scenario for all
countries in all times. Project Director of the workshop on Alternative
Energy Strategies (WAES) 1974-1977. World Coal Study 1978-1980.
Vice-chairman Council on Foreign Relations 1978-1979. Initially involved
in the European Security Study 1981-1983.
|Wilson, George T.
|Born in New York
City, September 23, 1859, the son of John Cochran and Eliza Macgregor
Wilson. Both his parents were Scots. educated in the New York public
schools and at the College of the City of New York, and was graduated in
the class of 1875. Princeton University conferred on him the Honorary
Degree of Master of Arts in 1892. began work as an office boy, at a
salary of three dollars a week, with the Equitable Life Assurance
Society of the United States, in June, 1875, later becoming general
utility man in the company’s office. He did not possess the "pull" that
so many consider essential to success in any large business; but by
constant study and close application to the most minor details of this
great organization, he was soon the indispensible man in every
department with which he was connected. He was secretary to James W.
Alexander, President of the Equitable Society, afterward executive
secretary, second assistant secretary, and fourth, third and second
Vice-President——the last of which offices he holds with notable ability
at the present time. He has been a member of the Board of Directors of
the Society since 1892, and has a remarkable hold on the agency force,
being one of the best handlers of men in the country. Director of the
American Surety Company, the Union Exchange National Bank, and the
Equitable Trust Company. Member of a large number of clubs and
societies, among others: the St. Andrew’s Society of the State of New
York, the Pilgrims (of which he was a founder and is Vice-President and
Chairman of the Executive Committee), St. George’s Society, New England
Society, Japan Society, Pan-American Society, France-America Society,
New York Chamber of Commerce, Merchants Association of New York,
American Chamber of Commerce in Paris (France), and of the following
clubs: Metropolitan, Union League, Princeton, New York Yacht, Lawyers’
(of which he is a life-member), Bankers’ (of which he is Vice-President
and Chairman of the Executive Committee), Knollwood Country Club (of
which he is President), Sleepy Hollow Country Club; Nassau and
University Cottage Clubs, Princeton, N. J.; Bath Club, London (England);
and American Club, Paris (France).
|Winant, John Gilbert
|Winant attended St.
Paul's School in Concord as well as Princeton University. He was
appointed an instructor in history at St. Paul's in 1913, remaining
there until 1917. He was elected to the New Hampshire General Court in
1916 and enlisted in the American Expeditionary Force in 1917. Winant
returned to his position at St. Paul's in 1919 after his military
service, and was elected to the State Senate in 1920. He lost money in
oil stocks in 1929, which he had profited from through the 1920s.
Republican Governor of New Hampshire from 1925-1927 and 1931-1935. FDR
appointed Winant to be the first head of the Social Security Board in
1935, a position he held until 1937. Ambassador to Great Britain
1941-1946. President Harry S. Truman appointed him U.S. representative
to UNESCO in 1946, although he retired to his home in Concord shortly
after to write his memoirs. Winant committed suicide in 1947 and was
buried at St. Paul's School.
|Wince-Smith, Deborah L.
||Trained as a
classical archaeologist, Ms. Wince-Smith graduated Phi Beta Kappa and
Magna cum Laude from Vassar College and received her master’s degree
from King’s College, Cambridge University. She is a frequent speaker at
conferences and symposia and an author on technology policy and
innovation. During the Reagan Administration, Ms. Wince-Smith served as
the Assistant Director for International Affairs and Competitiveness in
the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. As a Program
Manager at the National Science Foundation from 1976-1984, she managed
U.S. research programs with Eastern European countries and U.S.
universities. First Assistant Secretary for Technology Policy in the
Department of Commerce Technology Administration from 1989 to 1993. In
that capacity, she developed technology policies and national
initiatives to strengthen U.S. productivity and economic
competitiveness. She served on White House policy councils, chaired the
Interagency Committee on Federal Technology Transfer, and directed the
President’s National Technology Initiative. She was also the U.S.
representative to the multilateral Intelligent Manufacturing Systems
Consortium with government and private sector leaders from the U.S.,
Europe, Japan, and Canada. Became president of the Council on
Competitiveness in December 2001, a non-profit coalition of chief
executives from leading businesses, academia, and organized labor
focused on improving the competitiveness of U.S. industry and raising
the standard of living in America. University of Chicago Board of
Governors for Argonne National Laboratory. Member of the Council of the
Woodrow Wilson Center. Member of the University of California Review
Committees for Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories.
Member of the Boards of Overseers of the University of Pennsylvania
Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Member of the Pilgrims of the
United States and the International Women’s Forum. Senior fellow at the
Congressional Economic Leadership Institute. Member of the Board of the
Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc.
|Wolfe, Henry Cutler
|Wrote “The Imperial
Soviets” (1940). He was with the American Relief Administration in
Russia in 1922, another front for assisting the Bolsheviks. Wolfe was a
contributor to Harper’s magazine, Saturday Review, New York Times, Wall
Street Journal and others.
|A Major General.
Grand Officer, Order of the Golden Grain (China); Grand Officer, Order
of the Rising Sun (Japan); Grand Officer, Legion of Honor (France);
Grand Officer, Order of Mauritius and Lazarus (Italy); Roosevelt Medal;
Ambassador to Argentina (1910); Chief of Staff, United States Army,
1910-1914; Commander, Department of the East, 1914-1917; chairman,
special mission from U.S. to Philippine Islands, visiting Japan and
China, 1921; governor-general, Philippine Islands, 1921. Candidate for
Republican Presidential nomination, 1920; Congressional Medal of Honor,
1898, "for distinguished conduct in campaign against Apache Indians."
|Woods, George Donald
|Director of the
Chase International Investment Corp., director, chairman and consultant
First Boston Corporation, president World Bank 1963-1968, member
Rockefeller Commission Report (to solve the problem of overpopulation)
1970, member Chatham House.
|Family an inheritor
of the Van Rensselaer land fortune dating to 1630, president of Morgan
financed American Radiator Corporation 1902-1924, vice-chairman of the
War Trade Board in 1917, chairman New York Federal Reserve 1922-1936,
board member of General Motors, General Electric director, director
Council on Foreign Relations 1932-1935
|Worcester, Robert M.
|President of the
World Association for Public Opinion Research, founder (1969) and
chairman of MORI, which is a highly respected British polling company
with associated companies in Europe, Australia, Asia, and Latin America,
described as an "anglophile American" who was born in Kansas but heads
the British Pilgrims (in 2005). He is author or co-author of more than a
dozen books, is a regular contributor to newspapers and magazines, and
as Visiting Professor of Government at LSE, speaks not only with his
pollster's expertise, but as a political scientist and internationalist,
frequently appearing on American and Canadian radio and television. He
is a governor of the English-Speaking Union and a trustee of the Magna
Carta Trust. He is a freeman of the City of London and a governor of the
Ditchley Foundation, and he was a member of the Fulbright Commission. He
has been awarded Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the
British Empire and has been advisor to two prime ministers. He is
president of ENCAMS, an environmental charity, a vice president of Royal
Society for Nature Conservation/Wildlife Trusts, of the United Nations
Association and of the European Atlantic Group. Sir Robert is a trustee
of Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust and a former trustee of Worldwide Fund
for Nature. He is also a member of the Trilateral Commission.
|Wrench, Sir Evelyn
|Founder of the
English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth (1918) and of the U.S.
English Speaking Union (1920). Founder of the Overseas League. Member of
the Newcomen Society.
|Wright, Joshua Butler
|Counselor at the
American embassy in Petrograd (former capital of Russia) in 1916,
secretary of the American delegation at the Opium Conference at The
Hague in 1913, U.S. Commissioner at the Brazilian Centennial Exposition
in Rio de Janeiro in 1922, secretary of the U.S. delegation to the 5th
International Conference of American States in Santiago, Chile, in 1923.
|Wriston, Henry M.
University 1937-1955, trustee Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
1943-1954, director Council on Foreign Relations 1943-1950,
vice-president Council on Foreign Relations 1950-1951, president Council
on Foreign Relations 1951-1964.
|Officer of the State
Department, served 4 years in the Army during World War II, three of
them as the commander of a Signal Corps unit in the Philippines,
chairman Citibank/Citicorp 1970-1984, director Council on Foreign
Relations 1981-1987, director of General Electric, Rand Corporation,
Chubb Corporation (insurance), United Meridian Corporation, Fremont
Group, York International, ICOS Corporation, AEA Investors, Sequoia
Ventures and others.
|Young, Owen D.
Institute of Human Relations, decorated the Order of the Rising Sun by
Japan 1921, chairman General Electric 1922-1939, director Federal
Reserve Bank of New York 1923-1940, chairman International Chamber of
Commerce 1925-1928, director Council on Foreign Relations 1927-1940,
chairman Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1938-1940, chairman committee
on the Inquiry into the Character and Cost of Public Education of New
|Young, Samuel Baldwin Marks
from Pittsburgh who fought in the Civil War, fought in the
Spanish-American War (1898-1899) and was Presidential Chief of Staff in
1903. He became the first president of the War College, 1902-1903, in
|Zirin, James D.
(A.B., 1961). The University of Michigan Law School (J.D., 1964).
Partner in Sidley, Austin, Brown & Wood's New York office where he is a
member of the litigation department. Mr. Zirin has been a trial lawyer
for over 30 years. Prior to joining the firm in 1993, he had been a
partner in Breed, Abbott & Morgan and an Assistant United States
Attorney for the Southern District of New York where he served in the
criminal division for three years under Robert M. Morgenthau (son of the
well known Pilgrim Henry Morgenthau, Jr., who came up with the
Morgenthau Plan which economically ruined Germany after WWII). Recently
Mr. Zirin accepted New York Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg's (Sun Valley
meetings) appointment to a four year term on the Commmission to Combat
Police Corruption (CCPC). Mr. Zirin has appeared in state and federal
courts around the nation. His practice has featured the defense of major
accounting firms charged with violations of professional responsibility
and in substantial class actions. These matters have included the
American Express salad oil and Equity Funding cases where he represented
Deloitte Haskins & Sells, and the IOS and DeLorean litigations where he
represented Arthur Andersen. His clients have also included The
Rockefeller Foundation, Merrill Lynch, Citibank and Lincoln Center for
the Performing Arts. He represented a Brazilian trader who was a
significant figure in the silver debacle of 1979 and 1980. He has
handled white collar criminal cases, shareholders litigation, and
directors and officers liability cases. His experience includes
litigation involving reinsurance on the London market, arbitration and
alternate dispute resolution. He recovered over $100 million in cash and
property for Armco in its requirements contract litigation with Allied
Chemical. He has appeared in major estates litigation, most notably the
Rothko case, the estate of William S. Todman as well as the litigation
involving the estate of the widow of the expressionist artist, Max
Beckmann. He served as an arbitrator in the complex disputes involving
the limited partnership owning the Helmsley Palace Hotel. Mr. Zirin is a
frequent contributor of articles on legal affairs to Forbes, Barron's,
the London Times, the Washington Times and the New York Law Journal. He
has spoken on the litigation aspects of "Accessing the American Capital
Markets" at the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange, Sao Paulo, Brazil; on officers
and directors liability at an insurance colloquium in Santiago, Chile;
and on the resolution of China disputes through international
arbitration at Fudan University, Shanghai. He is a member of the Council
on Foreign Relations and of the executive committee of The Pilgrims of
the United States. He is a Fellow of the American College of Trial
Lawyers, a member of its governing downstate committee and currently
chairs its alternatives for dispute resolution committee. He is a
trustee of New York Law School; a member of the Consolidated Corporate
Fund Leadership Committee of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
and a member of the Board of Editors of the New York Law Journal.
Reproduced with deep appreciation from: